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# An iron bar (L1 = 0.1 m, A1= 0.02 m2, K1 = 79 W m1 K1) and a brass bar (L2 = 0.1 m, A2 = 0.

02 m2, K2 = 109 W m1K1) are soldered end to end as shown in Fig. 11.16. The free ends of the iron bar and brass bar are maintained at 373 K and 273 K respectively. Obtain expressions for and hence compute (i) the temperature of the junction of the two bars, (ii) the equivalent thermal conductivity of the compound bar, and (iii) the heat current through the compound bar.

Given, L1 = L2= L = 0.1 m, A1 = A2= A= 0.02 m2 K1 = 79 W m1 K1, K2 = 109 W m1 K1, T1 = 373 K, and T2 = 273 K. Under steady state condition, the heat current (H1) through iron bar is equal to the heat current (H2) through brass bar. So, H = H1 = H2 =
11102202 12

K A T T K A (T T ) LL

For A1 = A2 = A and L1 = L2 = L, this equation leads to K1 (T1 T0) = K2 (T0 T2) Thus the junction temperature T0 of the two bars is T0 =
1122 12

KTKT KK Using this equation, the heat current H through either bar is H = 1 1 0 2 0 2 K A T T K A(T T ) LL
121012 12 12

11 KKATTATT KKL L KK Using these equations, the heat current H through the compound bar of length L1 + L2 = 2L and the equivalent thermal conductivity K, of the compound bar are given by 12 2 KATT

HH L
12 12

2KK K KK (i)
1122 0 12

KTKT T KK
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

= 315 K (ii) 1 2
12

2 = KK K KK =
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

## 2(79W m K ) (109W m K ) 79W m K +109 W m K = 91.6 W m1 K1 (iii) 12 2 KATT HH L

91.6 W m1 K1 0.02 m2 373K273K 2 0.1 m

= 916.1 W

05.

03.

(a) (b)

Define thermal conductivity Write down the equation of thermal conduction at steady state and name the terms

An iron bar ( L1 = 0.1 m, A1= 0.02 m2, K1 = 79 W m1 K1 ) and a brass bar ( L2 = 0.1 m, A2 = 0.02 m2, K2 = 109 W m1K1 ) are soldered end to end as shown in Figure. The free ends of the iron bar and brass bar are maintained at 373 K and 273 K respectively. Obtain expressions for and hence calculate (i) (ii) (iii) 04. (a) the temperature of the junction of the two bars, the equivalent thermal conductivity of the compound bar, the heat current through the compound bar Figure (a) shows a circuit consisting of a variable resistor of total resistance R (R = R1 + R2), which can be used to obtain a variable voltage,V0, from a battery of emf 10 V and of negligible internal resistance. What is the range of voltages that can be expected for V0 from this circuit? Draw a rough sketch to show how V0 varies with R2. A student has modified the above circuit as shown below to obtain a smaller voltage range for V0. The student expects the value of V0 to vary linearly with R2. What is the range of voltages for V0 that can be obtained from the modified circuit? What is the advantage of using the circuit shown in Fig (b) over the circuit shown in Fig (a) to obtain smaller voltages? If R = 10 k find V0 when the value of R2 is kept at 5 k. 1. Hence draw a rough sketch to show how V0 varies with R2. 2. Is the variation of V0 with R2 linear? Explain you answer.

## (i) (ii) (iii)

In order to improve the linearity between R2 and V0, a student has decided to use different values for R3 and R4 as 90 k and 10 k respectively. 1. State the new range for V0 , and calculate V0 when R2 = 5 k 2. Has the student succeeded in achieving a better linearity ? Explain your answer. 3. When using the circuit given under (iv) above, to provide the prescribed voltages to a load of resistance Ro he recommends that Ro should always be less than 10 k. Would you agree to that? Explain your answer.

(iv)

Block B, also of mass 4.0 kg, is now placed at the edge of the table. The spring is again compressed a distance x, and block A is released. As it nears the end of the table, it instantaneously collides with and sticks to block B. The blocks follow the trajectory shown in the figure below and strike the floor at a horizontal distance d from the edge of the table (e) Calculate d if x is equal to the value determined in part (c).Consider the system consisting of the spring, the blocks, and the table. How does the total mechanical energy E2 of the system just before the blocks leave the table compare to the total mechanical energy E1 of the system just before block A is released? E2 < E1 , E2 = E1 E2 > E1 Justify your answer

02.

The diagram shows two converging lenses arranged as an optical instrument. The focal length of the objective lens A is 40 mm and that of the eye lens B is 375 mm. An object OP is placed 50 mm from the objective lens as shown.

fo = 40mm

fe= 375mm

(i)

If the final image of the object OP is formed at 250 mm from the eye piece, trace the path of two rays coming from the head of the object through the instrument. Calculate the angular magnification (magnifying power). Find the distance to be moved the objective lens to form the final image at infinity, while object remains the same. State the direction of the lens to be moved through. The eye ring is the best position to observe the image. Explain qualitatively what is the position of the eye ring and why it is the best position Lens A and Lens B are so arranged to form an astronomical telescope in normal adjustment. Explain how you will arrange this ? Calculate the magnifying power of it. Give one advantage for each (a) when the final image is form 250 mm from the eye (b) when the final image is formed at infinity

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

ISIPATHANA

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wOHhk fmd iy;sl m;% ^WiiA fm<& jsNd.h" 2012 wfm%A,A fy;tpg; nghJj; juhju (cah; ju)g; guPl;ir > 2012 Vg;uy; General Certificate of Education Examination (Ad. Level) Examination , April 2012

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