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CONTRIBUII LA STUDIUL CRETERII VACILOR DE LAPTE DIN RASA BLAT CU NEGRU ROMNEASC N DOBROGEA

V. UJIC1, S. BULANCEA2, I. NISTOR3, V. MACIUC1, D. COZMA4, C.E. NISTOR1, GH. NEAGA3


1. Universitatea de tiine Agricole i Medicin Veterinar Iai 2. D.G.A, Constana 3. A.N.A.R.Z. Bucureti 4. Ferma Doaga, Vrancea
vasileujic@yahoo.com

Rezumat
Studiul a fost efectuat pe o populaie de 1611 vaci BNR exploatate n 6 ferme reprezentative cu capital majoritar privat din Dobrogea. Valorile medii fenotipice ale indicilor produciei de lapte pe lactaii succesive (I-VII) demonstreaz, n ansamblu, un nivel productiv relativ sczut, cuprins ntre 4342,03 kg lapte n lactaia I i 4463,45 kg lapte n lactaia a III-a, dar cu diferene mari de la ferm la alta. Cele mai bune performane au fost obinute n ferma Dairy Farm, care a realizat n primele trei lactaii peste 5000 de kg de lapte pe lactaie normal i performane individuale de 9728 kg lapte n lactaia I-a, respectiv 10113 kg de lapte n lactaia a II-a. Coninutul laptelui n grsime i proteine, pe ntreaga populaie din cele ase ferme din Dobrogea, s-a situat ntre 3,73% i 3,80% pentru grsime, respectiv 3,18% i 3,27%, pentru proteine. n populaia studiat au fost identificate 92 de familii genetice de semisurori paterne, din care 53 familii au avut o producie medie de lapte superioar medie populaiei, care a fost de 4342,03 kg lapte la prima lactaie, din care 20 de familii genetice cu media de peste 5000 kg lapte. Aceste structuri genetice constituie un genofond valoros pe baza cruia se poate concepe un program de ameliorare genetic a performanelor productive n aceast populaie. n urma analizei vrstei la prima ftare pentru cele 1611 vaci din fermele studiate a rezultat valoarea medie de 967,15 zile (32 luni i 7 zile), cu limite ntre 442 zile (14 luni i 22 zile) i 2002 zile (66 luni i 22 zile). Aceste limite extreme dovedete c managementul funciei de reproducie a fost deficitar i chiar unele greeli de exploatare. Este de reinut i faptul c pentru nsuirea de precocitate reproductiv cea mai bun s-a dovedit familia genetic a taurului indigen cod 16866, a cror fiice au avut vrsta la prima ftare de 808,83 zile (26 luni i 28 zile), iar pentru durata de exploatare familia genetic cod 11014 cu o medie de 4430,71 zile (14,5 lactaii normale).

Cuvinte cheie: producie de lapte, vaci BNR, familii genetice

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF REARING DAIRY COWS FROM ROMANIAN BLACK PIED BREED IN DOBROGEA
V. UJIC1, S. BULANCEA2, I. NISTOR3, V. MACIUC1, D. COZMA4, C.E. NISTOR1, GH. NEAGA3
1

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Iai 2. D.G.A., Constana 3. A.N.A.R.Z., Bucharest 4. Doaga Farm, Vrancea vasileujic@yahoo.com

Abstract
The study was conducted on a population of 1611 BNR cows exploited in 6 representative farms with private capital from Dobrogea. The mean phenotype values of the milk production indexes on successive lactations (1st-7th) enlightened, in assembly, a certain low productive level, ranged between 4342.03 kg of milk in 1st lactation and 4463.45 kg of milk in 3rd lactation, but with great differences from one farm to another. The best performances were obtained at Dairy Farm, which realised in the first three lactations over 5000 kg of milk on normal lactation and individual performances of 9728 kg of milk in 1 st lactation, respectively 10113 kg of milk in 2nd lactation. Milk content in fat and proteins, on the whole population from the six farms in Dobrogea, was placed between 3.73% and 3.80% for fat, respectively 3.18% and 3.27%, for proteins. In the studied population were identified 92 genetic families of paternal half-sisters, from which 53 families had an average milk production superior to mean of population, which was of 4342.03 kg of milk at first lactation, from which 20 genetic families with a mean of over 5000 kg of milk. These genetic structures constitute a valuable genetic-fund, based on which could be conceive a programme for genetic breeding of productive performances for these population. Analysing the age of first calving for the 1611 cows from the studied farms resulted a mean value of 967.15 days (32 months and 7 days), with limits between 442 days (14 months and 22 days) and 2002 days (66 months and 22 days). These extreme limits prove that the management of reproduction function was poor and with exploitation mistakes. Must be mention the fact that for the feature of reproductive precocity the best one was the genetic family of the indigenous bull code 16866, of which the four daughters had the age of first calving at 808.83 days (26 months and 28 days) and for the exploitation period, genetic family code 11014 with a mean of 4430.71 days (14.5 normal lactations). Keywords: milk production, romanian black pied cows, genetic families