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What is SAP Landscape?

Landscape is like a server system or like a layout of the servers or some may even call it the architecture of the servers viz. SAP is divided into three different lanscape DEV, QAS and PROD. - DEV would have multiple clients for ex: 190- Sandbox, 100- Golden, 180Unit Test. - QAS may again have mutiple clients for ex: 300- Integration Test, 700 to 710 Training. - PROD may have something like a 200 Production. These names and numbers are the implementer's discreet on how they want it or they have been using in their previous implementations or how is the client's business scenario. Now whatever you do in the Sandbox doesn't affect the other servers or clients. Whenever you think you are satisfied with your configuration and you think you can use it moving forward, you RE-DO it in the golden client (remember, this is a very neat and clean client and you cannot use it for rough usage). As you re-do everything that you had thought was important and usable, you get a transport request pop up upon saving everytime. You save it under a transport request and give your description to it. Thus the configuration is transported to the Unit Test client (180 in this example). You don't run any transaction or even use the SAP Easy Access screen on the 100 (golden) client. This is a configuration only client. Now upon a successful tranport by the Basis guy, you have all the configuration in the Testing client, just as it is in the Golden client. The configuration remains in sync between these two clients. But in the Testing client you can not even access SPRO (Display IMG) screen. It's a transaction only client where you perform the unit test. Upon a satisfactory unit test, you move the good configuration to the next SERVER (DEV). The incorrect or unsatisfactory configuration is corrected in Golden (may again as well be practised in the sandbox prior to Golden) and accordingly transported back to 180 (Unit Test) until the unit test affected by that particular config is satisfactory.

The Golden client remains the 'database' (if you wanna call it that) or you may rather call it the 'ultimate' reference client for all the good, complete and final configuration that is being used in the implementation. In summary: Landscape : is the arrangement for the servers IDES : is purely for education purpose and is NOT INCLUDED in the landscape. DEVELOPMENT ---> QUALITY ----> PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT : is where the the consultants do the customization as per the company's requirement. QUALITY : is where the core team members and other members test the customization. PRODUCTION : is where the live data of the company is recorded. A request will flow from Dev->Qual->Prod and not backwards. 1. Sandbox server: In the initial stages of any implementation project, You are given a sandbox server where you do all the configuration/customization as per the companies business process. 2. Development Server: - Once the BBP gets signed off, the configuration is done is development server and saved in workbench requests, to be transported to Production server. 3. Production Server: This is the last/ most refined client where the user will work after project GO LIVE. Any changes/ new develpoment is done is development client and the request is transported to production. These three are landscape of any Company. They organised their office in these three way. Developer develop their program in Development server and then transport it to test server. In testing server tester check/test the program and then transport it to Production Server. Later it will deploy to client from production server.

Presentaion Server- Where SAP GUI have. Application Server - Where SAP Installed. Database Server - Where Database installed. What is the meaning of "R" in R/3 systems? R/3 stands for realtime three tier architecture. This is the kind of architrecture SAP R/3 system has. R/3 means three layers are installed in Different system/server and they are connected with each other. 1) Presentation 2) Application 3) Database Why do we call client 000 as golden client? Golden client contains all the configuration data and master data so some extent. All the configuration settings are done in golden clients and then moved to other clients. Hence this client acts as a master record for all transaction settings, hence the name "Golden Client".

Successfully Implementing SAP


Implementing a package can be a traumatic affair for both the customer and the vendor. Get it wrong and the vendor may get paid late or have to resort to lawyers to get paid and tarnish their reputation. For the company the new package may not work the way they expected, be late or cost a more than budgeted for and take management will take their eye off running their business. Recently a client asked me what I would consider to be the five most important things one should consider before embarking on an implementation. This isn't a simple question, although there are many factors to think about after some consideration for me the top five are way ahead of the others. My top five factors to consider would be: 1. Set up a Project Board, 2. Secure the resources, 3. Complete the GAP Analysis,

4. Have detailed Cut Over Plans, 5. Train the users. Taking each one in turn: The Project Board The correct set up and operation of the Project Board in my view is major factor in the success failure of the project. The Project Board will consist of the stakeholders, key users and the vendor. The Project Board is part of the governance of the project. The Project Board will meet regularly to ensure that the project plans are created and being executed as planned, moves from stage to stage with all the deliverables being signed off is resourced properly. The Resources Three types of resources are absolutely necessary -- end users, change team and technicians. Early involvement by the end users is absolutely necessary, as they will be the ones living with the system for hopefully many years to come. They will want to feel involved in its implementation. Buy in from the end users of the system is absolutely essential if the system is to have a long and stable life in any organisation. The Change Team will identify the gaps between the package and the business requirements, re-engineer some of the businesses process to cope with the package, train the users to ensure implementations is smooth as possible into the business. The Technical Team will prepare the systems environment for the package, apply any software fixes from the vendor, implement the software in the best way possible for the organisation set up and tune the software for the particular technical environment. GAP Analysis A through gap analysis will identify the gaps between how the business operates ad its needs against what the package can can't do. For each gap there will be one of three outcomes which must be recorded and actioned, GAP must be closed and customised software can be developed close the gap, GAP must be closed but software cannot be written therefore a workaround is required, GAP does not need to be closed.

In simple terms: Gap means small cracks. In SAP world. In information technology, gap analysis is the study of the differences between two different information systems or applications( ex; existing system or legacy system with Client and new is SAP), often for the purpose of determining how to get from one state to a new state. A gap is sometimes spoken of as "the space between where we are and where we want to be." Gap analysis is undertaken as a means of bridging that space. Actual gap analysis is time consuming and it plays vital role in blue print stage. Cut Over Plans Detailed plans need to be developed for cutting over from the old system(s) to the new. Parallel runs of what will happen over the conversion period using test data, convert and watch for a period after wards to ensure nothing unexpected happens. Train Users Well trained users will support and defend the system on site. Unsupportive users will continually undermine the system and eventually it will be replaced. Therefore the more effort you put into helping the users master the system early the better. Explain Cutover Activities/Strategies in SAP FI. Cutover Activities or Master Data Uploading Strategies Depending upon the when we are going live. As per that, you have to give the information to your core team. If you goling live at the middle you have to upload the all P&L Account items and B/S Items. If you going live at the financial year start, you have to only Upload the B/S Items. Activities for Golive: 1. G/L Master Upload Thru BDC or LSMW (TC-Fs00 and extended one co code to another company code Fs01) 2. Vendor Master Upload Thru BDC Or LSMW (Will be Taken Care By MM) 3. Customer Master Upload Thru BDC or LSMW (Will be Taken Care By SD) 4. Asset Master Upload(Thru As90) 5. Cost Element Master Upload 6. Cost Center Master Upload 7. Profit Center Master Upload 8. G/L Balances Thru F-02 10. Vendor Balances thru F-43

11. Customer Balances thru F-22 12. Customer Advances thru f-29 13. Vendor Advances thryu F-48 Before uploading Vendor Balances you have to take care of WHT(TDS) Information. *-- Satynarayana Difference between the User Exit & Gap analysis. Both are quiet a different and has a small relation. User exits are standard gate ways provided by SAP to exit the standard code and we can write our own code with the help of ABAP workbench. its not new functionality which we are trying to build in sap but its slight enhancement within the same code. Gap analysis is start point of Realization and once blue print is finished we have to find the realization of sap system for client requirment and there will be certain gaps when compared to system fit. Those gaps can be closed either by re-engineering of business process to fit with SAP or we have to use USER exits in case of small deviations or complete enhancements with the help of ABAP to fit with the SAP system. *-- V. Sridhar What is roll out of SAP Project? As per dictionary, Rollout means Inauguration or initial exhibition of a new product. As per SAP specific definition, rollout is the strategy for international SAP implementation. Rollout strategy normally include the following - Whether to implement SAP simultaneously (also known as big-bang) in all the countries, or - Go live in sequence of phased manner - Or to go for the combination of both (phased manner implementation for some of the countries and big-bang for others). Rollout strategy is the most important decision that a client can make during SAP implementation. Normally, steering committee decides the rollout strategy.

What SPRO stands for? SPRO stands for SAP Project Reference Object . It is used to configure the setting as per your client requirement by using the standard setting present in the system. This where you can do all the SAP configuration work. It is also known as the Configuration Menu. What is full form IMG and SPRO? How are they different from each other? IMG :- Implementation Guide. SPRO :- SAP Project Reference Object. SPRO------>IMG. Type in the T-Code SPRO under That got to Main Menu which is IMG. SPRO is basically used to organize the consultant customizing during the SAP Project Phrase. How to close a window? If we want to stop a transaction in the middle, Right click on the end button (X) on the top right corner of the window. Then select "stop transaction". As we dont have STOP icon as we have in WINDOWS, this will help in the same way.

Its a very small tip, but will help a lot. Tips by : Bhaskar Name two ways to start a transaction. - Dynamic Menu - Command Field Why do you create user-specific parameters? They supply defaults to R/3 fields. If a field is indicated, the system automatically fills in default value. Depending on the field definition, the entry can also be replaced with a value entered by the user. (Concept of PARAMETER ID) Name the three different kinds of messages in the R/3 system. What is the difference between them? A message can have five different types. These message types have the following effects during list processing: A (=Abend): The system displays a message of this message type in a dialog window. After the user confirms the message using ENTER, the system terminates the entire transaction (for example SE38). E (=Error) or W (=Warning): The system displays a message of this message type in the status line. After the user chooses ENTER, the system acts as follows: While creating the basic list, the system terminates the report. While creating a secondary list, the system terminates the corresponding processing block and keeps displaying the previous list level. I (=Information): The system displays a message of this message type in a dialog window. After the user chooses ENTER , the system resumes processing at the current program position. S (=Success): The system displays a message of this message type on the output screen in the status line of the currently created list. What is a data dictionary or repository? Central catalog that contains the descriptions of an organization's data and

provides information about the relationships between the data and its use in programs and screens. The data descriptions in a Data Dictionary is also called metadata, i.e., data that describes other data. The ABAP/4 Dictionary stores system-wide data definitions. When you create a new data definition, the Dictionary tool does all the processing necessary to create the definition. You can use the Dictionary tool to look up the "definition" of objects in your R/3 System. What is a matchcode? Comparsion key. A matchcode allows you to locate the key of a particular database record (e.g. account number) by entering any field value contained in the record. The system then displays a list of records matching the specifications. If you want an end user to see a specific menu after logging on the R/3 system, how could you do that? User maintenance transactions allow the system administrator to create and maintain user master records. This includes the generation and assignment of authorizations and authorization profiles.

What is Business Requirements and Process


Explain what is meant by business requirement and process. Here is the explanation of the words - Business requirements - Business process. Determine business requirements: Business Requirements come from key stakeholders within the company and research outside the company. Inside the company key stakeholders such as business users and the project sponsor provide the requirements. If a company only looks for solutions from within the organization they could be missing out on new technologies and methodologies in the industry. From outside the company the possible solutions to met the requirements are determined from:

- Research: industry best practices, competitor news, conferences, research trips, periodicals, blogs. - Evaluation: vendor presentations, proof of concepts, prototypes. What is a Business Process? While technically a business process is defined as set of linked activities that creates value by transforming an input into a more valuable output, SAP differentiates a business process further into two basic subprocess types: - Application Core Processes Represent the core business functionality that runs the business operations. These are delivered via SAPs business application as part of the SAP Business Suite. These processes are predefined, packaged and can be customized in applications such as SAP ERP, PLM, SCM, CRM or SRM. - Composite Business Processes Are driven by functional business requirements and specifications and their primary goal is to provide added business value on top or at the edge of a stable core. They are either human-centric (collaborative) or system-centric (integration process). Where application core processes represent business process best practices, composite business processes are next practices that can evolve into application core over time. Composite business processes need to enable business process composition, providing ad-hoc capabilities for quick and flexible reaction towards changes in business or critical business events in out-of-bound situations. - Integration processes Are executable, cross-system processes for processing messages and automating the message flow within the context of a service orchestration. In an integration process the process steps and step types are either message flow oriented (e.g., send, receive) or control flow oriented (e.g., fork, switch, wait) BPM needs to take into account the above mentioned sub-process types. Composition and integration provide competitive differentiation by composing new processes and applications and integrating them with business partners and legacy systems. Applied business process flexibility with support of process

debugging, simulation, embedded change management and the principle of process design as a process are the higher art of process management that BPM capability needs to provide.

Difference Between LIS, Reports, Abap Query


1) LIS stands for Logistics Information System. It is the information systems used to plan, control, and monitor business events at different stages in the decision-making process. The Logistics Information System is made up of the following information systems which all have a modular structure: - Sales Information System - Purchasing Information System - Inventory Controlling - Shop Floor Information System - Plant Maintenance Information System - Quality Management Information System Tools are available in Customizing to allow a self-defined information system to be created and tailored to specific requirements. 2) Reports: SAP Reports are Programmes which are used to fetch data from SAP database under specified selection criteria and show in list viewer. Later you can view, download & take decisions appropriately. There are many standard reports in SAP for various modules. For SD Module watchout TCode SD01. You can always code your own report they way you want in some cases. 3) ABAP Queries These are the report which users can prepare without knowledge of the ABAP programming language to define and execute their own reports. Normally Functional Consultants use these ABAP query tool to create and run simple reports by themselves instead of coding by ABAPer. Its flexible and convinent. However you should be well thorough with different tables to map query and fetch data.

SCAT - What Is It And How To Used It


How to Create SCAT program for any mass upload purpose? SCAT is similar to LSMW/BDC to upload/updated data in SAP from legacy system. The differences between SCAT and LSMW :LSMW and SCAT has different functionalities and different advantages, but common thing is they are used for data upload. SCAT is mainly used as a testing tool for follow-on transactions i.e. Purchase Requisition, Purchase order, Goods Receipt etc. Whereas LSMW is used for Master data (Materials, Customer, Vendor, BOM, Info record etc) and some of the transactions data (Purchase order, purchase requisition) There are many standard objects are available in LSMW so most of the consultants use LSMW, but again depends on the requirement. Writing a CAT script to create user:1 Recording a test case 1.1 To record a test case, call Transaction SCAT and enter test case Zuser_create. - Do not choose Enter. - Choose Test Case? Record Transaction. Enter Transaction SU01, and choose Record/Enter. - The system runs Transaction SU01. - Enter the user name TESTZ and choose Create. - Enter the users title first name ZEBRA and the last name TEST. - Select the Logon data tab, enter init as the initial password, and repeat the password, profile select sap all then choose Save. - Go back a screen and in the dialog box displayed, select End recording. - A message is displayed stating that the recording has ended. - Enter the test case title User maintenance. - In the field Component, enter BC-SEC-USR. - Save the test case. - In the field package class, enter $TMP.

- Choose Save to save the attributes. - To save the test case functions, go back. 2 Entering parameters for a test case 2.1 To define parameters for a test case, call Transaction SCAT. - Enter the test case name Zuser_creat. - Select Functions and choose Change. - Double-click on TCD. - Then double-click on program SAPLSUU5 screen 0050. (First appearance of this program) - The first screen of Transaction SU01 is displayed. (If you backed out, enter the procedure name again and double-click on TCD.) - Double-click on the user name field. In the field Param. name, enter an "&", and choose Copy/Enter. - Choose Next screen and double-click the last name. In the field Param. name, enter an "&" and choose Copy/Enter. - Go back until the Save folder appears, and choose Save. 3 Creating and using an external variant for the test case 3.1 To export the default parameters into a frontend file, in the test case, select Goto? Variants ? Export Default. Note: The default file name is <the name of your test case>.txt. Do not change the default values. 3.2 Open the file, with excel and edit and add another couple of user, and save the text file 3.3 To execute the test case using the external variant from file, from the initial CATT screen, enter the test case name and choose Execute. In the field Variants, select External from file and choose Choose. Select the file created above, and choose Open. Under processing mode, select Errors, and choose Execute. Note: When you use this method, the file must be imported each time the test case is executed (file remains only on PC).