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Canada in the Post War World Igor Gouaenko believed there was a Russian spy ring in Canada Police

lice did not believe him When his apartment was broken into people noticed The government informed British and US authroities regarding the spies o February 1946, several people were arrested o 8 were found guilty This began the cold war in Canada The cold war was between 2 military superpowers Soviet Union and the USA Both could blow each other up many times over, so they competed for political influence in other countries This was known as the cold war because neither country actually fired on each other USA - Capitalist o Economies based on private enterprise o Individuals invest to create a profit for themselves o You can be rich or poor in this system Free press, freedom of speech Most western countries were like this Soviet Union Communism o Government controlled all media o No other political parties tolerated so no opposition to the government o All citizens are equal Soviets took over many countries in E. Europe and spreat communist rule Communism spreads to China in 1949 The us becomes paranoid about the spread of communism suspected communists were o Persecuted o Fired o Black listing In order to protect America from Soviet attack, Canada and the US established the North American Air Defence Agreement in 1957 With growing tensions world leaders made plans to create an international agency In April 1946 delegates drew up the chatter for the United Nations The UN was given three powers it could use against aggressor nations 1) Condemn the aggressor through speeches and resolutions 2) Use economic sanctions, urging members not to trade with the aggressor 3) Respond militarily by sending in an armed force The body of the UN (security council) is responsible for Peace and Security The council has five permanent members The Big Five Britain, France, US, Russia, and China and ten non-permanent members, each holding a two year term For a decision to pass nine members need to agree

Each of the BIG nations has the power of veto Up to 1955 the veto was used 78 times, 75 of them by USSR Another goal of the UN is to abolish disease and to protect human rights In order to do so organizations such as the World Health Organization and United Nations Childrens Fund have been established Ww2 left kora divided North korea weas a communist state supported by China and USSR South korea was a fragile democracy supported bu the USA In 1950, war broke out as the North tried to invade the South The N made up of Americans and Canadiaans sent troops and naval destroyers to Korea The USA felt threatened to use the Atomic Bomb but it did not come to that A ceasefire was reached in 1953 In 1956 the Egyptian government took over the Suez Canal Israel was frightened as Egypt threatened to ban ships that were going to and from Israel from using the Canal France and Britain were immediate in supporting Israel while the USSR supported Egypt with financial aid and missiles USA, although angry that France, Britain, or Israel did not seek their approval threatened Lester Pearson and the UN tried to work out a solution The UN Emergency Force was sent to the Suez Canal to separate and mediate between rivial armies The force was chosen from countries who were not directly involved and led by a Canadian general As the cold war intensified so did the relationship between Canada and the US In the early 1960s personal relations between PM John Diefenbaker and President JKF were strained In 1959, Cuban rebels under Castro overthrew the pro-US leader in a revolution In 1961, the USA backed an invasion of the Island by a group of anti-Castro Cubans o Also known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion The mission was a failure but the Cubans turned to the USSR for help In October 1962, phptographs were taken of the USSR building missle bases in Cuba JFK announced an air and naval blockade on cuba Soviet leader Khrushchev refused to remove the missiles Soviet Air and Naval forces steamed towards American forces but at the last minute Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missiles in exchange the USA could not invade Cuba The game of Nuclear Chicken was over

Nukes in Canada Libers leader Perason for nuclear wewapons Conservatives Diefenbaker against Business people supported the Liberals because they wanted US investment in Canada The US continued its quest for Capitalism In Vietnam It was very similar to Korea North Vietnam was communist controlled and south was less communist and supported by the US The US figured if south Vietnam fell to communism so would other Asian countries 1965 more US troops were sent to Vietnam and they authorized Operation Rolling Thunder In66 there were 190000 US troops in Vietnam Vietnam was the first war recorded on camera This showed Americans what was happening and it did not sit well with its citizens In 1969, RN took over office and by 1973 all US troops were out of Vietnam In 1968, Trudeau was elected PM One of his goals was to become less dependant on the US This was recognized in 1970 when the Canadian government officially recognized the communist government in China By recognizing the Chinese government it had the potential of China becoming a great trading partner Trudeau also wanted to scale back on their participation in the cold war Between 1970 and 1972 nuclear missiles were removed from Canadian NATO forces in Europe In 1984 the last nuclear warheads were removed from Canadian soil Trudeau wanted to improve living conditions of developing nations While this was occurring the tension between the US and USSR was easing The US and the USSR signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT 1) in 1972 In 1979, the USSR invaded Afghanistan which allowed NATO to launch new missiles Due to the invasion many western countries boycotted the 1980 Olympic Games In 1983 the USSR shoot down a Korean passenger jet In October 1983, US forces invaded Grenada and diffused a pro-soviet government Trudeau wanted US and USSR to show more restraint but they didnt This was the reason why Trudeau resigned In September 1984, Brian Mulroney became the PM Mulroney wanted to become closer to the USA Mulroney wanted as much trade as possible with the US In 1987, he started negotiations that led Canada into the FTA with the USA This agreement removed tariffs on goods crossing the boarder This was controversial because people figured it would lure foreign investment into Canada The FTA was established in 1989 In 1992, the government expanded the free trade zone to include Mexico and made NAFTA

Soviet leader Gorbachev realized that the arms race was too costly and the Soviets could no longer hold on The Cold War was over Gorbachev changed the communist ideals by economic and social reforms trying to help communist countries run more smoothly He also loosened censorship and allowed greater freedom of speech In November of 1989, east Germany border guards who would have earlier shot anyone crossing the Berlin wall, watched people from east and west destroy it The Cold War was over in Europe Chine tried to loosen their communist ideals as well That all changed when Red Army soldiers attacked Tiananmen Square in June 1989 Soldiers and tanks attacked students involved in a democracy movement, killing many In 1991 the Iraqi army invaded Kuwait for the oil The UN responded and sent troops into Kuwait Operation Desert Storm had begun