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Creponarea materialelor din bumbac in mediul alcalin

Operatia se aplica tesaturilor din bumbac 100% caracterizate prin legaturi tip panza intre fire.Prin creponare se realizeaza o fixare a tesaturii intr-o anumita forma. Efectul obtinut cu agentii de umflare, cu NaOH concentrat, trebuie sa fie rezistent in timp, la un numar ridicat de spalari.

Principiul creponarii alcaline

Pe tesaturile usoare de bumbac, la sfrsitul pregatirii sau al fluxului complet de finisare (material vopsit sau imprimat) se imprima in directia urzelii dungi de NaOH concentrat. In locurile imprimate cu astfel de solutie, tesaturile se umfla si se contracta iar in spatiile netratate cu solutie alcalina, fortele de contractie diferite realizeaza suprafata creponata.

Tehnologia creponarii alcaline

Efectul de creponare poate fi obtinut pe o masina de imprimare cu o singura culoare si anume: se imprima in dungi in directia urzelii, cu solutie de NaOH concentrat (38 OBe) adus la vascozitatea corespunzatoare cu aglutinant. In compozitia pastei de imprimare se gasesc: hidroxid de sodiu 38OBe sau 441g/l; monagum W 2,5%; solvitase 3% si star Keater WJ 3,5%. Fixarea concentratiei pastei de imprimat se realizeaza cu apa rece. Urmeaza agitarea si fierberea pastei. In locurile fasiilor imprimate cu pasta alcalina, tesatura se contracta din cauza umflarii si firele se apropie intre ele. In locurile neatinse, fortele de contractie onduleaza tesatura formand astfel suprafata creponata. Patrunderea si actiunea NaOH concentrat necesita timp si tesatura imprimata este depozitata 30 minute. Aceasta operatie are loc pe banda de relaxare cu trei nivele. O alt reeta utilizata pentru creponare este: - 440g/l NaOH (soda caustica); - Prisulon CMS10 (Starch ether) - timp de 30-45 min Caracterizare substane folosite : PRISULON CMS 10

Starch ether(flakes) Universal thickener as colour-intensify additive with other thickeners. Versatile use, good stability to alkali. Combined with other thickeners in printing with vat, disperse, acid and direct dyestuffs. applicatiom amount:9.0-10.0% in stock 50.0-60.0g/l in the print paste pH in stock:9.5-11.5 ionic charcater:anionic

Dupa ondularea dorita, NaOH inactiv si aglutinantul se indeparteaza prin spalare in bazine tip haspel urmand apoi clatirea si neutralizarea. Tesatura este purtata prin aceste bazine sub forma netensionata, in forma de funie. Urmeaza o neutralizare care are drept scop indepartarea mediului alcalin de pe material supus operatiei de gofrare. Aceasta operatie se efectueaza pe o masina de spalat in foaie lata cu mai multe cazi. In primele cazi se raalizeaza o spalare cu apa calda 40-50OC, o spalare cu apa rece dupa care neutrlizarea propriuzisa se face in cada a treia cu solutie de 10g/l CH3COOH. Indepartarea CH3COOH de pe material se face in urmatoarea cada prin spalare cu apa rece. Dupa neutralizare urmeaza uscarea pe rame, sub forma de foaie intinsa in latime, cu o conducere de 18% avans in lungime, pentru asigurarea efectului de creponare. Temperatura aerului in camera de uscat este de 120-130OC, iar viteza de deplasare a tesaturii este de 30m/min. [20, pag.328] Utilajul folosit la operatia de creponare este masina de imprimat cu cilindrii gravati.

Etape: 1. Imprimare pe o main de imprimat (cu cilindri gravai sau cu abloane plane); 2. Depozitare 30- 45 minute) 3. Spalare la 40-50 C (sub form de funie) 4. Cltire rece (sub form de funie) 5. Neutralizare cu 10 g/l acid acetic (sub form de foaie lat) 6. Cltire cu ap rece 7. Uscarea pe ram la 120-130C (cu 30 m/minut)
Caracterizarea substanelor folosite Monagum
Monagum is, according to PRO Chemical & Dye, a modified starch gum that is the only thickener for discharge printing with hypochlorite ("chlorine") bleach that stays thick, rather than breaking down and becoming thin quite soon after mixing with the bleach. We do not use it to thicken reactive dyes.

Starch is not used

Starch, a polysaccharide which is used as a thickener in foods, is not used with reactive dyes. This is because the starch will itself react with the dye, resulting in lower color yields; dyed starch may also loosely bind to the fiber, washing out only gradually over the course of many washings and making it appear as though the dyed fabric is not washfast. In theory, starch could be used with acid dyes, but I have never seen this recommended.

Methyl Cellulose

Methyl cellulose is a thickener commonly used for marbling. The water is thickened with methyl cellulose so that it will support fabric paint which is floated on top of it. Methyl cellulose can also be used to make print paste for acid dyes. You might be able to find it in a specialty wallpaper shop under the name of 'cellulose adhesive.'

Guar gum
Guar gum is another thickener that is commonly used (in more purified form) in foods. It is used to thicken the caustic paste used to make devor patterns on mixed fibers. It is not used with fiber reactive dyes such as Procion MX because it reacts with them, competing with the fiber that is being dyed, but it is used to thicken vat dyes and acid dyes. See ProChem's recipe for Colored Discharge Printing using PRO Vat Dyes. Guar gum is superior to alginate in thickening Lanaset dyes.

Print Paste
PRO Chemical & Dye sells two convenient sodium alginate mixtures, PRO Print Paste Mix F and PRO Print Paste Mix SH. Pro Print Paste F (for silk) contains urea, low viscosity alginate and metaphos, while Pro Print Paste SH (for cotton) contains urea, high viscosity alginate and metaphos. (Metaphos is ProChem's name for the water softener, sodium hexametaphosphate). SOLVITOSE FC 100 Solvitase FC100 is a revolutionary starch-based additive for earth moist concrete. SOLVITOSE FC 100 chiefly works as a thickener. A high water-cement ratio can be used without loss of green strength, creating a stable mix and allowing the cement to hydrate completely. The blocks retain their shape and the process is less sensitive towards variations in water content. Because the water volume is less critical, it is much easier to control the manufacturing process. Moreover, since compactibility of the concrete is improved, the product moulds can be removed sooner, and less vibration and tamping are needed. As a result, production speed increases and machinery wear is reduced. 330 grams of SOLVITOSE FC 100 per cubic meter of concrete is sufficient to get excellent results. Special, easy-to-use dosing equipment is available. Thorough testing in real manufacturing situations proves that SOLVITOSE FC 100 lives up to all the promises.

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