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RFiD

TECHNOLOGY

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History of RFiD

Decade

Events

1940’s

1950’s

1960’s

1970’s

1980’s

1990’s

Early 2000s

2003-Present

• Radar refined and used. Major World War II development effort.

• RFID invented in 1948.

• Early explorations of RFID technology, laboratory experiments.

• Development of the theory of RFID.

• Start of application field trials.

• Explosion of RFID developmental work for electronic article surveillance (EAS) to counter theft, improve animal tracking, vehicle tracking and factory automation

• Tests of RFID accelerate.

• Very early adopter implementations of RFID.

accelerate. • Very early adopter implementations of RFID. • Commercial applications of RFID enter mainstream. •
accelerate. • Very early adopter implementations of RFID. • Commercial applications of RFID enter mainstream. •

• Commercial applications of RFID enter mainstream.

• Emergence of standards.

• RFID, such as electronic toll collection, deployed throughout the U.S.

• RFID becomes part of everyday life with a single tag capable of handling multiple applications such as electronic toll collection, parking lot access and fare collection, gated community access, and campus access.

Development and implementation of RFID for supply chain management, healthcare/pharmaceuticals, library information systems

Major retailers mandates to suppliers to implement pallet and case level tagging by January 2005 spark rapid RFID research and development

by January 2005 spark rapid RFID research and development EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management
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Radio Frequency iDentification

RFiD technology is a means of identifying a unique object or a person using a radio frequency transmission.

RFiD tags can be programmed to receive, store and transmit information such as serial number, place of assembly or personal information such as healthcare records.

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RFiD Components

Three Basic Components

A transceiver (with decoder), commonly refer as RFID Reader.

A

transceiver (with decoder), commonly refer as RFID Reader.

Antenna

Antenna

A transponder, commonly refer as RFID label or Tag

A

transponder, commonly refer as RFID label or Tag

Reader

Antenna

Label / Tag

Reader Antenna Label / Tag
Reader Antenna Label / Tag
Reader Antenna Label / Tag
Reader Antenna Label / Tag
Reader Antenna Label / Tag
Reader Antenna Label / Tag

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RFiD Tag

RFiD Tag EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 – 5544

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RFiD Tags

RFiD Tags EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 – 5544
RFiD Tags EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 – 5544
RFiD Tags EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 – 5544
RFiD Tags EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 – 5544
RFiD Tags EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 – 5544
RFiD Tags EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 – 5544

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RFiD Antennas

Antenna

Characteristics

Transmits and receives RF signals

Typically made of copper or aluminum, new technologies for printed antennas

Stationary or handheld

Weather-proof or industrialized

Fixed or tunable

Micro-chip, contains Unique ID Code (UID), memory Antenna, copper or aluminum , wound or etched
Micro-chip,
contains
Unique ID
Code
(UID),
memory
Antenna,
copper or
aluminum
, wound
or etched
memory Antenna, copper or aluminum , wound or etched EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management
memory Antenna, copper or aluminum , wound or etched EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management

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RFiD Reader

RFiD Reader Readers are radio frequency devices that ☼ Transmit and Receive RF signals ☼ Contain

Readers are radio frequency devices that

Transmit and Receive RF signals

Contain a control unit to execute commands

Incorporate an interface to transfer data

Receives commands from a Host computer

Responds to software commands from Host

a Host computer ☼ Responds to software commands from Host EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset
a Host computer ☼ Responds to software commands from Host EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset
a Host computer ☼ Responds to software commands from Host EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset

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Why RFiD?

Easy Tracking System

Simplifies the process flow and easy data capture in short time period

Write Capability

Useful info stored in tags eg. Name, serial number, location

Inventory management & Asset Tracking

Assets movement can be monitored electronically

Maintenance

Maintenance update done electronically

Auditing

Authenticate the process

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Benefits of RFiD

Operational

No Line of Sight – Easy & Fast Data Capture

Ability to scan thru multiple tags at one go

Easy Implementation, Data Collection

Physical Form Factor

Tags will work even if submerged in water

No deterioration by age

Operating temp -15 to 75 ºC

Security and Data

Unique id to prevent duplication

Store information on transponders

Tamper proof labels/ resistant stickers

Unique customer code for security applications

EEPROM Industry standards (100,000 read/ write cycle)

Information on tags can be encrypted

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HF 13.56 MHz RFiD Tag Specification

Power requirements: SD connection from PDA 3.3V

Housing: Secure Digital Input Output

Baud rate: 115,000 bps 8,N,1 No Flow Control

Data Structure: STX, DATA, CR, LF

Frequency: 13.56 KHz. ASK

Power: 50mW

Read Distance: 6 cm maximum

Technical Certificates: CE

Regulatory: FCC Part 15

Dimensions: L 66.5 mm X W 29.3 mm X H 6 mm

Weight: 6.0 g.

Operating Temperature: -20° to 40°

Storage Temperature: -30° to 70°

Humidity: 90 % relative

Multi-Detection : Yes

Antenna Compatibility : Built in

Antenna Connection : Non required

Transponder Compatibility : ISO 14443 A&B, ISO 15693, ISO18000-3, INSIDE PicoTag™, HID iClass, Tagsys C320, MIFARE, FeliCa™, KSW TempSens, KSW Variosens

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RFiD – LF Characteristics (125KHz – 135KHz)

Penetrates most materials well

Could be affected by electrical noise

Relatively low data transfer rate (200msec for read command)

Non-simultaneous reads (reads one tag at a time)

Tags can easily be embedded in any non-metallic product (labels, plastic, etc)

Read range variable: near contact up to 1 meter

Optimal reading depends on tag and antenna orientation

Frequency is usable worldwide (no restrictions)

Standards being finalized: ISO 18000-2

Relatively high cost (Transponders: $2.00 - $17.00 )

Memory limited to 64 – 2 kbits

$2.00 - $17.00 ) ☼ Memory limited to 64 – 2 kbits Common Applications : -

Common Applications:

- Animal Identification (ISO 11784 & 11785 Standards)

- Access Control

- Automotive Security (Ford, Chrysler, Honda etc.)

- Wireless Commerce (Esso, Mobil, McDonalds)

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RFiD – HF Characteristics (13.56MHz)

Penetrates most materials well

Less effective frequency in the presence of metal and water

Not susceptible to electrical noise

Higher data transfer rate (20m sec for read command)

Simultaneous reads, 50 tags per second (Anti-collision)

Tags can easily be embedded in any non-metallic product (labels, plastic, etc)

Read Range variable: proximity to 1.5 meters

Optimal reading depends on tag and antenna orientation

Ultra-thin inlays and smart labels (0.13”)

Larger memory (2048 bits; 256 ASCII characters)

Frequency is usable worldwide (no restrictions)

Global Standard: ISO 15693, 14443, 10536

Standards being finalized: EPC and ISO 18000-3

Low cost, flexible inlays: $0.40 - $0.90

ISO 18000-3 ☼ Low cost, flexible inlays: $0.40 - $0.90 Common Applications: - Access Control -

Common Applications:

- Access Control

- Wireless Commerce (Shell, Visa, MC, Amex)

- Ticketing

- Marketing and Loyalty programs

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RFiD – UHF Characteristics (860MHz – 956MHz)

Does NOT penetrate most materials well

Not an effective frequency in the presence of metal and water

Not susceptible to electrical noise

Higher data transfer rate (2m sec for read command)

Simultaneous reads, 150 tags per second (Anti-collision)

Tags can easily be embedded in any non-metallic product (labels, plastic, etc.)

Read Range variable: up to 10 meters.

Optimal reading depends on tag and antenna orientation

Ultra-thin inlays and smart labels (0.13”)

915MHz not available globally; different frequencies for North America, Europe and Asia

Standards being finalized: EPC and ISO 18000-6

Low cost, flexible inlays: $0.40 - $0.90 CDN

Common Applications

- Distribution and Logistics

- Baggage Tracking

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RFiD Manufacturer Codes (ISO 15963)

Code "01": "Motorola" Code "02": "ST Microelectronics" Code "03": "Hitachi" Code "04": "Philips Semiconductors" Code "05": "Siemens AG" Code "06": "Cylinc" Code "07": "Texas Instruments" Code "08": "Fujitsu Limited" Code "09": "Matsushita Electric Industrial" Code "0A": "NEC" Code "0B": "Oki Electric" Code "0C": "Toshiba" Code "0D": "Mitsubishi Electric" Code "0E": "Samsung Electronics" Code "0F": "Hyundai Electronics" Code "10": "LG Semiconductors" Code "16": "EMarin Microelectronic"

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RFiD Tags

Tag Types

Active tags – battery powered, long read range, toll tags

Passive tags – low-cost, no battery required, medium read range

Chipless tags – ultra-low-cost, no battery required, short read range

Tag Packaging Formats

Weather-proof or environment-proof enclosure

Pressure Sensitive Label

Card

Embedded in packaging or product

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Comparison Active and Passive Tags

i) Passive Tags use the reader field as a source of energy for the chip and for the communication from and to the reader. The available power from the reader field, not only reduces very rapidly with distance, but is also controlled by strict regulations, resulting in a limited communication distance of 4-5 m when using UHF frequency band.

ii) Semi-Passive (battery assisted backscatter) tags have built in batteries and therefore do not require energy from the reader filed to power the chip. This allows them to function with much lower signal power levels, resulting in greater distances of up to 100 meters. Distance is limited mainly due to the fact that tag does not have an integrated transmitter, and is still obliged to use the reader field to communicate back to the reader

iii) Active Tags are battery powered devices that have an active transmitter on board. Unlike passive tags, active tags generate RF energy and apply it to antenna. This enables it to communicate at distances of over several kilometers.

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Passive vs Active

 

Advantages

Disadvantages

Remarks

Passive

Longer life time

Distance limited to 4-5 m (UHF)

Strictly controlled by local regulations

Most widely used in RFiD applications

Tags are LF, HF or UHF

Wider range of form factors

Tags are more mechanically flexible

Lowest cost

   

Semi-

Greater communication distance

Expensive – due to battery, and tag packaging

Used mainly in real- time systems to track high value materials or equipment throughout a factory

Passive

Can be used to manage other devices likes sensors (temperature, pressure, etc)

Reliability – impossible to determine whether a battery is good or bad, particularly in multiple transponder environments

Widespread proliferation of active transponders presents an environmental hazard from potentially toxic chemicals in batteries

Do not fall under the same strict power regulations imposed on passive devices

Tags are UHF

Active

Used in logistics for tracking of containers on trains, trucks, etc.

   

Tags are UHF or microware

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RFiD Tags Class

Class 0 -

Class 1 -

Class 2 -

Class 3 -

Read Only (Factory programmed). Read Only tags have information stored on them during the manufacturing process. The information on such chips can never be changed.

Write Once read Many (WORM). Factory or User programmed. These tags have a serial number written to it once and then that information can not be overwritten later. Tags of this type usually act as simple identifiers.

This is the most flexible type of tag, where users have access to read and write data into tags memory. Read-Write tags usually have a serial number that can not be written over. Additional blocks of data can be used to store additional information about the items the tag is attached to (these can usually be locked to prevent overwriting of data).

These tags contain on-board sensors for recording parameters like temperature, pressure, and motion, which can be recorded by writing into the tags memory. As sensor, reading must be taken in the absence of a reader, the tags are either semi-passive or active

Class 4 -

These are like miniature radio devices which can communicate with other tags and devices without the presence of a reader. They are completely active with their own battery power source.

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RFiD Chip Generations

Features

Generation 1

Generation 2

Frequency

860 – 930 MHz

860 – 960 MHz

Memory

64 or 96 bits

96 – 256 bits

Field Programmability

Yes

Yes

Reprogrammability

Class 0 – read only Class 1 – write once / read many

NA

Other Features

NA

Faster and more reliable reads than Generation 1. Better compliance with other global standards

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How RFiD Tag Communicate

When the reader is switched on, it starts emitting a signal at the selected frequency band. Any corresponding tag in the vicinity of the reader will detect the signal and use the energy from it to wake up and supply operating power to its internal circuits. Once the tag has decoded the signal as valid, it replies to the reader, and indicates its presence by modulating (affecting) the reader field.

In order to receive energy and communicate with a reader, tags use the following two methods:

• Near field which employs inductive coupling of the tag to the magnetic field circulating around the reader antenna. It is used by RFID systems operating in the LF and HF frequency bands.

• Far field which uses similar techniques to radar (backscatter reflection) by coupling with the electric field. It is for longer read range in UHF and microwave frequency bands.

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How RFiD Tag Communicate

Near field which employs inductive coupling of the tag to the magnetic field circulating around the reader antenna.

Far field which uses similar techniques to radar (backscatter reflection) by coupling with the electric field.

reflection) by coupling with the electric field. EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲

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How RFiD Tag Communicate

How RFiD Tag Communicate EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03

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How RFiD Tag Communicate

The typical handshake of a tag and reader is as follows;

The reader continuously generates an RF carrier sine wave, always watching for modulation to occur. Detected modulation of the field indicates the presence of a tag.

When a tag enters the RF field generated by the reader, once the tag has received sufficient energy to operate correctly, it begin clocking its data against an output transistor, which is normally connected across coil inputs.

The tag’s output transistor shunt the coil, in a way which corresponds to the data stored in the memory array.

Shunting the coil causes a momentary fluctuation (dampening) of the carrier wave, which is seen as a slight change in amplitude or frequency of the carrier

The reader peak-detects the amplitude-modulated data and processes the resulting bitstream according to the encoding and data modulation method used.

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How RFiD Tag Communicate

How RFiD Tag Communicate EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03

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RFiD Communication Procedures

HDX Energy Transfer Down Link Reader to Tag Up Link Tag to Reader FDX Energy
HDX
Energy Transfer
Down Link
Reader to Tag
Up Link
Tag to Reader
FDX
Energy Transfer
Down Link
Up Link
SEQ
Energy Transfer
Down Link
Up Link

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Data Modulation

A modulation is a periodic fluctuation in the amplitude of radio frequency carrier sine wave, which is used to transmit data back from the tag to the reader. Data are transferred to the host by amplitude-modulating the carrier. For passive RFiD tags, it’s called backscatter modulation.

FSKFSK (Frequency(Frequency ShiftShift Keying)Keying) This form of modulation uses two different frequencies for data transfer; the most common FSK mode is Fc/8/10. In other words, a ‘0’ is transmitted as an amplitude- modulated clock cycle with period corresponding to the carrier frequency divided by 8, and a ‘1’ is transmitted as an amplitude-modulated clock cycle period corresponding to the carrier frequency divided by 10. The amplitude modulation of the carrier thus switches from Fc/8 to Fc/10 corresponding to 0's and 1's in the bitstream, and the reader has only to count cycles between the peak-detected clock edges to decode the data. FSK allows for a simple reader design, provides very strong noise immunity, but suffers from a lower data rate than some other forms of data modulation. FSK data modulation is used with NRZ encoding.

modulation. FSK data modulation is used with NRZ encoding. EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management

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FSK data modulation is used with NRZ encoding. EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group

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Data Modulation

PSK (Phase Shift Keying) This method of data modulation is similar to FSK, except only one frequency is

used, and the shift between 1's and 0's is accomplished by shifting the phase of the backscatter clock by 180 degrees. Two common types of PSK are:

• Change phase at any ‘0’, or

• Change phase at any data change (0 to 1 or 1 to 0).

PSK provides fairly good noise immunity, a moderately simple reader design, and a faster data rate than FSK. Typical applications utilize a backscatter clock of Fc/2,

Typical applications utilize a backscatter clock of Fc/2, EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group

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Typical Reader Block Diagram

Pulse shaper, Phase comparator
Pulse shaper,
Phase comparator

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Data Encoding

Data encoding refers to processing or altering the data bitstream in between the time it is retrieved from the RFiD chip’s data array and its transmission back to the reader. The various encoding algorithms affect error recovery, cost of implementation, bandwidth, synchronization capability, and other aspects of the system design.

The most used methods are;

- NRZ (non-return to zero) Direct

- Differential Biphase

- Biphase L (Manchester)

There are three implementation issues that may impact technical performance of RFiD systems;

- Collision

- Transmission

- Site Survey

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Encoding Methods

Noise, interference and distortion can all corrupt transmitted data, making error free data recovery difficult to achieve. This is compounded by the fact that data communication processes are asynchronous or unsynchronized, so care must be taken with the form in which the data is communicated. Channel encoding schemes include the following:

>> NRZ >> Manchester >> FM >> Miller (Modified FM or MFM) >> Modified Miller

Miller (Modified FM or MFM) >> Modified Miller EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group

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Encoding Schemes

NRZ

A

binary “1” is represented by a high signal and a binary “0” by a

low signal. This coding scheme is often used with FSK or PSK modulation.

Manchester (or bi-phase)

A

binary “1” is represented by a negative transition half-way

through the clock cycle and binary “0” is represented by a positive

 

transition. This coding scheme is often used in RFiD system employing load modulation using a sub-carrier.

FM

A

binary “1” is coded by a transition of any type, a binary “0” is

coded by lack of transition.

Miller

A

binary “1” is represented by a transition of any type of half-bit

period, a binary “0” is represented by the continued level of the previous “1” over the next bit period. A series of zeros causes a transition at the start of the next bit period. Miller is sometimes referred to as “Modified FM” or “MFM” coding.

Modified Miller

Each transition is replaced by a negative pulse. This coding scheme is very useful for inductively coupled RFiD systems due to the very short pulse durations. By having tpulse < Tbit, a continuous power supply can be provided to the transponder from the HF field of the reader even during data transfer.

from the HF field of the reader even during data transfer. EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and

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Encoding Schemes

There are three main considerations involved with coding schemes:

are three main considerations involved with coding schemes: >> the signal spectrum, >> susceptibility to

>> the signal spectrum, >> susceptibility to interference (transmission errors), and >> power supply interruption.

The spread of the signal spectrum differs with the coding method.

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Non-Return to Zero Encoding

Non-return to zero encoding is commonly used in slow speed communications interfaces for both synchronous and asynchronous transmission. Using NRZ, a logic 1 bit is sent as a high value and a logic 0 bit is sent as a low value.

A problem arises when using NRZ to encode a synchronous link which may have long runs of consecutive bits with the same value. The figure below illustrates the problem that would arise if NRZ encoding were used with a DPLL recovered clock signal there is no control over the number of 1's or 0's which may sent consecutively. There could potentially be thousands of 1's or 0's in sequence. If the encoded data contains long 'runs' of logic 1's or 0's, this does not result in any bit transitions. The lack of transitions prevents the receiver DPLL from reliably regenerating the clock making it impossible to detect the boundaries of the received bits at the receiver.

detect the boundaries of the received bits at the receiver. EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset

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Manchester Encoding

Manchester encoding (first published in 1949) is a synchronous clock encoding technique used by the physical layer to encode the clock and data of a synchronous bit stream. In this technique, the actual binary data to be transmitted over the cable are not sent as a sequence of logic 1's and 0's (known technically as Non Return to Zero (NRZ)). Instead, the bits are translated into a slightly different format that has a number of advantages over using straight binary encoding.

A Manchester encoded signal contains frequent level transitions which allow the receiver to extract the clock signal using a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL) and correctly decode the value and timing of each bit. To allow reliable operation using a DPLL, the transmitted bit stream must contain a high density of bit transitions. Manchester encoding ensures this, allowing the receiving DPLL to correctly extract the clock signal.

The penalty for introducing frequent transitions, is that the Manchester coded signal consumes more bandwidth than the original signal. Manchester encoding follows the rules shown below:

Original Data

Value Sent

Logic 0

0 to 1 (upward transition at bit centre)

Logic 1

1 to 0 (downward transition at bit centre)

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Manchester Encoding

The waveform for a Manchester encoded bit stream carrying the sequence of bits 110100.

Example of Manchester Encoding

The pattern of bits “1 1 0 1 0 0” is encodes to:

1

10

1

10

0

01

1

10

0

01

0

01

Result = “10 10 01 10 01 01"

 01 0  01 Result = “10 10 01 10 01 01" EXIT SHOW ICT,

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RFiD vs Barcode

 

Barcode / UPC

RFID / Auto-ID

Data Capacity

Limited data can be stored

Significantly higher data capacity and memory

Flexibility

Static Information

Potential for read/write capability (allows tags to be reusable)

Efficiency

Ability to read one tag at one time

Ability to read multiple tags simultaneously (without line of sight)

Dependability

Labels susceptible to damage

Tags less susceptible to damage

Cost

Chip

High

Standards

Stable

Manageable

Cost Chip High Standards Stable Manageable EXIT SHOW ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone

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Factors Affecting Operating Range

Transponder/Tag Orientation

Overlapping of Tags - Transponders touching

Amount and Direction of Data Transfer (R/O or R/W)

Transmitting Power (power of the reader) and the reader

Size and Shape of the Antennas (transponder and reader)

Readers / Antennas near each other

Environment (ambient noise, intrinsic noise, cabling, surrounding

metal, DC Motors etc.)

Metal

Transponder (chip specifications)

Frequency which may be limited by regulations (FCC in North America) and standards (ISO)

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Factors Affecting Communication Time

Reader Reading and Writing Rate

Tag Response Time

Data Capacity

Velocity of the Tag

Operating Range

Number of Tags

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Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP)

Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) is the output power when a signal is concentrated into a smaller area by the Antenna. An isotropic radiator radiates power equally in all directions, however a perfect isotropic radiator is only theoretical as even the simplest antennas will concentrate the signal in certain direction(s). E.g. a 1/2 wave dipole has a gain of 2.15 dBi.

direction(s). E.g. a 1/2 wave dipole has a gain of 2.15 dBi. The EIRP is calculated

The EIRP is calculated using this formula:

EIRP = Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Pout = transmitter power output (dBm) Ct = signal loss in cable (dB) Gt = gain of the antenna (dBi) Pout - Ct + Gt = EIRP

When installing a wireless system with external antenna, your EIRP calculation should not exceed the class license limit. Other wise you must adjust either the transmitter power output, the length of cable and/or the choice of antenna.

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How to calculate EIRP?

Convert mW to dBm:

PdBm = 10 Log PmW

= 10 Log (100)

= 10 * 2

= 20 dBm

EIRP = Power Transmitted – Power loss + Antenna Power gain

EIRP

= 20 – 3 - = 23dBm

6

Power loss + Antenna Power gain EIRP = 20 – 3 - = 23dBm 6 Antenna

Antenna Gain 6 dBi

Power gain EIRP = 20 – 3 - = 23dBm 6 Antenna Gain 6 dBi Cable

Cable Loss 3 dB

= 20 – 3 - = 23dBm 6 Antenna Gain 6 dBi Cable Loss 3 dB

Reader 100 mW

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Antenna Polarization

Antenna Polarization Antenna polarization is a very important consideration when choosing and installing an antenna. Most

Antenna polarization is a very important consideration when choosing and installing an antenna.

Most systems use either vertical, horizontal or circular polarization. Knowing the difference between polarizations and how to maximize their benefit is very important to users.

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Polarization

An antenna is a transducer that converts radio frequency electric current to electromagnetic waves that are then radiated into space. The electric field plane determines the polarization or orientation of the radio wave. In general, most antennas radiate either linear or circular polarization.

A linear polarized antenna radiates wholly in one plane containing the

direction of propagation.

An antenna is said to be vertically polarized (linear) when its electric field

to be vertically polarized (linear) when its electric field is perpendicular to the Earth's surface. An

is perpendicular to the Earth's surface. An example of a vertical antenna is

a broadcast tower for AM radio or the "whip" antenna on an automobile.

Horizontally polarized (linear) antennas have their electric field parallel to the Earth's surface. Television transmissions use horizontal polarization.

Circular polarized wave radiates energy in both the horizontal and vertical planes and all planes in between.

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RFID System Considerations

Country Specific Regulations

Varies from country to country

Frequency Allocations

Some ISM frequencies are unavailable in some region

Power Regulations Interference Tag Type

Passive

Semi-active

Active

Read distance requirements

Long read range

Short read range

ISO Standards

Proprietary or Standards-Based

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RFiD Reader Design

RFiD Transceiver LCD ISO 15693 ISO 18000 Micro PC Controller Communications 125 KHz RS232 13.56
RFiD Transceiver
LCD
ISO 15693
ISO 18000
Micro
PC
Controller
Communications
125
KHz
RS232
13.56 MHz
USB
433
MHz
Ethernet
900
+ MHz
WiFi
Keypad
2.45 GHz
IR

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RS485

Optic

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RFiD Reader Design

RFiD Reader / Scanner

Micro-Controller

Transceiver

Design RFiD Reader / Scanner Micro-Controller Transceiver Communications RF Micro- Transceiver Controller RFIC
Communications
Communications

Communications

Communications
RF Micro- Transceiver Controller RFIC
RF
Micro-
Transceiver
Controller
RFIC
Communications RF Micro- Transceiver Controller RFIC Antenna Matching Circuit Tag EXIT SHOW TT EE CC HH
Communications RF Micro- Transceiver Controller RFIC Antenna Matching Circuit Tag EXIT SHOW TT EE CC HH

Antenna

Matching

Circuit

Transceiver Controller RFIC Antenna Matching Circuit Tag EXIT SHOW TT EE CC HH NN II CC
Transceiver Controller RFIC Antenna Matching Circuit Tag EXIT SHOW TT EE CC HH NN II CC
Transceiver Controller RFIC Antenna Matching Circuit Tag EXIT SHOW TT EE CC HH NN II CC

Tag

Controller RFIC Antenna Matching Circuit Tag EXIT SHOW TT EE CC HH NN II CC AA

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TT EE CC HH NN II CC AA LL

PP RR EE SS EE NN TT AA TT II OO NN

--

TT FF 00 11 00 66 CC 22 99 66

II OO NN -- T T F F 0 0 1 1 0 0 6 6

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RFiD System Design

ReaderReader

AntennaAntenna

TransponderTransponder

Control Control Serial RFRF ModuleModule Module Module Transmission ApplicationApplication PDA SoftwareSoftware
Control Control
Serial
RFRF ModuleModule
Module Module
Transmission
ApplicationApplication
PDA
SoftwareSoftware
SynchronizationSynchronization
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SoftwareSoftware SynchronizationSynchronization EXIT SHOW PC ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 –

PC

SynchronizationSynchronization EXIT SHOW PC ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 – 5544
SynchronizationSynchronization EXIT SHOW PC ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 – 5544
SynchronizationSynchronization EXIT SHOW PC ICT, KM and Asset Management Group ▲ Phone : 03 – 5544

ICT, KM and Asset Management Group

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RFiD Building Block A p p l i c a t i o n s
RFiD Building Block
A
p
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s
Presentation
BACK END SYSTEMS / DATABASE LAYER
Layer
Integration
Layer
M
i
d
d
l
e
w
a
r
e
DATA
DATA
DEVICE
Application
Level Events
Process
Filtering
Integration
Management
Layer
RFiD
Network
Layer
S
c
a
n
n
e
r
/
R
e
a
d
e
r
Memory
Air Interface
Protocols
Standards
Tag Type
Speed
Cost
Physical
Device Layer
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RFiD Evolution Common RFiD Network EXIT SHOW SIRIM Training Services Sdn. Bhd. ▲ Phone :
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RFiD Evolution Global RFiD Network EXIT SHOW SIRIM Training Services Sdn. Bhd. ▲ Phone :
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