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Utilizarea Sistemelor de Operare

de fapt…

Instalare, Configurare si Utilizare Sisteme de Calcul

Conf. dr. ing. Remus BRAD

Bibliografie

• Remus Brad, Marius Bratu - Instalare, configurare si utilizare sisteme de calcul, Editura Universitatii “Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu, 2001

• Peter Norton, Secrete PC, Editura Teora, ISBN 973-

601-547-5

• Scott Mueller, PC depanare si modernizare, Editura Teora, ISBN 973-601-653-6

• Winn Rosch, Totul despre Hardware, Editura Teora

Bibliografie

Şi…

Google

Bibliografie Ş i… Google 3

Despre materia studiata

“Hard-disk-ul este una dintre cele mai importante componente ale unui calculator, de fapt este creierul calculatorului deoarece de la el, adică el este programat , construit pentru a face aproape toate operaţiile din calculator. Hardul este un dreptunghi de dimensiuni acceptabile unde sunt proiectate microprocesoare, chipuri etc. pt. a putea face operaţiile date de la tastatură. El face legătura pt. a afişa rezultatele etc. Operaţiile de bază sunt programate în acest hard”

„Placa de sunet de tip Sound Blaster este o placă magnetică care se foloseşte în cadrul aplicaţiilor cu vibro-sunete. „Să ştiţi că am instalat de toate dar acest Windows NT SERVER nu l-am instalt de loc. Să ştiţi că am auzit că este bun pentru reţele mari şi am văzut cum merge, dar nu-l-am instalat niciodată, doar ce am mai citit despre el.” „După aceea aprindem calculatorul cu ajutorul unei dishete sistem” „Formatarea fizică presupune ştergerea lui fizică, adică fără a mai avea acces la el, pe când, formatarea logică presupune ştergerea lui din memorie, adică ştergerea celui marcat fizic.”

Calculatoarele asa cum le cunoastem

display

Did computers always looked like this?

le cunoastem display Did computers always looked like this? keyboard network connection Will computers always look

keyboard

display Did computers always looked like this? keyboard network connection Will computers always look like that?
display Did computers always looked like this? keyboard network connection Will computers always look like that?
display Did computers always looked like this? keyboard network connection Will computers always look like that?

network

connection

Will computers always look like that?

Primul calculator

Built around 87 B.C.

Discovered in 1901

Primul calculator Built around 87 B.C. Discovered in 1901 Used for astronomical calculations Sophisticated 20 gears

Used for astronomical calculations

Sophisticated 20 gears assembly

Knowledge completely lost …

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Puţină istorie

 

76 B.C. - Antikythera mechanism

1642 Blaise Pascal - calculating machine

1800s Babbadge – analytical engine

1930s – 1940s electromechanical computers

1937 – J. Atanasoff / C. Berry– ABC (electronic)

1943/46 – J. Mauchly et al - ENIAC (18,000 tubes)

1945 – J von Neumann – von Neumann architecture

1948, 1958 – transistor & IC invention

1960s – transistor based computers

1971 – Intel 4004 – the first GP microprocessor

The “modern” computer era started …

Puţină istorie

1800s Ada Byron – concepts of branches and loops

1945 Konrad Zuse – Plankalkul (first algorithmic language)

1949 J. Mauchly – Short Code (first HLL)

1951 G. Hopper – the first compiler

1957 J. Backus – FORTRAN

1960s IBM – virtual machine concept

1968 N. Wirth – Pascal

1970s AT&T - UNIX

1972 D. Ritchie et al – C

1987 A. Tanenbaum – MINIX (open source clone of UNIX)

1991 L. Torvalds – Linux

Tipuri de calculatoare

Supercomputer

Mainframe

Server

PC/Workstation

Game console

Embedded device

Future disposable

$5-20 million $0.5-4 million $10-200 thousand $1-10 thousand

$300-$1000

$1-$100

1-100 cents

Legea lui Moore: 2X transistors / “year”

Legea lui Moore: 2X transistors / “year” • “Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits” – Gordon

“Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits”

Gordon Moore, Electronics, 1965

# on transistors / cost-effective integrated circuit double every N months (12 N 24)

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Legea lui Moore

LeLeggeaea lluiui MMoooorree ee vvaallababilaila dede aattiittiaia aanini!!

1971: 4004 1972: 8008 1974: 8080 1978: 8086 1982: 80286 1985: 80386 1989: 80486 DX 1993: Pentium 1997: Pentium II 1999: Pentium III 2000: Pentium IV 2002: Itanium

2,250 transistors 2,500 transistors 5,000 transistors 29,000 transistors 120,000 transistors 275,000 transistors 1,180,000 transistors 3,100,000 transistors 7,500,000 transistors 24,000,000 transistors 42,000,000 transistors 325,000,000 transistors (25M CPU / 300M Cache)

7,500,000 transistors 24,000,000 transistors 42,000,000 transistors 325,000,000 transistors (25M CPU / 300M Cache) 11

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Cum se obtine performanta

Drill down into 4 technologies:

Disks,

Memory,

Network,

Processors

Compare for Bandwidth vs. Latency improvements in performance over time

Bandwidth: number of events per unit time

E.g., M bits / second over network, M bytes / second from disk

Latency: elapsed time for a single event

E.g., one-way network delay in microseconds, average disk access time in milliseconds

Disks: Archaic vs Modern

CDC Wren I, 1983

3600 RPM

0.03 GBytes capacity

Seagate 373453, 2003

15000 RPM

73.4 GBytes

(4X)

(2500X)

Tracks/Inch: 800

Tracks/Inch: 64000

(80X)

Bits/Inch: 9550

Bits/Inch: 533,000

(60X)

Three 5.25” platters

Four 2.5” platters (in 3.5” form factor)

Bandwidth:

Bandwidth:

0.6 MBytes/sec

86 MBytes/sec

(140X)

Latency: 48.3 ms

Latency: 5.7 ms

(8X)

Cache: none

Cache: 8 MBytes

Latency Lags Bandwidth (for last ~20 years)

10000 1000 Relative Disk BW 100 Improve ment 10 (Latency improvement = Bandwidth improvement) 1
10000
1000
Relative
Disk
BW
100
Improve
ment
10
(Latency improvement
= Bandwidth improvement)
1
1
10
100

Relative Latency Improvement

Performance Milestones

Disk: 3600, 5400, 7200, 10000,

15000 RPM (8x, 143x)

(latency = simple operation w/o contention BW = best-case)

Memory: Archaic vs Modern

1980 DRAM (asynchronous)

0.06 Mbits/chip

64,000 xtors, 35 mm 2

16-bit data bus per module, 16 pins/chip

13 Mbytes/sec

Latency: 225 ns

(no block transfer)

2000 Double Data Rate Synchr. (clocked) DRAM

256.00 Mbits/chip

256,000,000 xtors, 204 mm 2

(4000X)

64-bit data bus per DIMM, 66 pins/chip

(4X)

1600 Mbytes/sec

(120X)

Latency: 52 ns

(4X)

Block transfers (page mode)

Latency Lags Bandwidth (last ~20 years)

10000 • Performance Milestones 1000 Relative Memory Disk BW 100 Improve ment • Memory Module:
10000
• Performance Milestones
1000
Relative
Memory
Disk
BW
100
Improve
ment
• Memory Module: 16bit plain
DRAM, Page Mode DRAM, 32b,
64b, SDRAM,
DDR SDRAM (4x,120x)
10
• Disk: 3600, 5400, 7200, 10000,
15000 RPM (8x, 143x)
(Latency improvement
= Bandwidth improvement)
1
(latency = simple operation w/o contention
BW = best-case)
1
10
100

Relative Latency Improvement

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LANs: Archaic vs Modern

Ethernet 802.3

Year of Standard: 1978

10 Mbits/s link speed

Latency: 3000 msec

Shared media

Coaxial cable

Ethernet 802.3ae

Year of Standard: 2003

10,000 Mbits/s link speed

Latency: 190 msec

Switched media

Category 5 copper wire

(1000X)

(15X)

Coaxial Cable:

• Category 5 copper wire (1000X) (15X) Coaxial Cable: Plastic Covering Braided outer conductor Insulator Copper

Plastic Covering Braided outer conductor Insulator

Copper core

Covering Braided outer conductor Insulator Copper core "Cat 5" is 4 twisted pairs in bundle Twisted
Covering Braided outer conductor Insulator Copper core "Cat 5" is 4 twisted pairs in bundle Twisted
Covering Braided outer conductor Insulator Copper core "Cat 5" is 4 twisted pairs in bundle Twisted
Covering Braided outer conductor Insulator Copper core "Cat 5" is 4 twisted pairs in bundle Twisted
Covering Braided outer conductor Insulator Copper core "Cat 5" is 4 twisted pairs in bundle Twisted

"Cat 5" is 4 twisted pairs in bundle

Twisted Pair:

core "Cat 5" is 4 twisted pairs in bundle Twisted Pair: Copper, 1mm thick, twisted to

Copper, 1mm thick, twisted to avoid antenna effect

Latency Lags Bandwidth (last ~20 years)

10000 1000 Netw ork Relative Memory Disk BW 100 Improve ment 10 (Latency improvement =
10000
1000
Netw ork
Relative
Memory
Disk
BW
100
Improve
ment
10
(Latency improvement
= Bandwidth improvement)
1
1
10
100

Relative Latency Improvement

Performance Milestones

Ethernet: 10Mb, 100Mb, 1000Mb, 10000 Mb/s (16x,1000x)

Memory Module: 16bit plain DRAM, Page Mode DRAM, 32b, 64b, SDRAM,

DDR SDRAM (4x,120x)

Disk: 3600, 5400, 7200, 10000,

15000 RPM (8x, 143x)

(latency = simple operation w/o contention BW = best-case)

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CPUs: Archaic vs Modern

1982 Intel 80286

12.5 MHz

2 MIPS (peak)

Latency 320 ns

134,000 xtors, 47 mm 2

16-bit data bus, 68 pins

Microcode interpreter, separate FPU chip

(no caches)

Microcode interpreter, separate FPU chip • (no caches) • 2001 Intel Pentium 4 • 1500 MHz
Microcode interpreter, separate FPU chip • (no caches) • 2001 Intel Pentium 4 • 1500 MHz

2001 Intel Pentium 4

1500 MHz

4500 MIPS (peak)

Latency 15 ns

42,000,000 xtors, 217 mm 2

64-bit data bus, 423 pins

3-way superscalar, Dynamic translate to RISC, Superpipelined (22 stage), Out-of-Order execution

On-chip 8KB Data caches, 96KB Instr. Trace cache, 256KB L2 cache

(120X)

(2250X)

(20X)

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Latency Lags Bandwidth (last ~20 years)

10000 CPU high, Processor Memory low (“Memory Wall”) 1000 Network Relative Memory Disk BW 100
10000
CPU high,
Processor
Memory low
(“Memory
Wall”)
1000
Network
Relative
Memory
Disk
BW
100
Improve
ment
10
(Latency improvement
= Bandwidth improvement)
1
1
10
100

Relative Latency Improvement

Performance Milestones

Processor: ‘286, ‘386, ‘486, Pentium, Pentium Pro,

Pentium 4 (21x,2250x)

Ethernet: 10Mb, 100Mb, 1000Mb, 10000 Mb/s (16x,1000x)

Memory Module: 16bit plain DRAM, Page Mode DRAM, 32b, 64b, SDRAM,

DDR SDRAM (4x,120x)

Disk : 3600, 5400, 7200, 10000,

15000 RPM (8x, 143x)

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