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Tratatul de la Maastricht (Tratatul asupra Uniunii Europene)

Tratatul asupra Uniunii Europene (cunoscut ca Tratatul de la Maastricht) constituie, n procesul de creare a unei uniuni mereu mai strnse ntre popoarele Europei, o etap nou i de substan. n ceea ce privete modificrile aduse de TUE, acesta a modificat, n special, Tratatul de instituire a CEE (Tratatul de la Roma instituind CEE). n plus, Tratatul de la Maastricht a dat o nou structur ntregului sistem de tratate, nglobnd Tratatele constitutive ale Comunitilor, pe care le-a aezat la baza construciei comunitare. Dac de la Tratatele de la Roma i pn la Actul Unic European - prima reform de ansamblu Comunitilor Europene - au trebuit s treac aproape 30 de ani, n schimb, de la intrarea n vigoare a AUE, n 1987 i pn la deschiderea conferinelor interguvernamentale ce au condus la semnarea, n februarie 1992, a Tratatului de la Maastricht au trecut mai puin de 4 ani. O astfel de accelerare a construciei comunitare a fost determinat, desigur, de anumii factori. n acest sens, se poate spune c accelerarea a fost determinat, pe de o parte, de dinamica intern a Comunitilor iar, pe de alt parte, de evoluia scenei internaionale i n special, dezintegrarea sistemului comunist i reunificarea Germaniei. La Consiliul european de la Maastricht din 9-10 decembrie 1991, efii de stat i de guvern ai celor 12 state membre ale Comunitilor europene, reunii n conferin interguvernamental pe baza articolului 236 din Tratatul CEE, au ajuns la un acord asupra proiectului de tratat asupra Uniunii Europene, prin care se angaja o nou etap important n construcia european. Acest acord era un acord politic. naintea semnrii trebuia s se dea forma juridic definitiv textelor consolidate ale celor dou aspecte ale tratatului - o uniune politica i o uniune economic i monetar negociate, aa cum am vzut, separat, i s se redacteze preambulul . n contextul amintit, la 7 februarie 1992, reprezentantii celor 12 state membre au semnat Tratatul asupra Uniunii Europene (Tratatul de la Maastricht). Dup semnare, s-a angajat faza ratificrilor naionale care ar fi trebuit s se ncheie, potrivit Tratatului, la 31 decembrie 1992 pentru a putea intra n vigoare la 1 ianuarie 1993, dar problemele ridicate mai ales de rezultatul negativ al referendumului din Danemarca (2 iunie 1992), apoi de organizarea unui nou referendum danez n luna mai 1993 , pozitiv de aceast dat, cum i de amnrile guvernului britanic i necesitatea unei revizuiri constituionale n Germania, au condus lareportarea datei de intrare n vigoare a Tratatului de la Maastricht la 1 noiembrie 1993. Tratatul a fost ncheiat pe o durat nelimitat. Aadar, se poate spune c, dup ase ani de la Actul Unic European, Tratatul asupra Uniunii Europene (TUE) constituie, n procesul de creare a unei uniuni mereu mai strnse ntre popoarele Europei, o etap nou i de substan. n Preambulul TUE (primul alineat) se afirm hotrrea statelor membre de a parcurge o nou etap n procesul de integrare european angajat prin crearea Comunitilor Europene, iar n ultimul alineat se arat

c n perspectiva etapelor ulterioare ce urmeaz s fie trecute pentru a face s progreseze integrarea european, statele membre au decis s instituie o Uniune European. Avnd n vedere i evenimentele ulterioare Tratatului de la Maastricht, se poate spune c ncepnd cu aceast dat, Uniunea European a intrat ntr-un nou ciclu de evoluie. n ceea ce privete modificrile aduse de TUE, acesta a modificat, n special, Tratatul de instituire a CEE (Tratatul de la Roma instituind CEE). n plus, Tratatul de la Maastricht a dat o nou structur ntregului sistem de tratate, nglobnd Tratatele constitutive ale Comunitilor, pe care le-a aezat la baza construciei comunitare. Titlului I (Frontispiciul comun) al TUE se refer, n primul rnd, la crearea Uniunii Europene, obiectivele i elementele sale constitutive . Astfel, potrivit art. B TUE, obiectivele generale sunt: - promovarea progresului economic i social echilibrat i susinut, n principal prin crearea unui spaiu fr frontiere - ntrirea dispoziiilor - afirmarea - ntrirea - dezvoltarea n proteciei unei strnse coeziunii tratatului, viaa drepturilor cooperri internaional i n intereselor sectorul economice moneda a naiunilor justiiei i a identitii statelor afacerilor i interioare; sociale; unic; Uniunii; membre; interne;

- stabilirea unei Uniunii Economice i Monetare (UEM) care va implica, la momentul oportun i conform

- meninerea integral a acquis-ului comunitar i dezvoltarea acestuia conform procedurii stabilite n art. N 2. n art. F se arat c Uniunea respect identitatea naional a statelor membre, avnd sisteme de guvernare bazate pe principiile democratice. Totodat, se arat c Uniunea respect drepturile fundamentale, aa cum au fost acestea garantate n Convenia de la Roma din 1950 (Convenia European a Drepturilor Omului - CEDO). A fost introdus n Tratat i principiul suficienei mijloacelor care se refer la dotarea Uniunii cu mijloacele necesare pentru atingerea obiectivelor i realizarea politicilor sale. Foarte important de amintit aici este i principiul subsidiaritii, ca mecanism de atribuire a competenelor ntre Uniune i statele membre n sectoare ce nu sunt de competena exclusiv a Uniunii. Acest mecanism (menionat n art. B TUE), opereaz n conformitate cu articolul 3B TCE n baza unor criterii de eficacitate apreciind dimensiunea sau efectul respectivelor aciuni. Subsidiaritatea urma s joace un rol important n complementarea eforturilor Uniunii i a statelor membre evitndu-se, astfel, eventualele conflicte sau suprapuneri i potenndu-se realizrile. Subsidiaritatea putea contribui i la evitarea centralismului birocratic, perceput ca venind dinspre Bruxelles. Un alt principiu foarte important este cel al unitii instituionale, care indic c Uniunea European va avea aceleai instituii pentru cei trei piloni (Comunitile Europene, PESC i JAI). Aadar, se stabilete un

cadru instituional unic la vrful cruia se gsete Consiliul European. Parlamentul European, Consiliul, Comisia i Curtea de Justiie (CEJ) vor fi instituiile comune care i vor exercita competenele n condiiile prevzute n Tratat. Dup cum reiese din dispoziiile Tratatului de la Maastricht, Uniunea European se sprijin pe trei piloni, unul de natur instituional (Comunitile Europene) i doi piloni interguvernamentali PESC i JAI. Pilierul central (care este i cel mai solid), este cel comunitar, cuprinznd, n fapt, cele trei Comuniti europene CECO, CEE - devenit CE i CEEA, ale cror tratate constitutive au fost modificate prin Tratatul de la Maastricht. n ceea ce privete ceilali doi piloni, aa cum precizam anterior, Tratatul de la Maastricht aeaz, simultan, Uniunea European i pe o baz interguvernamental. Unul dintre pilonii interguvernamentali l reprezint articolul J (Titlul V) care cuprinde Politica Extern i de Securitate Comun (PESC), urmaul normativ al fostului art. 30 al Actului Unic European (abrogat prin art. P al TUE) . Cellalt pilon interguvernamental al Uniunii, este reprezentat de art. K (Titlul VI) care conineCooperarea n materie de Justiie i Afaceri Interne (JAI). n final, urmrind grafica imaginar a aa-numitului templu grecesc (cum a fost numit structura Tratatului de la Maastricht n literatura de specialitate ), Uniunea are i o baz comun constituit din Titlul VII (Dispoziii Finale), ce cuprinde art. L-S i n care se descriu urmtoarele teme: - conservarea - competenele - procedura - derogri; - intrarea n vigoare i valabilitatea tratatelor. Dat fiind noua structur formal a TUE (existena unei baze finale comune), Tratatele CE, CECA i CEEA pierd, cu aceast ocazie, respectivele articole. Astfel, dac pn la TUE, Tratatele constitutive dispuneau de proceduri proprii i distincte de revizuire (de exemplu, art. 96 CECA, 236 CEE i 204 Euratom), o dat cu TUE aceste articole au fost abrogate i s-a stabilit o procedur unic de revizuire (art. N) bazat pe sistemul existent n Tratele CEE i Euratom. De la intrarea n vigoare a TUE, statele europene care au solicitat calitatea de membru al UE au urmat o procedur unic pentru a-i formaliza integrarea.
The policy aims to establish a framework for legal migration, taking fully into account the importance of integration into host societies. The EU measures on legal immigration cover the conditions of entry and residence for certain categories of immigrants, such as highly qualified workers subject to the EU Blue Card Directive and students andresearchers. Family reunification and long-term residents are also provided for. In December 2011, the so-called Single Permit Directive was adopted. It creates a set of rights for non-EU workers legally residing in an EU State. At the same time, EU is discussing Commission proposals for further Directives on the conditions of entry and residence for seasonal workersand intra-corporate transferees. The aim is to simplify migration procedures

acquis-ului Curii unic a revizuirilor i de a noilor

comunitar; Justiie; aderri;

and give migrants clear employment-related rights. Furthermore, the Long-Term Residence Directive has created a single status for non-EU nationals who have been lawfully resident in an EU country for at least five years, thus establishing a legal basis for equal treatment in all EU countries. The EU Immigration Portal, launched in November 2011, provides hands-on information for foreign nationals interested in moving to the EU. The site is also directed at migrants who are already in the EU and would like to move from one EU State to another. It provides specific practical information about procedures in all 27 EU States for each category of migrants.

Enhancing the integration of non-EU nationals in EU societies

The EU approach to migration also addresses the issue of integration. Successful integration of migrants into their host society is essential to maximise the opportunities afforded by legal migration and to realise the potential that immigration has for EU development. With this in mind, the EU is promoting European cooperation to develop common approaches and exchange information at EU level.

Curbing irregular migration


A sustainable and credible policy approach to the management of migration also requires addressing the issue of irregular migration. The EU is tackling the issue through specific measures targeting employers who hire undeclared migrant workers and by seeking to set up a humane and effective return policy, in line with the Charter of Fundamental Rights. It is also targeting human trafficking networks and smugglers who take advantage of undocumented persons.

Managing migration through partnership with non-EU countries


Building dialogue and partnerships with countries of origin and transit, based on solidarity and shared responsibility, is also an essential aspect of the common EU approach to migration. The Global Approach to migration and mobility, renewed in November 2011, is to be regarded as the overarching framework for the EU external migration policy, complementary to the EU foreign policy and development cooperation.

Stronger protection for seasonal workers

According to estimates, well over 100 000 non-EU seasonal workers come to the EU each year (this includes irregular migrants). EU economies face a structural need for seasonal work for which labour from within the EU is expected to become increasingly difficult to find. Furthermore, there is significant evidence that certain non-EU seasonal workers face exploitation and sub-standard working conditions which may threaten their health and safety. And finally, sectors of the economy that are characterised by a strong presence of seasonal workers most notably agriculture, horticulture and tourism are repeatedly identified as the sectors most likely to have non-EU nationals staying in the EU without permission carrying out the work. These elements led the Commission to propose, in 2010, a Directive on seasonal employment, currently under discussion within the European Parliament and the Council. When adopted, seasonal workers will be able to enter the EU faster when there is a demand for their work (it will be made possible through a fast-track procedure and a single residence/work permit simplifying the rules currently applicable in EU States). Clearer, simpler admission rules should result in fewer people working unauthorised in seasonal jobs and/or staying on longer in the EU than they are entitled to. Moreover, the new rules governing working conditions will help prevent exploitation and protect the health and safety of non-EU seasonal workers. Employers will be required to prove that seasonal workers have appropriate accommodation during their stay, and a complaints mechanism will be available for non-EU seasonal workers and third parties. Finally, the circular movement of seasonal workers between the EU and their home countries will be encouraged through the introduction of a multi-seasonal permit or a facilitated re-entry procedure for a subsequent season. This would bring those countries providing seasonal workers with a reliable flow of income, skills and investment, thereby contributing to development.

Facilitating the intra-corporate transfer of non-EU skilled workers

The globalisation of business and accompanying skills demand has made it desirable for multinational corporations to transfer employees temporarily to another branch or subsidiary. Intra-corporate transferees (ICTs) can potentially bring substantial benefits to the EU: innovation, enhanced competitiveness, increased investment flows, etc. However, a number of factors currently limit opportunities to transfer non-EU employees: a lack of clear specific schemes, the complexity and diversity of visa or work permit requirements, costs and delays in transferring foreign ICTs from one European corporate headquarters to another and difficulties in securing family reunification. To address this situation, the Commission proposed, in 2010, a Directive for intra-corporate transfer of non-EU skilled workers, currently under discussion within the European Parliament and the Council. It is designed to improve the current situation in several ways: companies outside the EU will have a common set of rules and requirements and EU companies will have better and faster access to global talent to meet staffing needs for managers, specialists and graduate trainees. Moreover, the EU will have a greater pool of skilled staff at its disposal, helping it to secure a knowledge-based and innovative economy that attracts investment, thereby creating jobs. In addition to the fast-track entry procedure and the single application for a combined work and residence permit, the Directive will also include more attractive residence conditions for the families and enhance mobility within the EU. ICTs will also benefit from the same working conditions as posted workers whose employer is established within EU territory.

A single procedure for work and residence permits: the Single Permit
In December 2011, the so-called Single Permit Directive was adopted. It creates a set of rights for non-EU workers legally residing in an EU State. The Directive should be applicable to non-EU nationals with authorisation to reside or work in the EU, independently of their initial reason for admission. Its scope includes both non-EU nationals seeking to be admitted to an EU State in order to stay and work there and those who are already resident and have access to the labour market or are already working there. It provides for:

a single residence and work permit a single application procedure for this permit

a set of rights for all non-EU workers already admitted but who have not yet been granted long-term resident status, in a number of key areas: working conditions, education and vocational training, recognition of diplomas, social security, tax benefits, access to goods and services including procedures for housing and employment advice services.

The right to family reunification, recognised throughout the EU

Before the family can be protected and family life established or preserved, the conditions for exercising the right to family reunification in the EU must be determined. And they must be common to all EU States. The Directive on the right to family reunification determines the conditions under which family reunification is granted, as well as the rights of the family members concerned. On the basis of this legislative instrument, legally residing non-EU nationals can bring their spouse, under-age children and the children of their spouse to the EU State in which they are residing. EU States may also authorise reunification with an unmarried partner, adult dependant children, or dependant older relatives. Once in the EU, eligible family members receive a residence permit and obtain access to education, employment and to vocational training on the same basis as other non-EU nationals. After a maximum of five years of residence, family members may apply for autonomous status if the family links still exist.

Some restrictions
The right to family reunification is also subject to respect for public order and public security. EU States may also choose to impose other conditions: they may require the non-EU national to have adequate accommodation, sufficient resources and health insurance, and may impose a qualifying period of no more than two years. Family reunification can also be refused for spouses who are under 21 years of age. Moreover, polygamy is not recognised only one spouse can benefit from the right to family reunification. EU states may also ask foreigners to comply with integration measures. Penalties in the event of fraud or marriages of convenience are also foreseen. However, as made clear by the European Court of Justice (Case C-540/03), EU States must apply the Directives rules in a manner consistent with the protection of fundamental rights, notably regarding family life and the principle of the best interests of the child.

A general debate on family reunification


The first report on the implementation of the Directive, issued in October 2008, has shown a low impact, partly due to the degree of discretion given to EU States when setting certain requirements. Both the European Pact on Immigration and Asylum and theStockholm Programme identified family reunification as an issue where EU policies should be further developed, with a particular focus on integration measures. In November 2011, a broad consultation on family reunification has been launched. Based on the results, the European Commission will decide whether any policy follow-up is necessary.

Common rules for admission of students

The EU applies common rules of admission for non-EU nationals who request admission to an EU State for one of the following: studies leading to a higher education qualification (students); to follow a recognised programme of secondary education (pupils); to pursue a training period without remuneration (unremunerated trainees); or to take part in a national or EU volunteer programme. These common rules are laid down in the 2004 Directive on the conditions of admission of non-EU nationals for the purposes of studies, pupil exchange, unremunerated training or voluntary service.

Conditions of admission
The conditions of admission are twofold. The general conditions, common to all four groups of non-EU nationals, include, for instance, a requirement to have health insurance or in the case of a minor parental authorisation. The specific conditions, which apply to individual groups, cover, for instance, the need to prove either the availability of sufficient resources to cover subsistence or, if the EU State so requires, sufficient knowledge of the language. Some of the conditions provided for in the Directive are optional and their imposition is left to the discretion of the EU State.

Residence permit

Once they have met the relevant conditions, the applicants are entitled to a residence permit. The duration of the residence permit and the admissibility of renewal differ depending on the purpose of migration. For instance, a student residence permit shall be issued for a period of no more than one year. For unremunerated trainees it shall correspond to the duration of the placement or a maximum of one year, and it may be renewed once. The rules on duration and renewal are more flexible in the case of students.

Additional entitlements for students


Under certain conditions, students are entitled to travel within the EU in order to follow or complement their studies. This right depends, amongst other conditions, on a students participation in a Union or bilateral exchange programme, or on them having been allowed entry to an EU State as a student for not less than two years. Moreover, non-EU students are entitled

to be employed in the host EU State or to exercise self-employed activity. This enables them to cover part of the study costs. This right may be subject to certain requirements or limitations (including a work permit, limitations on the number of working hours, etc.). However, EU States must allow the students to work at least 10 hours per week.

Procedures
The Directive introduces general rules on procedures for assessing the non-EU nationals applications. It also provides rights should, for instance, an application be rejected or a residence permit withdrawn.