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Aircraft Handling and Ramp Supervision


NOV 2011
Austrian Airlines, Ground Handling Training | in cooperation with OGS

Table of Contents
1. Introduction 2. The Austrian Airlines Group 2.1 Corporate Prole 2.2 Fleet 2.2.1 Aircraft Overview 2.2.2 The long haul eet 2.2.3 The short- and middle haul eet 2.3 Destinations 2.4 Delay Codes 2.5 Hub Vienna 2.5.1 Hub Control Center 3. Guidelines and Manuals for OS Ramp Handling and Loadcontrol Staff 3.1 Manuals published by IATA 3.2 Manuals published by OS 3.2.1 Ground Handling Library VIA INTERNET 3.2.2 Overview AHM 4. Summary of normative Organisations 5. Basic Information 5.1 Airplane Parts Denitions and Function 5.2 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) 5.2.1 Time Zones 5.3 Danger Areas in the Vicinity of the Aircraft 5.3.1 Venting Area 5.3.2 Air Intake Area 5.3.3 Exhaust / Blast Area 5.3.4 Propeller Area 5.4 Four Forces of an Airplane 5.5 Phonetic Alphabet 5.6 Runway Designator 6. IATA/ICAO Terms and Denitions 7. Personal Notes 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 10 11 13 14 15 15 15 16 20 23 25 25 27 27 28 28 29 30 30 31 33 33 35 43

1. Introduction
Dear colleagues,
welcome to the Self-study for the Aircraft and Ramp Handling Supervision Course! This booklet is a short introduction for personnel engaged in aircraft handling. It covers topics like > > > > Austrian Airlines Group Corporate prole, AAG eet, Destinations, Hub Vienna Guidelines and Manuals Normative organizations: IATA, ICAO, JAA-T, FAA, SITA, EUROCONTROL Basic information Phonetic Alphabet, Runway Designator, Coordinated Universal Time, Airplane Parts, Denition, Four Forces on an Airplane, Danger Areas IATA/ICAO terms and denitions


Please make sure, that you have enough time to deal with the subject. A good knowledge of the basics laid down in the self study is mandatory for the following Aircraft and Ramp Handling Supervision Course. On the rst day of the ARS you will have to pass an entry test (multiple choice). The pass mark is 75%. If you do not pass the entry test you will not be able to participate in the course. Not all specic information concerning your airport can be provided in the selfstudy. Thus it is your own responsibility to make yourself familiar with the situation at your home base. We wish you a lot of pleasure and success in your job! Aircraft Handling Team Ground Handling Training VIEKST OS

2. The Austrian Airlines Group

The Austrian Airlines Group (AAG) is a competition oriented, Austrian airline ensemble, belonging to the Lufthansa Airlines Group.

2.1 Corporate Prole

The Austrian Airlines Group provides an attractive portfolio of services in the scheduled and charter segments. Top levels of quality and punctuality, an outstanding price-performance ratio, a dense network of connections via the central Vienna hub, individualized fare selection options and the proven Austrian touch are just some of the features used successfully by the Group to distinguish itself from competitor airlines. In line with the Focus East strategy, the main markets of the Austrian Airlines Group are its Central and East European services and connections to the Middle East. Long-haul services to North America and the Far East complete the Groups product range.

2.2 Fleet
The Austrian Airlines Group operates a total of 81 aircraft. The AAG - Austrian, together with its partners Lauda Air and Austrian arrows - serves 130 destinations worldwide. In the year 2010, the Group carried 10,9 million passengers. Aircraft of various types and sizes allow an efcient operation on given segments. Departure and arrival times are coordinated following well-structured banks so as to offer ideal national and international connections at the Vienna hub. The aircraft types Airbus 321 / 320 / 319, Boeing 777 / 767 / 737, Fokker 100 / 70, Dash 8-400Q will bring you to the destination of your choice. The average age of the Austrian Airlines Group eet is in the mid-range compared to other international airlines. For more information about the Austrian Airlines AG please refer to the ofcial home page or the internal home page (password protected).

Detailed information about the eet is published in the Austrian Ground Handling Library index.html and on the AAG lang=de&cc=AT

2.2.1 Aircraft Overview

Design / Livery Number of A/C Aircraft Types Austrian 42 04 06 06 09 07 10 Boeing 777 Boeing 767 Airbus A321 Airbus A320 Airbus A319 Boeing 737 Austrian Arrows 38 15 Fokker 100 09 Fokker 70 14 Dash 8 400 Lauda Air 01 01 Boeing 737

2.2.2 The Long Haul Fleet

B777-200IGW (772)
Boeing B777

Sound of Music Heart of Europe Dream of Freedom Spirit of Austria

307.49C/258M 307.49C/258M 309.49C/260M 309.49C/260M

B767-300ER (763)
Boeing B767

China Salzburger Festspiele Japan India Wiener Sngerknaben Thailand

230.30C/200M 230.30C/200M 225.36C/189M 225.36C/189M 225.36C/189M 240.30C/210M

2.2.3 The Short- and Middle Haul Fleet

A319-112 (319)
Airbus A319

Soa Bucharest Kiev Moscow Baku Sarajevo Tbilisi

138CM 138CM 138CM 138CM 138CM 138CM 138CM

A320-214 (320)
Airbus A320

Osttirol Pyhrn-Eisenwurzen Wienerwald Bregenzer Wald Neusiedlersee Waldviertel Wrthersee Mhlviertel Weinviertel

168CM 168CM 168CM 168CM 168CM 168CM 168CM 168CM 168CM

A321-111 (321)
Airbus A321

Salzkammergut Pinzgau Sdtirol Steirisches Weinland Wachau Wien

200CM 200CM 200CM 200CM 200CM 200CM

B737-800 (738)
OE-LNJ OE-LNK OE-LNP OE-LNQ OE-LNR OE-LNS OE-LNT Wildspitze Freddie Mercury Groglockner Grovenediger Piz Buin Geschriebenstein Gerlitzen 184M 184M 184M 184M 184M 184M 184M

B737-700 (73G)
OE-LNN OE-LNO Dachstein Hochschwab 138CM 138CM

B737-600 (736)
OE-LNM Schneeberg OE-LNL Kahlenberg
Boeing B736, B738

121CM 121CM

F100 (100)
Fokker 100

Riga Vilnius Tirana Skropje Zagreb Yerevan Krakow Minsk Prague Bratslava Timisoara Odessa Krasnodar Dnepropetrovsk Chisinau

100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM 100CM

Fokker 70

Innsbruck Stadt Salzburg Klagenfurt Graz Krems Linz Wels Dornbirn Steyr

80CM 80CM 80CM 80CM 80CM 80CM 80CM 80CM 80CM

DH8-400Q (DH4)
Dash 8-400Q

Krnten Tirol Land Salzburg Steiermark Obersterreich Niedersterreich Budapest Vorarlberg Eisenstadt St.Plten Burgenland Altenrhein Villach Gmunden

76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM 76CM

2.3 Destinations
Short/Medium range:



St. Petersburg

Gothenburg Moscow Copenhagen Vilnius Hamburg London Amsterdam Brussels Dusseldorf Cologne Frankfurt Stuttgart Altenrhein Basel Geneva Lyon Nice Barcelona Zurich Milan Berlin Leipzig Prague Krakow Lviv Dnepropetrovsk Chisinau Iasi Donetsk Rostov Krasnodar Sochi Warsaw Kiev Kharkov Minsk



Sibiu Timisoara Bucharest Belgrade Split Dubrovnik Sarajevo Bologna Varna Sofia Pristina Florence Podgorica Skopje Rome Istanbul Tirana Thessaloniki Athens

Linz Salzburg Graz Innsbruck Klagenfurt Venice Zagreb


Kosice Budapest



Erbil Larnaca Tripoli Tel Aviv Cairo Amman Damascus Bagdad


Long range:

Toronto Washington New York

Astana Beijing Tokyo Delhi Dubai Mumbai Bangkok


Detailed information about the route network is published on the AAG



2.4 Delay Codes

To standardize the expression of delay reasons, IATA has assigned numbers for each delay, the so-called delay codes. These codes are sorted into 12 groups according to the reason of the delay (e.g. Passenger and Baggage, Cargo, Mail, Aircraft and Ramp Handling, Technical and Aircraft Equipment) Some airlines, like AAG, have additional codes to give more precise information about the delay(s). Additional codes are called sub codes and usually expressed by letters added to the numbers. Delay codes have to be used in all departure messages for ights that are operating behind schedule as well as in all delay messages.

Please see AHM VOL.1 / 6.2 for more details about delay codes.


IATA Standard Delay Codes and Austrian Airlines Group Supplements

03 04 06 08 09 11 A B 12 A B C 13 A B C D 14 A B C 15 A B C D E 16 A B C D E F 17 18 A B C D E Delays within 3 minutes after STD Number of necessary Delay Codes more than 2 (station VIE only) No Gate / Stand available due to own Airline Activity Min. Groundtime differences AAG / FWAG (station VIE only) Scheduled Ground Time less than declared Minimum Ground Time Late Check-in / Acceptance after Deadline Late acceptance of Transfer PAX Late acceptance of Local PAX Late Check-in / Congestion in Check-in Area Congestion in spite of all check-in counters open Congestion due to insufficient check-in counters open / Lack of staff Late or no staff for order due to error staff disponent / planning error Check-in Error, Passenger and Baggage Check-in error station staff Double check-in, double seating Check-in with insufficient documents or invalid ticket Error by Hub Control Center Vienna Oversales / Booking Errors Overbooking up & down Austrian Airlines Group Overbooking up & down other airline (code share) Booking Error by Charter Marketing Slow Boarding, Discrepancies and Paging, Missing Checked-in Passenger Without Baggage Boarding error (wrong No. of PAX on board / tickets / B/P) Slow boarding by gate staff (e. g. ticket problems) Checked-in passenger late at gate without baggage Slow Passenger Boarding / Deboarding Lack of staff / late opening of gate Commercial Reasons, Publicity, Passengers Convenience, VIP, Press, Unscheduled Ground Meals, Missing Personal Items Late Pax-boarding due to VIP / HON Late acceptance of PAX for commercial reasons / install. Stretcher (sales request) Late de- / boarding due to disabled passenger Missing personal items, passengers own mistake Illness / death of passenger or unruly passenger Error by wheelchair service Catering Order, Late or Incorrect Order given to Supplier Baggage Processing, Sorting, etc. Excessive hand-luggage / mishandling / DAA Error baggage sorting area / late delivery handling agent Transfer-baggage Baggage Problem due to A/C capacity Rushbag irregularities 44 Spares / Equipment, Lack of Spares, Missing Equipment e.g. Life Vests and / or Life Rafts A Lack of spares B Lack of / breakdown of maintenance equipment C Breakdown IT-Systems 45 AOG Spares to Be Carried to Another Station 46 Aircraft Change for Technical Reasons 47 Standby Aircraft, Lack of Planned Standby Aircraft for Technical Reasons 48 Scheduled Cabin Configuration / Version Adjustments

Passenger and Baggage (11 to 18)

Aircraft Damage (51, 52)

51 Damage During Flight Operations, Bird or Lightning Strike, Turbulence, Heavy or Overweight Landing , Collision during Taxiing A Aircraft change for technical reasons after damage during flight operations, by lightning strike, bird strike or due to overspeed or overweight landing check 52 Damage During Ground Operations A Collision (other than during taxiing), loading / offloading damage, towing by handling agent B Contamination, extreme weather conditions C Aircraft change for technical reasons after damage by handling agent D Aircraft change for technical reasons after damage by third party other than handling agent

EDP/Automated Equipment Failure (55 to 58)

55 A B 56 57 58 A B C D 61 62 A 63 A B C D E F 64 65 A B C 66 A 67 68 A B C 69 71 72 73 75 Departure Control System DCS/LH-GUIDE error Gate reader error / problems Cargo System, Preparation / Documentation Flight Plans Other Systems System of handling agent (MACH or other systems) System of handling agent (BRS) Dataline interrupted System of Austrian Airlines Group Flight Plan, Late Completion or Change or Error of Flight Documentation Operational Requirements, Extra or Last Minute Fuelling, Load Alteration Late Fuel Figures Late Crew Boarding or Departure Procedures other than Connection and Standby (Flight Deck or entire Crew) Entire crew late boarding Entire crew late boarding due to crew bus Only cockpit crew late boarding Only cockpit crew late boarding due to crew bus Missing or wrong deadheaded crew information Error by Crew Control Flight Deck Crew Shortage, Sickness, awaiting Standby, Flight Time Limitations, Crew Meals, etc. Flight Deck Crew Error or Special Request, not within Operational Requirements Delay caused by error of previous flight deck crew Holding / Delaying Pax Boarding by Crew Request for Maintenance not minimum equipment list Late Cabin Crew Boarding or Departure Procedures, other than Connection and Standby Cabin Crew late boarding due to crew bus Cabin Crew Shortage, Sickness, awaiting Standby, Flight Time Limitations, Crew Meals, etc. Cabin Crew Error or Special Request, not within Operational Requirements Wrong head check Re-orders, e. g. catering Delay caused by error of previous cabin crew Captain Request for Extraordinary Security Check

Flight Operations and Crewing (61 to 69)

Cargo only (21 to 26)

21 A B 22 23 24 25 26 Documentation, Errors, etc. Incorrect or late cargo figures given to load control by cargo department Late aircraft document briefcase due to missing cargo document Late Positioning Late Acceptance Inadequate Packing or Incorrect Build-Up of ULDs Oversales / Booking Errors of Cargo / Mail Late Preparation in Warehouse

Mail only (27 to 29)

27 A 28 29 Documentation, Packing, etc. Delays due to mail volume limitations Late Positioning Late Acceptance

Aircraft and Ramp Handling (31 to 39)

Aircraft Documentation Late / Inaccurate, Weight & Balance, General Declaration, PAX Manifest, etc. A Lack of / late / error by handling coordinator / Red Cap / BRS agent B Weight and balance (Loadcontrol / Loadsheet) done by handling agent C Late / wrong documents / information by airline (PAX-manifest, general declaration, curtain version, booking-status) D Repositioning of passengers / deadload for balance reasons E Weight and balance (Loadcontrol / Loadsheet) done by own airline 32 Loading / Unloading, bulky, special, excessive Load, Cabin Load, Lack of Loading Staff, Volume Difficulties A Cabin load; bulky, special load B Lack of / late loaders 33 Loading Equipment, Lack of or Breakdown, e.g. Container / Pallet Loader, Lack of Staff 34 Servicing Equipment, Lack of or Breakdown, Lack of Staff A Lack of or late passenger stairs B Lack of or late passenger bus C Lack of or late airstarter / ground power 35 Aircraft Cleaning A Water / toilet / windows servicing B Cabin cleaning by handling agent C Cleaning done by others D Special or extended cleaning 36 Fuelling / Defuelling, Fuel Supplier Error A Defuelling B Error by, Lack of or late fuel truck ARC (station VIE only) C Error by, Lack of or late fuel truck AAG Skytanking (station VIE only) 37 Catering, Late Delivery or Loading Discrepancies A Lack of handling agent staff B Lack of or breakdown of catering high loader / late delivery by high loader C Late catering delivery / supply by catering company D Wrong or insufficient catering equipment E Last minute catering order by airline 38 ULD, Lack of or Serviceability 39 Technical Equipment, Lack of or Breakdown A Lack of or late Push-back B Lack of de-icing equipment 31

Weather (71 to 77)

Station of Departure Station of Destination En Route or Alternate De-Icing of Aircraft, Removal of Ice and / or Snow, Frost Prevention excluding unserviceability of Equipment 76 Removal of Snow, Ice, Water and / or Sand from Airport 77 Ground Handling Impaired by Adverse Weather Conditions

Airport and Governmental Authorities (81 to 89)

81 82 83 84 85 A B C D E F 86 A B C D E F 87 A B C D E F G 88 89 A 91 92 A B 93 94 95 A B C 96 ATFM due to ATC en-route demand / capacity ATFM due to ATC staff / equipment en-route ATFM due to Restricion at Destination Airport ATFM due to Weather at Destination Mandatory Security Dispositions Congestion at security check Unloading baggage because of missing PAX at gate Congestion at document check due to APIS / APP processing (station VIE only) Error by or Late or Lack of VIAS Security staff (station VIE only) Error by or Late or Lack of VIAS Doccheck staff (station VIE only) Late / slow boarding due to mandatory security dispositions Immigration / Customs / Health Immigration Infrastructure Immigration Lack of staff Customs INAD or insufficient traveldoc passenger Extended check of travel documents / Visa Incoming deboarding pax doc check by authorities Airport Facilities Lack of parking stands Lighting or buildings Baggage sorting system owned by airport authorities / check limitation Airport information system failure if owned by airport authorities Jet bridge inoperative / break down No gate / stand available due to airline activity other than Austrian Airlines Group Lack of / Insufficient counters or workstations Restrictions at Airport of Destination Restrictions at Airport of Departure with or without ATFM Restrictions Start-up and pushback Load Connection, Awaiting Passenger / Cargo / Mail from another Flight Through Check-in Error, Passenger and Baggage Delay caused by error of previous station Delay caused due to insufficient TCI facilities at previous station (station VIE only) Aircraft Rotation, Late Arrival of A/C from another Flight or previous Sector Cabin Crew Rotation, awaiting Cabin Crew from another Flight Crew Rotation, awaiting Crew from another Flight (Flight Deck or entire Crew) Entire crew too late due to rotation Only cockpit crew too late due to rotation Deadheaded crew late due to rotation Operations Control, Rerouting, Diversion, Consolidation, A/C change for Reasons other than Technical

Technical and Aircraft Equipment (41 to 48)

41 Aircraft Defects, Except Due to Outside Causes A Aircraft defects on outstations (no qualified technician on site due to CEC (Crew External Check) concept) 42 Scheduled Maintenance / Late Release A Late release due to shortened ground time (not possible to perform planned work package due to late incoming of A/C / undercut of planned technical ground time) B Aircraft late on ramp due to lack of / late Push-back tractor C Lack of staff 43 Non Scheduled Maintenance, Special Checks and / or Additional Works beyond normal Maintenance Schedule (bird strike, lightning strike, overspeed check, turbulence check, overweight landing check) A Lack of staff B Start up procedure due to APU INOP / maintenance procedure before departure 44 Spares / Equipment, Lack of Spares, Missing Equipment e.g. Life Vests and / or Life Rafts A Lack of spares B Lack of / breakdown of maintenance equipment C Breakdown IT-Systems

Reactionary (91 to 96)

Miscellaneous (97 to 99)

97 Industrial Action within own Airline 98 Industrial Action outside own Airline 99 Not elsewhere specified (use only max 15 min)


2.5 Hub Vienna

na Airport TransferPlan
Gates C31-C42
Transfergate C35-C41
Business Lounge


Gates D21-D29
Business Lounge

Senator Lounge

upstairs Passkontrolle Passport Control


h -Sc


S en





Gates C71-C75
Senator Lounge

Einsteigekarten- und Flugscheinkontrolle Boardingpass & Ticket Control

Gates D31-D37 Gates B24-B42 Gates D61-D70

Austrian Check-in Are

Premium check-in

Austrian Airlines Service Center

Austrian Airlines Lounges

Transit Non-Schengen Bereich Transit Non-Schengen Area

Transit Schengen Bereich Transit Schengen Area

Zoll / Polizei Customs / Police

Vienna International Airport (VIE) is Austrias biggest and busiest airport and additionally the hub of Austrian Airlines. VIE is in operation 24 hours a day and on its 2 runways it can handle a capacity of 60 movements per hour. In 2010 the passenger volume was 19.7 million. Austrian Airlines share reached over 10.0 million passengers. The main markets are Central and East European services and connections to the Middle East. Long-haul services to North America and the Far East complete the product range. The connection time of only 25 minutes requires a well prepared ow of passengers and their baggage. It is the load controllers duty to separate the customers baggage into different priority categories like Hot baggage (transfer bag with connection time of 25 to 60 minutes), Transfer baggage (over 60 minutes transfer time), Priority baggage (local baggage of business class passengers) and Local baggage (non priority local baggage). In addition VIE needs a separation of transfer baggage and local baggage, as they are handled in different baggage sorting areas. In order to enable a smooth transfer of passengers and dead load to connecting ights, all ground operation activities are to be performed during a minimum ground/turn-around time from 25 to 100 minutes, depending on the aircraft type (Dash4 to B777). In addition night curfews at destination airports, slots and crew rest times have to be taken into consideration. Nevertheless the main goal remains: safety rst! Beside the convenience of our passengers, safety and quality, also commercial criteria like fuel saving and environmental protection must be fullled by aircraft handling staff. E.g. Bulk load utilization in wide body aircrafts helps in many ways to save fuel and increase the revenue. These and many more rules and regulations will be instructed during the ARS course.


2.5.1 Hub Control Center

AAG-Positions in the HCC: VIEKSP/ Staff Planning for Check-In and Boarding

VIEKK/DSM Duty Station Manager

DQC/Hub Control Center

CC/Chief of the Day Connex Controller Irregularity Monitorer Flight Monitoring AAG CE/Flight Monitoring Customer Airlines

TDMFDC/ Maintenance Operation Center

VIEOC/ Flight Dispatch Austrian Arrows

External partners in the HCC:

VIE Coordinator (Airport Vienna)

ISS Cleaning

Teams of Station Control with close HCC-cooperation: DQCR / Ramp Service Unit is responsible for > > Direct Ramp Transfers for Short Connection Passengers Incoming assistance on remote positions

DQCS / Ramp Supervision Unit is responsible for > > > Quality Assurance (checking services of the supplier) Supporting the Turnaround-process to save time Station Relief for KK/KO

Contact Phone: +43 - (0)5 - 1766 - 62000 Fax: +43 - (0)5 - 1766 - 69256 SITA: VIEKOOS E-mail: Please see AHM Introduction for all important contacts and phone numbers.


3. Guidelines and Manuals

for OS Ramp Handling and Loadcontrol Staff
3.1 Manuals Published By IATA
> > > IATA Airport Handling Manual (AHM) IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations Manual (DGR) IATA Live Animals Regulations Manual (LAR)

3.2 Manuals Published By OS

> > > > > > Passenger Handling Manual (PHM), (Charter Handling Manual) Aircraft Handling Manual (AHM) Cargo Handling Manual (CHM) Charter Handling Manual Station Management Manual (STM) Quality Assurance Manual (QUAM)

Standard access to all ground handling related manuals published by OS is provided via internet (world wide web) (Austrian Ground Handling Library), where you can also nd a lot of other essential information. Detailed information will be given in the next chapter. CD-ROMs (ground handling manuals, forms and supplies) are issued on a seasonal basis and shall serve as a backup only.


Responsible editor, responsible for distribution: Austrian Airlines AG Ground Operations Ground Handling Policies & Services / OGS Ofce Park 2, P.O. Box 100 A-1300 Vienna Airport - Austria E-Mail:

3.2.1 Ground Handling Library Via Internet

Log in Link:

Fill in USERNAME and PASSWORD for access to the Austrian Ground Handling Library Username and Password are distributed individually. In case of any questions please contact:


Main Topics

Select the desired MAIN TOPIC: GOP, Manuals, Forms & Supplies, OPS Support The ground handling library contains following main topics: GOP GOP current GOP archive Manuals Aircraft Handling Ground Handling Procedure Updates All GOPs published during the last 3 months All GOPs dating back 1 year Ground Handling Procedure Manuals Aircraft Handling Manuals
> AHM Introduction > AHM Vol.1, General Part > AHM Vol.2, Aircraft Guides NON-ULD > AHM Vol.2, Aircraft Guides ULD

Passenger Handling Charter Handling Cargo Handling Station Management Checklists

PHM Passenger Handling Manual Charter Handling Manual

> Facility Seating

CHM Cargo handling Manual STM Station Management Manual Checklists and sheets
> Station Surveillance Check Sheet A > Station Surveillance Check Sheet B > Push Back Assistance & Walkaround Checklist


Other Documentation

> Corporate Security > Local Airport Procedure - LAP > De-/Anti Icing Procedures > Quality Assurance Manual > Station Emergency Response Plans > STAR Lost & Found Policy

CONFIRM VIA WEB the receipt and the implementation of all updates as per actual revision of the respective manual(s). Forms & Supplies General Information about material ordering Aircraft Handling forms Aircraft Safety Passenger and Baggage handling supplies Cargo Forms Miscellaneous OPS Support DOW/DOI data Fleet Declaration Pantry Codes Payload Restrictions Potable Water A319 Hold Versions X-Bag Embargo CRO-Forum Baggage Station Performance Delay Statistics Forms and Supplies for Aircraft, Passenger and Baggage Handling How to order forms and supplies Templates of aircraft handling forms Template of a Ground Incident/Accident/Damage Report Samples of all passenger and baggage handling supplies, templates of passenger handling forms NOTOC, DG occurence report Condential reporting form Operations Support, Special Aircraft Information DOW/DOI tables for the Austrian Airbus, Boeing and Tyrolean eet Fleet declaration for the current utilized eet and its operating congurations. Pantry codes for all Austrian Airlines Group operated scheduled ights Seasonal payload restrictions, aircraft and destination dependant General information about potable water and water uplift data for all Austrian stations Information about the different hold congurations Current X-bag embargos for legs and time periods CRO reports, Infobox and FAQ Monthly and annual baggage performance reports

Monthly and annual performance reports



The NEWSTICKER shows special highlighted subjects derived from the OGS news channel or topics requiring your immediate action and attention

Press the NEWS button and nd all procedure news sorted by publication date, latest on top By clicking more, detailed information can be displayed Icons in the detailed view offer following possibilities: Back back to news overview Recommend forward this page to other e-mail address


3.2.2 Overview AHM

AHM Introduction Scope and Purpose, Validity of contents,Terms and Denitions,References to other Manuals and Computer Systems, Abbreviations List, Phonetic Alphabet (ICAO), Austrian Airlines Group Mission Statement, Structure of AHM Vol.2 / ULD and NonULD, Important Addresses AHM Volume I General Part 1. 2. Ramp Handling: Aircraft Handling, Fuelling, Ramp Safety Loadcontrol: Company Operating Rules, Staff Qualications, Load Control Procedure, Weight and Balance Calculation, Weight Control of Load, Data Communication Loadplanning: General Regulations, Load Conversion Figures, Load Distribution, Loading Instruction/Report, Unit Load Versions Loading: Baggage, ULDs, Bulk Load, Supporting of Load, Loading Accessories, Ballast, Dangerous Goods, Live Animals, Miscellaneous Special Loads, Stowing of Load in the Passenger Cabin, Unloading, Loading Priorities Documentation: Actual Weights, Standard Weights, Loadsheet, Last Minute Changes, Notication to Captain, General Declaration, Loading and Storage of Aircraft Handling Documents, Crew and Crew Seats Messages: Priority Indicator, Delay Codes, Departure Message, Arrival Message, Delay Message, Return to Ramp Message, Diversion Message, Loadmessage, Container/Pallet Distribution Message, ULD Control Message, Crew Composition Message, Estimated Zero Fuel Weight Message, OPUS Request Message, ILOS Miscellaneous: On-Time Performance, Assistance in Flight Planning, Station Organisation






10. Appendix C: Airside Safety Management


AHM Volume II, Aircraft Guides AHM Volume II Non-ULD 12. 19. 20. 27. 28. 29. DH4 F70 F100 B736 B73G B738 AHM Volume II ULD Aircraft 31. 32. 33. 39. 41. A319 A320 A321 B767 B777

The numbering of the subchapters remains the same with all aircraft types. Subchapters will not be shown if not relevant. xx.1 Aircraft Weights and Indices xx.1.1 xx.1.2 xx.1.3 xx.1.4 xx.1.5 xx.2.1 xx.2.2 xx.2.4 xx.2.5 xx.2.7 xx.2.9 xx.2.10 Max Gross Weights Maximum Fuel Tank Capacity Standard Taxi Fuel Dry Operating Weights and Indices Tables for Correction of DOW/DOI

xx.2 Balance Calculation

Trim Sheet - Instructions for Use Center of Gravity Limits Uncontrolled Seating Empty Flight Procedure Entries on the Loadsheet Last Minute Changes List of Balance Tables (Load & Trim Sheets) xx.2.11 Stretcher xx.2.12 Life Rafts xx.3.1 xx.3.2 xx.3.3 xx.3.4 Summary of Cabin Versions Cabin Layout Cabin Cross Section and Dimensions Maximum Number of Passengers and Crew

xx.3 Cabin

xx.4 Compartments

xx.4.1 General xx.4.2 Weight Limits and Volumes xx.4.3 Security Locker/ULD: Locations of xx.4.3 ULD restraint Fittings xx.4.4 Provisions for Securing Load xx.4.5 Compartment Dimensions xx.4.6 Container and Pallet Congurations/ Loading Versions


xx.5 Loading

xx.5.2 Baggage xx.5.3 Compartment Heating and xx.5.3 Ventilation xx.5.4 Container xx.5.5 Dangerous Goods xx.5.6 Ground Stability xx.5.7 Live Animals xx.5.9 Load Planning xx.5.10 Loading Restrictions xx.5.11 Maximum Dimension Tables xx.5.13 Miscellaneous Special Load xx.5.14 Miscellaneous Stowing Regulations xx.5.17 Technical Equipment xx.6.1 Description xx.6.2 Operation xx.7.1 xx.7.1 xx.7.2 xx.7.3 xx.7.4 xx.7.5 xx.7.6 xx.7.7 xx.7.9 xx.7.11 xx.7.13 xx.7.14 xx.7.15 xx.7.17 xx.7.18 xx.8.1 xx.8.2 xx.8.3 xx.8.5 xx.8.6 Arrangement of Ground Handling Equipment De-Icing/Anti-Icing Disinfection of Aircraft Catering Service Engine Starting Fuelling Operations of Cabin Doors/Stairways Operation of Compartment Doors Potable Water Servicing Servicing Panels Servicing Points Toilet Servicing Wheel Chocks External Passenger Stairway Aircraft Dimensions Danger Areas Door Dimensions Door Sill Heights above Ground Level Minimum Turning Radii

xx.6 Loading System xx.7 Aircraft Servicing

xx.8 Aircraft Information

xx.9 Miscellaneous

xx.9.1 Aircraft Handling Forms/Propeller Danger Area/Load & Balance Forms xx.9.2 Ground Heating xx.9.6 Prevention of Damage to the xx.9.6 Engine, the Fuselage and the wing xx.9.7 Prevention of Damage to the xx.9.7 aircraft RH engine xx.9.9 Positioning of Safety Cones xx.9.10 Mobile Crew Rest Compartment


4. Summary of normative Organizations

Organisation STAR ALLIANCE Members Main Objective Cooperation between member airlines; Use synergies to save money, e.g. coordinated schedules, same service standard, common infrastructure, common handling companies 28 members: Adria, Aegean Airlines, Air Founded: 1997 Canada, Air China, Air New Head Quarter: Zealand, ANA, Asiana AirFrankfurt/Main lines, Austrian, Blue1, British (Germany) Midland, Brussels Airlines, Continental, Croatia Airlines, Webpage: Egyptair, Ethiopian Airlines, LOT, Lufthansa, SAS, Singapore Airlines, South African Airways, Spanair, Swiss, TAM, TAP Portugal, Thai, Turkish Airlines, United, US Airways IATA International Air Transport Association Founded: 1945 Head Quarter: Montreal (Canada) Webpage: ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation Founded: 1944 Head Quarter: Montreal (Canada) Webpage: 191 member countries 230 airlines

Set global safety standards that have to be observed by all members and checked in form of IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA); Simplify processes in air trafc, thus reducing costs and enhancing passenger convenience Dene restrictions and privileges of all Contracting States; Develop international Standards and Recommended Practices for the safe operation of aircraft; guidelines for personnel licensing, registration marks, environmental protection, airworthiness of aircraft




Main Objective Develop and implement common safety regulatory standards and procedures for European region; provide training for the aviation community

JAA-T 43 member countries Joint Aviation Authorities - Training Organisation Founded: 1990 Head Quarter: JAA TO Hoofddorp (Netherlands) Webpage: FAA Federal Aviation Administration of the United States of America Founded: 1958 Head Quarter: Washington DC (US) Webpage: Airlines, airports, air transSITA port related organizations, Socit Internationale de Tlcommunication arienne manufacturers, tour operators, computer reservations Founded: 1949 systems Head Quarter: Geneva (Switzerland) Webpage: Eurocontrol Founded: 1963 Head Quarter: Brussels (Belgium) Webpage: 39 member countries mainly in Europe Not applicable

Set safety standards for aircraft manufacturers, operators and maintenance; manage ATC facilities and air navigation aids; research work; promote aviation safety outside US

Provide extensive communication network; develop new technologies for air-toground communications; facilitate and speed up communication processes between all involved in travel industry

Strategic and tactical ow management; controller training; development of safety-proofed technologies and procedures; controller training


5. Basic Information
5.1 Airplane Parts Denitions and Function
Horizontal Stabilizer Control Pitch Vertical Stabilizer Control Yaw

Rudder Change Yaw (side to side) Elevator Change Pitch (up and down)

Aileron Change Roll

Wing Generate Lift Turbine Engine Generate Thrust Cockpit Command and Control Fuselage (Body) Hold Things Together & Carry Payload Slats Change Lift

Flaps Change Lift and Drag

Winglet Decrease Drag Spoiler Change Lift, Drag and Roll

Airplanes are transportation devices which are designed to move people and cargo from one place to another. Airplanes come in many different shapes and sizes depending on the mission of the aircraft. The airplane shown on this page is a turbinepowered airliner which has been chosen as a representative aircraft. For any airplane to y, one must lift the weight of the airplane itself, the fuel, the passengers, and the cargo. The wings generate most of the lift to hold the plane in the air. To generate lift, the airplane must be pushed through the air. The air resists the motion in the form of aerodynamic drag. Modern airliners use winglets on the tips of the wings to reduce drag. The turbine engines, which are located beneath the wings, provide the thrust to overcome drag and push the airplane forward through the air. Smaller, low-speed airplanes use propellers for the propulsion system instead of turbine engines.


To control and maneuver the aircraft, smaller wings are located at the tail of the plane. The tail usually has a xed horizontal piece, called the horizontal stabilizer, and a xed vertical piece, called the vertical stabilizer. The stabilizers job is to provide stability for the aircraft, to keep it ying straight. The vertical stabilizer keeps the nose of the plane from swinging from side to side, which is called yaw. The horizontal stabilizer prevents an up-and-down motion of the nose, which is called pitch. (On the Wright brothers rst aircraft, the horizontal stabilizer was placed in front of the wings. Such a conguration is called a canard after the French word for duck). At the rear of the wings and stabilizers are small moving sections that are attached to the xed sections by hinges. In the gure, these moving sections are colored black. Changing the rear portion of a wing will change the amount of force that the wing produces. The ability to change forces gives us a means of controlling and maneuvering the airplane. The hinged part of the vertical stabilizer is called the rudder; it is used to deect the tail to the left and right as viewed from the front of the fuselage. The hinged part of the horizontal stabilizer is called the elevator; it is used to deect the tail up and down. The outboard hinged part of the wing is called the aileron; it is used to roll the wings from side to side. Most airliners can also be rolled from side to side by using the spoilers. Spoilers are small plates that are used to disrupt the ow over the wing and to change the amount of force by decreasing the lift when the spoiler is deployed. The wings have additional hinged, rear sections near the body that are called aps. Flaps are deployed downward on takeoff and landing to increase the amount of force produced by the wing. On some aircraft, the front part of the wing will also deect. Slats are used at takeoff and landing to produce additional force. The spoilers are also used during landing to slow the plane down and to counteract the aps when the aircraft is on the ground. The next time you y on an airplane, notice how the wing shape changes during takeoff and landing. The fuselage or body of the airplane, holds all the pieces together. The pilots sit in the cockpit at the front of the fuselage. Passengers and cargo are carried in the rear of the fuselage. Some aircraft carry fuel in the fuselage; others carry the fuel in the wings. As mentioned above, the aircraft conguration in the gure was chosen only as an example. Individual aircraft may be congured quite differently from this airliner. The Wright Brothers 1903 Flyer had pusher propellers and the elevators at the front of the aircraft. Fighter aircraft often have the jet engines buried inside the fuselage instead of in pods hung beneath the wings. Many ghter aircraft also combine the horizontal stabilizer and elevator into a single stabilator surface. There are many possible aircraft congurations, but any conguration must provide for the four forces needed for ight.
Based on: Airplane Parts Denitions and Function. 19 MAY 2010. <> by NASA Glenn Research Center. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.


5.2 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)

UTC is a high-precision atomic time standard. It has uniform seconds dened by International Atomic Time, with leap seconds announced at irregular intervals to compensate for the earths slowing rotation and other discrepancies. Leap seconds allow UTC to closely track Universal Time, a time standard based not on the uniform passage of seconds, but on the Earths angular rotation.

5.2.1 Time Zones

Time zones around the world are expressed as positive or negative offsets from UTC. Local time is UTC plus the time zone offset for that location, plus an offset (typically +1) for daylight saving time, if in effect. As the zero-point reference, UTC is also referred to as Zulu time (Z). Following examples give the local time at various locations at 12:00 UTC when daylight saving time is not in effect:

City San Francisco Toronto Stockholm Cape Town Mumbai

State California Ontario

Country United States Canada Sweden South Africa India

Time calculation UTC 8 UTC 5 UTC + 1 UTC + 2 UTC + 5,30

Local time at 12:00UTC 04:00 07:00 13:00 14:00 17:30


5.3 Danger Areas In The Vicinity Of The Aircraft

5.3.1 Venting Area
Fuel vents are openings on the underside of the wingtips which serve to ventilate the fuel tanks. The area around the fuel vents is called venting area. During the ight fuel is used and the space is replaced by air. During fuelling the air is pressed out of the tanks through the vents. Of course it is not pure air that escapes but a mixture of air and fuel vapors. Even after fuelling is nished, this mixture will escape because of the vaporization of fuel. Fuel vapors are heavier than air and sink to the ground. They are very easily ignitable. Around and beyond the wing tips there is an increased re risk! Safety distance around the venting area: 3m radius around fuel vents for kerosenetype fuel


5.3.2 Air Intake Area

This area is in front of running jet engines. The suction of the compressor of a jet engine is ve times bigger than a whirlwind. There is a risk that persons or objects may be sucked into the running engine.

Never go behind the aircrafts nose while engines are running which are positioned at the wings (Airbus, Boeing etc).

Never go behind the wings while engines are running which are positioned at the back of the fuselage (F70, CRJ etc)

Please see AHM VOL.2 / XX.8.2 for details about the extend of the intake area.


5.3.3 Exhaust / Blast Area

The exhaust area is the area behind the aircraft affected by the blast of the running engines. This blast is strong enough to lift or topple even persons and objects! The exhaust gas speed of a B747 with idling engines is as high as 160 km/h and the exhaust gas is also extremely hot. The blast area can be considerably extended as a result of the thrust required under unfavourable conditions (bad condition of the tarmac surface, inclination of tarmac, wind, snow, ice, etc.) Please see AHM VOL.2 / XX.8.2 for more details about normal blast areas.

5.3.4 Propeller Area

As the Propeller Area is the embarking and disembarking area used by the passengers, the propeller area must be guarded. Propeller Area

The propeller area has to be guarded by one of the following methods: > > > reective safety cones/posts with barrier cords hand luggage trolley propeller tie: normal turnaround DH3; DH4 only night stop; The propeller tie is either attached to the main gear or the stair handrail.

Hand luggage trolley and safety cones are to be placed at a distance of at least one metre from the propeller turning area before passengers are disembarking. If none of the above listed securing methods can be accomplished, the propeller danger area must be secured by other suitable means of security (e. g. by the ground personnel, until the hand luggage trolley is in position). Whenever the rear passenger door is used on the DH4, the propeller danger area has to be additionally guarded by reective safety cones.


5.4 Four Forces Of An Airplane

Drag Lift

Thrust Weight

A force may be thought of as a push or pull in a specic direction. A force is a vector quantity so a force has both a magnitude and a direction. When describing forces, we have to specify both the magnitude and the direction. This slide shows the forces that act on an airplane in ight. Weight is a force that is always directed toward the center of the earth. The magnitude of the weight depends on the mass of all the airplane parts, plus the amount of fuel, plus any payload on board (people, baggage, freight, etc.). The weight is distributed throughout the airplane. But we can often think of it as collected and acting through a single point called the center of gravity. In ight, the airplane rotates about the center of gravity. Flying encompasses two major problems; overcoming the weight of an object by some opposing force, and controlling the object in ight. Both of these problems are related to the objects weight and the location of the center of gravity. During a ight, an airplanes weight constantly changes as the aircraft consumes fuel. The distribution of the weight and the center of gravity also changes. So the pilot must constantly adjust the controls to keep the airplane balanced, or trimmed. To overcome the weight force, airplanes generate an opposing force called lift. Lift is generated by the motion of the airplane through the air and is an aerodynamic force. Aero stands for the air, and dynamic denotes motion. Lift is directed perpendicular to the ight direction. The magnitude of the lift depends on several factors including the shape, size, and velocity of the aircraft.

Based on: Four Forces on an Airplane. 28 AUG. 2007. <> by NASA Glenn Research Center. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 14 MAR. 2006.


As with weight, each part of the aircraft contributes to the aircraft lift force. Most of the lift is generated by the wings. Aircraft lift acts through a single point called the center of pressure. The center of pressure is dened just like the center of gravity, but using the pressure distribution around the body instead of the weight distribution. The distribution of lift around the aircraft is important for solving the control problem. Aerodynamic surfaces are used to control the aircraft in roll, pitch, and yaw. As the airplane moves through the air, there is another aerodynamic force present. The air resists the motion of the aircraft and the resistance force is called drag. Drag is directed along and opposed to the ight direction. Like lift, there are many factors that affect the magnitude of the drag force including the shape of the aircraft, the stickiness of the air, and the velocity of the aircraft. Like lift, we collect all of the individual components drags and combine them into a single aircraft drag magnitude. And like lift, drag acts through the aircraft centre of pressure. To overcome drag, airplanes use a propulsion system to generate a force called thrust. The direction of the thrust force depends on how the engines are attached to the aircraft. In the gure shown above, two turbine engines are located under the wings, parallel to the body, with thrust acting along the body centreline. On some aircraft, such as the Harrier, the thrust direction can be varied to help the airplane take off in a very short distance. The magnitude of the thrust depends on many factors associated with the propulsion system including the type of engine, the number of engines, and the throttle setting. For jet engines, it is often confusing to remember that aircraft thrust is a reaction to the hot gas rushing out of the nozzle. The hot gas goes out the back, but the thrust pushes towards the front. Action <--> reaction is explained by Newtons Third Law of Motion. The motion of the airplane through the air depends on the relative strength and direction of the forces shown above. If the forces are balanced, the aircraft cruises at constant velocity. If the forces are unbalanced, the aircraft accelerates in the direction of the largest force. Note that the job of the engine is just to overcome the drag of the airplane, not to lift the airplane. A 1 million pound airliner has 4 engines that produce a grand total of 200,000 of thrust. The wings are doing the lifting, not the engines. In fact, there are some aircraft, called gliders that have no engines at all, but y just ne. Some external source of power has to be applied to initiate the motion necessary for the wings to produce lift. But during ight, the weight is opposed by both lift and drag. Paper airplanes are the most obvious example, but there are many kinds of gliders. Some gliders are piloted and are towed aloft by a powered aircraft, then cut free to glide for long distances before landing. During re-entry and landing, the Space Shuttle is a glider; the rocket engines are used only to loft the Shuttle into space.


5.5 Phonetic Alphabet

The use of a phonetic alphabet should reduce the risk of confusing letters. By using [Delta] and [Bravo] instead of [di] and [bi] the letters can be easily distinguished. The phonetic alphabet for aviation is mainly used in two-way radio communication, where bad signals, noise and foreign accents make communication difcult. It is approved by ICAO, FAA and NATO as the standard for aircraft and radio communication. A B C D E F G H I J K L M Alfa Bravo Charlie Delta Echo Foxtrot Golf Hotel India Juliet Kilo Lima Mike N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whiskey X-Ray Yankee Zulu

5.6 Runway Designator

A runway is a strip of land intended for aircraft take-off and landing.

Center Line

Holding Area Marking

Runaway Designator

The numbers of runways are chosen based on their magnetic heading. The last number is omitted, i.e. if the runways heading is 283 it is named 28.





A runway always has two numbers, depending on the direction of travel. This means that runway 28 (westbound use!) is actually the same strip of land as runway 10 (eastbound use!). Two parallel runways have the additional letter L for left and R for right, depending on the pilots view.





As a result of magnetic variation it might become necessary to change the runway designator.


6. IATA/ICAO Terms and Definitions

Aerodrome (= Airport) Aerodrome control tower Aeronautical information publication (AIP) Air trafc Air trafc control clearance Air trafc control service A dened area on land or water intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft. A unit established to provide air trafc control service to aerodrome trafc A publication issued by or with the authority of a state and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation. All aircraft in ight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome. Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specied by an air trafc control unit. A service provided for the purpose of : > 1. preventing collisions: a/ between aircraft and b/ on the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions > 2. expediting and maintaining an orderly ow of air trafc. A generic term meaning variously, area control centre, approach control ofce and aerodrome control tower. A generic term meaning variously, ight information service, alerting service, air trafc advisory service and air trafc control service. The document entitled Air Waybill/Air Consignment Note made out by or on behalf of the shipper which evidences the contract between the shipper and carrier(s) for carriage of goods over routes of the carrier(s). Planned utilisation layout of aircraft interior space. A platform with a at under-surface, to standard aircraft requirements on which goods are assembled and secured by nets/straps/igloos, and subsequently locked into the aircraft, to achieve rapid loading/unloading on compatible aircraft conveying and restraint systems. As such, it becomes a component of the aircraft loading and restraint system.

Air trafc control unit Air trafc service Air Waybill

Aircraft conguration Aircraft pallet

Aircraft registration A unique alpha/numeric designation for an aircraft. Airway A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor equipped with radio navigation aids.


ALERFA Allowed trafc load

The code word used to designate an alert phase. The load which can be carried on the aircraft on any one sector and is the difference between the allowed weight for take-off and the operating weight. An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or to land at the aerodrome of intended landing (take-off alternate, en-route alternate and destination alternate). Planned alternative en route and destination airport(s) for a ight. The vertical distance of a level measured from mean sea level. A dened area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking or maintenance. A unit established to provide air trafc control service to controlled ights in control areas under its jurisdiction. A numeric expression of the position of the centre of gravity. The end points forward and aft of the range within which the centre of gravity must lie for safe ight. Deadload weight carried to achieve a particular balance condition. Loading piece by piece. A compartment where passenger seats are installed. Persons performing duties on the ight other than in the cockpit. A division of the cabin into zones for the purpose of balance. Any goods carried on an aircraft which are covered by an air waybill. A trafc document listing the details of the cargo to be carried on a ight. The nature of the load. The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below 6,000 m (20,000 ft) covering more than half the sky. (C of G) The C of G of an aircraft, is the point at which its total weight may be considered to act as a concentrated force. Segregation of passengers according to the facilities and services offered.

Alternate aerodrome (ALT)

Alternate Airport Altitude Apron (= Tarmac, Ramp, Parking Area) Area control centre (ACC) Balance condition Balance limits Ballast Bulk Cabin Cabin Crew Cabin section Cargo Cargo manifest Category Ceiling

Centre of gravity Class


Clearance limit Cockpit Cockpit Crew Compartment Containerized aircraft

The point to which an aircraft is granted an air trafc control clearance. That part of an aircraft from which the crew control the aircraft. Persons operating the ight in the cockpit. A space designated within a hold. An aircraft of which the cargo compartments are equipped with a unit load devices conveyance and restraint system, in order to accommodate aircraft containers or pallets. This may be either a wide-body or a narrow-body aircraft. An airspace of dened dimensions within which air trafc control service is provided to IFR ight and to VFR ights in accordance with the airspace classication. A level maintained during a signicant portion of a ight. The ight plan, including changes, if any, brought about by subsequent clearances. Articles or substances which are capable of posing a signicant risk to health, safety or property when transported by air and which are classied as such in the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. Baggage, cargo, mail, ballast and equipment in compartments not included in dry operating weight of the aircraft. A structural oor level. For aircraft having one structural level only, this oor level shall be referred to as the main deck. For aircraft having more than one structural oor level, the different oor levels shall be referred to as lower deck, main deck and upper deck, starting from bottom to top. The airport from which the aircraft last departed, using the same ight number.

Controlled airspace Cruising level Current ight plan Dangerous goods

Deadload Deck

Departure Airport

Destination Airport Ultimate intended terminating airport of a ight. DETRESFA Diplomatic mail Elevation The code word used to designate a distress phase. Governments property carried under special agreements. The vertical distance of a point or a level, on or afxed to the surface of the earth, measured from mean sea level.


En route Endurance (END) Equipment in compartment Estimated elapsed time (EET) Filed ight plan

Equivalent to Through. Movement or point between point of departure and point of destination. The length of time an aircraft can continue ying under given conditions without refuelling. (EIC) Equipment which is carried on the aircraft but which is not manifested and which is not elsewhere included in the weight composition, such as additional ight kit. The estimated time required to proceed from one signicant point to another. The ight plan as led with an ATS unit by the pilot or his designated representative, without any subsequent changes. The operation of an aircraft between two or more points. A unit established to provide ight information service and alerting service. A surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specic pressure datum, 1013 hectopascal (hPa), and is separated from other such surfaces by specic pressure intervals. The alpha-numerical designator of a ight, prexed by a twoletter or three-character designator. Specied information provided to air trafc services units, relative to an intended ight or portion of a ight of an aircraft. A unit load device (ULD), including its load, which is positioned over at least two pallet positions, and is not secured by the pallet locking devices of the ULD restraint system, but is restrained to the aircraft structure by means of tie-down ttings and lashings. Fuelling and de-fuelling, aircraft fuel tank calibration, aircraft fuel ow tests and the draining of aircraft tanks. The integral part of the aircraft where pantry/catering material is stored.

Flight Flight information centre (FIC) Flight level

Flight number Flight plan Floating pallet

Fuelling Galley

General declaration A standard document giving certain details about a ight required for aircraft clearance by government authorities in certain countries. Glide path Heading Hold A descent prole determinate for vertical guidance during a nal approach. The direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft is pointed, usually expressed in degrees from North. A space conned by ceiling, oor, walls and bulkhead, used for carrying load.


Holding point

A specied location, identied by visual or other means, in the vicinity of which the position of an aircraft in ight is maintained in accordance with air trafc control clearance. The symbol used to designate the instrument ight rules. The code word used to designate an uncertainty phase. An expression of moment, i.e. weight x lever arm caused by weight added to the aircraft, in order to establish the C of G. Any item carried in an aircraft other than is included in the basic operation weight. A function to ensure the optimum utilization of the aircraft capacity and distribution of load as dictated by safety and operational requirements. A part of load control. An expression of the C of G of an aircraft after it has been fuelled and/or loaded. Stowing load or ULDs on board the aircraft in accordance with loading instructions. Instructions given by Load Control to the person responsible for the aircraft loading. Signed loading instruction, with any deviations recorded, passed back to Load Control for action as required. A completed loadsheet contains all weight data pertaining to a particular ight, i.e. the weight of the aircraft, crew, pantry, fuel, passengers, baggage, cargo and mail. It also contains where necessary details of the distribution of this load in the aircraft. Where quoted it is assumed that the fastest possible means of sending a message will be used. This refers to SITA, telex or data link. Meteorological report, analysis, forecast, and any other statement relating to existing or expected meteorological conditions. The procedure to be followed if the approach cannot be continued. The arrival or departure of an aircraft. The difference between total weight and the tare weight. A network of webbing afxed to an aircraft within its holds or to an aircraft ULD for the purpose of restraining a load within the hold or in the ULD.

IFR INCERFA Index unit Load Load control

Load planning Loaded index Loading Loading instruction Loading report Loadsheet


Meteorological information Missed approach procedure Movement Net weight Nets



A notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard. The place from where the ight commences. A trafc document listing the names of passengers to be carried on a ight. The weight of passengers, baggage, cargo and mail and includes both revenue and non-revenue items. The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during ight time. An approach, executed by an aircraft, under the direction of a radar controller.

Origin Airport Passenger manifest Payload Pilot-in-command (PIC) (=commander) Radar approach

Radar identication The situation which exists when the radar position of a particular aircraft is seen on a radar display and positively identied by the air trafc controller. Ramp agent Repetitive ight plan (RPL) A person who supervises and co-ordinates on the ramp the tasks of ground handling for an aircraft departure or arrival. A ight plan related to a series of frequently recurring, regularly operated individual ights with identical basic features, submitted by an operator for retention and repetitive use by ATS units. A dened rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft. The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centre line. A subdivision of a non-containerised/palletised compartment, i.e. net section. A load which, owing to its nature or value, requires special attention and treatment during the process of acceptance, storage, transportation, loading and unloading. The act of leaving a supporting surface, including the take-off run and the acts immediately preceding and following the leaving of the surface. The amount of fuel on board less the fuel consumed before the take-off run.

Runway (RWY) Runway visual range (RVR) Section Special load


Take-off fuel


Tare weight

The weight of an empty ULD. It includes all liners and/or ttings, etc. when these are required by the specication or as registered with IATA. Movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power, excluding take-off and landing. A dened path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another, including * aircraft stand taxi lane * apron taxiway * rapid exit taxiway Equivalent to Restrain/Secure/Lash, means the term used to describe the securing of the bulk-load or part thereof to xed restraint points within an aircraft or in a ULD, to conform to restraint and safety requirements. Attachment points for the tie-down equipment to secure load on aircraft and/or ULDs. The point where the nominal glide path intercepts the runway. The activity of the transportation of passengers, baggage, cargo and mail. Trafc which arrives on a ight and continues on another ight of the same airline or other airline within a dened time limit. Trafc which arrives on a ight and continues on the same ight. The amount of fuel planned to be consumed from take-off to the station of rst intended landing. The difference between the allowed trafc load and the payload (total trafc load). ULD. A unit in which deadload is bulk loaded and subsequently loaded as a unit into the aircraft Removing load from an aircraft. The designator used to indicate the aircraft conguration together with the details of the equipment carried. The symbol used to designate the visual ight rules. The term weight is used herein in lieu of the correct technical term mass, in order to conform to standard industry

Taxiing Taxiway (TWY)


Tie-down points Touchdown Trafc Transfer

Transit Trip fuel Underload Unit load device Unloading Version VFR Weight


Impressum Austrian Airlines AG Ground Handling Training in cooperation with OGS Editorial Head Ofce Austrian Airlines AG Ofce Park 2, P.O. Box 100 A-1300 Vienna Airport Copyright Copyright 2011, all rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, recast, reformatted or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any other information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission from the responsible editor. The training manual is an internal publication and shall only be used for the special Aircraft Handling and Ramp Supervision course of AAG-Group.


7. Personal Notes