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# SCIENCE REVIEWER

## Final Exams (S.Y. 2011-2012)

PURE SCIENCE o Gathering of info through experimentation for the pursuit of knowledge APPLIED SCIENCE o Search for the practical application of scientific knowledge TECHNOLOGY o Help for everyday life PHYSICAL SCIENCE o Physical world by analyzing the nature and properties of energy and non-living 1) CHEMISTRY a. Study of the building blocks of matter 2) PHYSICS a. Study of the quantity of matter 3) ASTRONOMY a. Study of the universe or totality of matter BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE o Scientific study of living things 1) ZOOLOGY a. The study of biology of animals 2) BOTANY a. The study of plant life 3) GENETICS a. The study of genes and heredity 4) ECOLOGY a. The study of the eco system; on how species and groups of species interact

5) ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY a. The study of the natural world as a whole; especially as affected by human activity. 6) MEDICINE a. The study of the human body in health and disease EARTH SCIENCE o The study of the Earth and its neighbors in space 1) GEOLOGY a. Study of the earths composition, structure and processes 2) METEOROLOGY a. Study of the atmosphere and how the processes in the atmosphere determine weather and climate 3) OCEANOGRAPHY a. Study of the Eaths oceans-their composition, movement, organisms and processes. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE o Manipulated variable DEPENDENT VARIABLE o Responding variable NEWTONS 1ST LAW OF MOTION: INERTIA o Every object retains its state of rest or its state of uniform straight-line motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force o Resists any change in motion NEWTONS 2ND LAW OF MOTION: ACCELERATION o Forces cause acceleration o More force, more acceleration; more mass, less acceleration NEWTONS 3RD LAW OF MOTION: INTERACTION o Relates forces between objects

o Action-reaction o Whenever two objects interact, the force exerted on one object is equal in size and opposite in direction to the force exterted on the other object. LEVERS o A simple machine made with a rigid bar free to pivot around a fixed point called a fulcrum. 1) FIRST CLASS LEVER a. Fulcrum is between the effort force and resistance force 2) SECOND CLASS LEVER a. Resistance force is between the effort force and fulcrum 3) THIRD CLASS LEVER a. Effort force is between the fulcrum and resistance force PULLEYS o A simple machine made with a rope, belt or chain wrapped around a grooved wheel. o It can change the driection of force or the amount of force 1) FIXED PULLEY a. The axle is attached or anchored in place b. Does not apply force c. Changes the direction of the effort force 2) MOVABLE PULLEY a. The axle is free to move b. Multiplies effort force but cannot change direction of effort force 3) BLOCK AND TACKLE a. A combination of fixed and movable pulleys INCLINED PLANE o A simple machine that is simply a straight slanted surface WHEEL AND AXLE o Modification of a pully. A wheel is fixed to an axle. o The wheel and axle must move together to be a simple machine

o Sometimes, the wheel has a crack or handle on it. WEDGE o An incline plane with one or two sloping sides SCREW o An inclined plane the wraps around a shaft ENERGY o Enables us to do an activity o The capacity to do work o Has the ability to cause change 1) KINETIC ENERGY a. The energy contained in moving mass or particle b. Energy in motion c. Faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it has d. Greater velocity, higher kinetic energy e. KE is directly proportional to velocity 2) POTENTIAL ENERGY a. Energy at rest b. Energy stored in objects c. Energy due to location 3) THERMAL OR HEAT ENERGY a. Energy produced from moving or vibrating particles 4) CHEMICAL ENERGY a. Energy stored in molecular bonds 5) ELECTRICAL ENERGY a. Energy produced from the flow of electrons 6) ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY a. Energy stored in batteries 7) MECHANICAL ENERGY a. Energy contained in moving mass on objects 8) ELECTROMAGNETIC/LIGHT ENERGY

a. Transmitted to the Earth from the sun by light or any source of light 9) SOUND ENERGY a. Energy produced from sound waves expressed and expanded in air molecules 10) NUCLEAR ENERGY a. Energy produced from fusion and fission of nuclei of atoms b. Fusion is the combination of nucleus of atoms c. Fission is the nucleus of atoms 11)