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INVESTIGATION OF UTILIZING RAINWATER AS ALTERNATE SOURCE OF WATER IN TEJGAON INDUSTRIAL AREA

MAHIR ASEF S.M.MUNTASIR MASUM SOUMITRA PAUL

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AHSANULLAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MAY, 2012

INVESTIGATION OF UTILIZING RAINWATER AS ALTERNATE SOURCE


OF

WATER IN TEJGAON INDUSTRIAL AREA

A Thesis Submitted By

Mahir Asef (08.01.03.003) S.M.Muntasir Masum (08.01.03.029) Soumitra Paul (08.01.03.047)

In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

Under the supervision of Dr. Abdullah Al-Muyeed Associate Professor Department of Civil Engineering

AHSANULLAH UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY May, 2012

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CE 450 Project & Thesis

Approved as to style and content by

Dr. Abdullah Al-Muyeed Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, AUST

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DECLEARATION We hereby declare that the Project work submitted here has been performed by us and this work has not been submitted for any other degree.

Mahir Asef

S.M.Muntasir Masum

Soumitra Paul

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our sincere appreciation and gratitude to our supervisor Dr. Abdullah Al-Muyeed for his unending assistance, valuable suggestion, cooperation and encouragement. The Project could not have been prepared in such a manner without his ultimate advice and direction. We are highly thankful to Dr. Md. Anwarul Mustafa, Head, Department of Civil Engineering for his exemplary character that inspires us throughout the whole track of this thesis work. We are also thankful to Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Dhaka Water Supply & Sewerage Authority (DWASA), Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) and their official web site for their informative documents and data sheet. It saved a lot of time to visit those offices physically. We would also like to express our thankfulness to the official members of ACI Limited and Runner Group of Companies for providing us all the information needed for the survey work. We would also like to appreciate the staff members of Civil Department, Engineering section members, and our co-workers in helping us to complete the research work. Finally, we are grateful to GOD that our research has been completed successfully and within schedule time.

ABSTRACT

In many developing countries, the stress of rapidly growing populations, mismanagement of resources and changing climate has created a burden on already compromised water resources. In Bangladesh, where a significant proportion of the population is without access to improved water source, the urgency for clean available water sources to sustain healthy and productive human and natural populations has become a priority. Rainwater harvesting is a familiar term for Bangladesh. People in areas that lack drinking water, particularly the coastal areas and the rural areas in the country, practice rainwater harvesting. The high annual rainfall in the country makes rainwater harvesting a logical solution for the arsenic contamination of ground water in Bangladesh (Rahman et al, 2003). Most of RWH literature is centered on the potential and implementation of rainwater harvesting systems, however not much focus has been placed on examining the demand satisfaction of these systems. This study investigates the reliability of rooftop rainwater harvesting (RRWH) as a key priority source of water supply for residential and industrial uses. This research work aims to develop a guideline for economical RWH in the urban areas. For this purpose Dhaka city was selected as the model town representing urban areas of Bangladesh. An experiment, carried out on the rooftop of AUST to prove that RWH can easily be adopted for the urban buildings. The experiment was followed by a survey on the industrial areas to justify that not only residential area but also the industrial areas can be considered for RWH. The research project also highlights on the physical and chemical properties of harvested rainwater, which was tasted in laboratory. Analysis

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on cost-benefit, storage capacity of AUST, ACI Limited and Runners Group of Companies are also done in this study. A statistical analysis is also added in this research to correlate different parameters of this research work. In the end different results gained from this research work are represented through GIS, to prove economical effect of rainwater harvesting in the residential and industrial areas of Bangladesh and establish RWH as an alternative source of safe water.

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Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...................................................................................................... v ABSTRACT List of Tables List of Figures ..................................................................................................................... vi ...................................................................................................................... x ..................................................................................................................... xi

List of Abbreviations ............................................................................................................ xiii CHAPTER 1 ...................................................................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 General ...................................................................................................................... 2

1.2 Background of the Study (RWH) .................................................................................... 4 1.3 Rationale of the study ...................................................................................................... 6 1.4 Purpose of the study ........................................................................................................ 7 1.5 Objective of the Study ..................................................................................................... 7 1.6 Hypothesis ...................................................................................................................... 8 1.7 Limitations of the Study .................................................................................................. 8 CHAPTER 2 ...................................................................................................................... 9

LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................... 9 2.1 Rainwater Harvesting .................................................................................................... 10 2.2 RRWH Potential and Reliability ................................................................................... 13 2.3 Adoption of RWH ......................................................................................................... 16 2.3.1 Asia ......................................................................................................................... 16 2.3.2 Other Regions of the World ................................................................................... 17 2.3.3 Bangladesh ............................................................................................................. 19 CHAPTER 3 .................................................................................................................... 22

METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................ 22 3.1 METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................ 23 3.1.1 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE .................................................................. 24 3.1.1.1 Survey ......................................................................................................... 24 3.1.1.1.1 Study Approach ................................................................................. 24 3.1.1.1.2 Condition of Rainfall in Dhaka City .................................................. 28

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3.1.1.1.3 Study Area ......................................................................................... 29 3.1.1.2 Small Scale RWHS ..................................................................................... 30 3.1.1.2.1 Experimentation................................................................................. 30 3.1.1.2.1.1 Equipment ................................................................................ 30 3.1.1.2.1.2 Installation Process.............................................................. 31-33 3.1.1.2.1.3 Cost Measurements .................................................................. 34 3.1.1.2.2 Trials .................................................................................................. 35 3.1.1.2.3 Sample Collection & Storage ............................................................ 36 3.1.1.2.3.1 Sampling Procedure ................................................................. 37 3.1.1.2.3.2 Collection and Storage of Research Project Sample ................ 39 3.1.2 DATA ANALYSIS ................................................................................................ 40 3.1.2.1 Test the quality of sample ........................................................................... 41 3.1.2.2 Compare Sample Data With Standards ....................................................... 42 3.1.2.3 Analysis of Survey Data & Storage Calculation ......................................... 43 3.1.2.3.1 Storage capacity Calculation ............................................................. 44 3.1.2.3.2 Contribution to Groundwater Recharge............................................. 47 3.1.2.3.3 Cost Benefit Analysis ........................................................................ 48 3.1.3 RESULT ................................................................................................................. 51 3.1.3.1 Water Sample Quality ................................................................................. 51 3.1.3.2 Storage Capacity Comparison ..................................................................... 55 3.1.3.3 Statistical Analysis: ..................................................................................... 57 CHAPTER 4 .................................................................................................................... 61

GIS PRESENTATION.......................................................................................................... 61 CHAPTER 5 .................................................................................................................... 66

CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................... 66 5.1 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 67 5.2 MAJOR FINDING of THE STUDY ............................................................................. 68 5.3 FUTURE SCOPE of STUDY ....................................................................................... 69 References APPENDIX .................................................................................................................... 70 ...................................................................................................................... a

Questionnaire ...................................................................................................................... b

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List of Tables
Table 2.1: Coefficient of runoff for common roof types (Kumar, 2004) 14

Table 3.1:

Prediction of population and water demand in Dhaka urban area

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Table 3.2:

Historical data of water supply Cost of equipments

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Table 3.3:

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Table 3.4:

Harvested Sample Quality

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Table 3.5:

University (AUST) Water Sample Quality

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Table 3.6:

Comparison with standard values

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Table 3.7:

Storage Comparison between AUST, ACI limited and

Runners Group of Companies

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Table 3.8:

One-Sample Test

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Table 3.9:

Paired Samples Correlations

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Table 3.10:

Paired Samples Test

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List of Figures
Figure 3.1: Figure 3.2: Showing water demand and supply with growing population Groundwater depletion with time (years) 25 26

Figure 3.3: Figure 3.4:

Monthly average rainfall of Dhaka Study Area (AUST, block-c)

28 29 32 33 36 50 51 52 53 53

Figure 3.5(a): Layout of the project Figure 3.5(b): RWHS on AUST Figure 3.6: Figure 3.7: Figure 3.8: Figure 3.9: Components (a,b) & Layout of the Filter bed (c,d) Comparison of Costs-Benefits Analysis Comparison of pH Comparison of Turbidity (JTU)

Figure 3.10: Comparison of TDS (mg/l) Figure 3.11: Comparison of Iron (mg/l) Figure 3.12: Comparison of between AUST, ACI limited and Runners Group of Companies Figure 3.13: One sample t test Figure 3.14: Paired Sample Correlation

56 59 59

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Figure 3.15: Comparison of Significance (One & Paired Sample) Figure 4.1: Figure 4.2: Rainfall Intensity Summarized Information Comparing the Study Areas

60 63 65

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List of Abbreviations

AUST BPDB BS CARE CWSSP DASCOH

Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology Bangladesh Power Development Board Bangladesh Standard Co-operation for American Relief Everywhere Community Water Supply and Sanitation Project Development Association for Self-reliance Communication and Health

DPHE DRWH DWASA IWM NGO RWH RWHS RRWH UNICEF UNEP WHO WASA

Department of Public Health Engineering Domestic Rainwater Harvesting Dhaka Water Supply & Sewerage Authority Institute of Waste Management Non-governmental organization Rainwater Harvesting Rainwater Harvesting System Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund United Nations Environment Programme World Health Organization Water Supply & Sewerage Authority

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General: Bangladesh is a developing country of South Asia. The development of any country depends largely on, how they use their natural resources. Among natural resources gas, oil, coil, lime are mainly named. But sea, river, forest, snow/rainfall are also important elements of natural resource for any country. But with the increasing demand and excessive use these resources are on the verse of decay. Water is essential to sustain life, and a satisfactory supply must be available to all. But in Bangladesh there has been acute scarcity of safe drinking water for recent years. Because of excessive use of ground water the country is now facing arsenic problem. Discovery of the presence of arsenic in the drinking water in Bangladesh has been a cause of red alert in the public health arena. According to Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation and Water Supply Project out of 4 million tube-wells installed in Bangladesh, 1.2 million have been found contaminated with arsenic

(www.bamwsp.org). What is startling is that the arsenic concentration level in 30-40 percent wells of the affected area is over 500 ppb or 50g/liter (World Bank, 2001). For Bangladesh, it is estimated that 27 to 60% of the population is at risk from arsenic exposure (Smith, Lingas and Rahman, 2000). This is equivalent of 28-50 million people in Bangladesh and most of them live in rural areas.

Rainwater Harvesting and storage do not constitute a new technology. It has been used for domestic, agricultural, runoff control, air-conditioning etc. for a long time in different parts of the world. However, rainwater harvesting is not a common practice in Bangladesh. Only 35.5 percent households have been found to use the rainwater as drinking water source during the raining seasons in coastal areas having high salinity problems (Hussain & Ziauddin, 1989). In the backdrop of arsenic contamination in groundwater of Bangladesh, rainwater has been considered as a potential source of arsenic free water.

1.2 Background of the Study (RWH): Rainwater has been harvested in Bangladesh from time immemorial. Traditional rainwater collection was very simple and was usually done by tying an old saree or a sheet to four posts in the yard and collecting the water in a traditional earthenware pot, a Motka. The introduction of handpumps in the 1970s and the widespread installation of shallow well handpumps through the private sector in the 80s and 90s, brought water close to the home in many areas of Bangladesh. In the coastal belt of Bangladesh groundwater is often saline and so, where deep tube wells that would yield sweet water were not possible, rainwater harvesting was practiced. Several NGOs were active during the Decade and community-wide rainwater harvesting in Dacope upazilla, completed with the assistance of the Bangladesh Agricultural University in 1988, was reported in Waterlines in 1992. In 1994 UNICEF developed an interest in rainwater harvesting and in support of the Department of Public Health Engineering; a pilot activity was undertaken in Chittagong. It was thought that rainwater harvesting would be useful in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and to expand water supply in areas with saline water in the coastal belt. Very few systems were built, mainly due to costs and rainwater harvesting never took off. Rainwater harvesting regain its emphasis in the last years of twentieth century, mainly because of the increasing awareness about the adverse effect of arsenic. In 1998, while looking for alternative solutions for people who were losing their safe water supply due to the contamination of their well with arsenic, WHO argued for

consideration of rainwater as a potential replacement. Initially there was little response, as rainwater was considered not to be adequate all year round, systems would be too expensive, and doubts existed about the water quality. Several meetings were convened with various parties that had once supported rainwater harvesting and slowly interest was developing among the professionals. A Swiss technology transfer agent, SKAT, came to support NGO Forum for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation and indicated the feasibility. WHO and SKAT collected up-to-date information from the Lanka Rainwater Harvesting Forum and an action-research proposal was prepared. By June 2000, NGO Forum received support from SDC to undertake a 3 year project. At the same time, International Development Enterprises, Bangladesh, a NGO focusing on developing affordable technologies, locally, for the poor, at a fair market price, through a private sector supply chain also started a pilot scheme in a community-based water supply project area where it was collaborating with CARE and Development Association for Self-reliance Communication and Health (DASCOH) in what is called the Water Partnership Project. UNICEF and DPHE, through the pilot projects on arsenic mitigation, have also started again to try out rainwater harvesting again and offer it as an option in their projects. WHO supported the pilot activities of the various agencies through regular consultation and technical advice. As it was at least the second time that rain water harvesting was initiated in Bangladesh, it was imperative to do it right this time (Han A. Heijnen, Environmental Health Advisor; whosani@citechco.net).

1.3 Rationale of the study: In Bangladesh rainwater has traditionally been a security in areas where water has been scarce. Islands or coastal areas may have plenty of water, but most of it will be saline and not tasty to drink. In hard water areas or where water contains a lot of iron, people may be more inclined to use rainwater for drinking and cooking purposes. Hilly wet zone areas, as population pressures increase, people are forced to move uphill into areas that remained uninhabited before. Water points will be available only below the level where people live and daily drudgery in collecting water is the consequence. This does not have to be the case as areas with 2 monsoons can very well have an excellent water collection regime, even with small roof surface or storage. Our study mainly highlights the urban areas of Bangladesh especially Dhaka city. Rainwater harvesting can ease water crisis in Dhaka. Rainwater could potentially supply about 15% of citys water requirement. The citys Water & Sewerage Authority (WASA) has the capacity to produce up to 1800 million liters a day, while the demand is in excess of 2000 liters. A study carried out by IWM suggested that around 150000 million liters rainwater could be harvested during the annual monsoon. So the intensity of this research work is to reduce the problem of safe drinking water.

1.4 Purpose of the study: The purpose of the study is to develop a rainwater harvesting system on the rooftop of urban residential and industrial buildings. 1.5 Objective of the Study: The objectives which are highlighted in the study are To study and determine the rainwater harvesting methods of Dhaka city to establish RWHS as an alternate solution of water supply To determine the suitability of harvesting rainwater for drinking and other purpose in the residential and industrial buildings To develop a project to assess the feasibility of incorporating rainwater harvesting from selected roof area of Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology (AUST) and estimate its contribution on the total consumption of the university To meet the ever increasing demand for water, harvest rainwater to recharge the groundwater and enhance the availability of groundwater at specific places and time and thus assure a continuous and reliable access to groundwater To reduce the rate of power consumption for pumping of groundwater and determine the cost-benefit ratio

1.6 Hypothesis: Hypothesis is important for a research. It is a tentative generalization, the validity of which has to be tested. It is made in order to find out the correct and valid explanation of certain phenomena through investigation. Rainwater harvesting in the urban area is becoming popular day by day. In the research it has been conducted to give comprehensive insights about harvesting rainwater procedures on the rooftop of urban area buildings. Based on the research topic a hypothesis has been drawn that will be tested by statistical data got from the study. It is more economical to harvest rainwater than ground water pumping 1.7 Limitations of the Study: There are also some limitations in RWHS and the limitations are Maximum output can be gained in the monsoon only Applicable only for buildings Only urban areas would be taken in consideration

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Rainwater Harvesting Water is essential for all life and used in many different ways, it is also a part of the larger ecosystem in which the reproduction of the bio diversity depends. Fresh water scarcity is not limited to the arid climate regions only, but in areas with good supply the access of safe water is becoming critical problem. Lack of water is caused by low water storage capacity, low infiltration, larger inter annual and annual fluctuations of precipitation (due to monsoonic rains) and high evaporation demand. The capture and utilization of rainwater is an ancient tradition which dates back to similar techniques used in todays Iraq around 5000 years ago. Modern methods usually represent improvements with respect to technical variations (Mbilinyi, 2005). The term rainfall harvesting' is broadly defined as the collection of any form of precipitation from a catchment (Babu and Simon, 2006). Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the process of collecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, land surfaces (steep slopes, road surfaces and rock catchments) using simple components (pots, tanks, cisterns) or more complex methods (underground dams) ( Zhu et al, 2004). RWH can be categorized according the catchment method used as: in-field RWH (IRWH), ex-field (XRWH) and domestic RWH (DRWH). In IRWH, part or all of the target area is used as the catchment area. In XRWH the catchment area is separate from the target area and harvested water is transported through channels to the target area (Kahinda et al, 2007). In DRWH, rainwater is collected on rooftops or other compact surfaces and stored in underground (UGTs) or aboveground tanks (AGTs) for domestic uses and other small-scale activities (Kahinda et al, 2007).

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RWH can also be divided into two major systems: runoff rainwater harvesting and rooftop rainwater harvesting. In the former system, water collected is of a low quality as it follows a similar route as surface water in that area (Kahinda et al, 2007) and thus requires an added effort on treatment of harvested water before domestic use. Studies show that of the two systems, rooftop rainwater harvesting, RRWH, yields harvested waters with contaminants in levels acceptable by international drinking water standards (Kahinda et al, 2007; Zhu et al, 2004) and is thus thought to be a superior option when considering domestic water supply, in particular potable water. Components of a typical RRWH system are the catchment (roof area), down pipe and gutters and storage tank. RWH has become a popular option for obtaining a relatively clean, accessible water supply in many areas with limited water supply. Other than as a direct source of water for human consumption, RWH often serves as an artificial recharge (AR) to groundwater that has been over exploited (Sundaravadivel, 2007). Lowering of the water table due to depletion of groundwater can cause environmental problems like land collapse, loss of vegetation, desertification and soil erosion. In the case of groundwater pollution, such as episodes of arsenic contamination in India (Pandey et al, 2003), rainwater can be used to dilute contaminants within the aquifer (Sundaravadivel, 2007). Using RWH to replenish groundwater is considered the most cost efficient way of storing rainwater (Sundaravadivel, 2007).

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Albeit RWH is an old tradition, scientific interest in the design and improvement of these systems recently expanded after open predictions of global water crisis arose. For this reason, most literature on the topic lightly focuses on past uses and more on the need to implement RWH within government policy. Some studies discuss the use of RWH to supplement water supply for agricultural use during dry seasons in parts of Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic use systems are put in operation in many countries in Africa, Asia (Sundaravadivel, 2007) and even a few areas in Eastern Europe and western United States.

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2.2 RRWH Potential and Reliability Research shows that there is still a considerable amount of untapped rainwater potential in Africa that can be used to supply adequate water to an immense portion of the population (UNEP, 2008). However, before adopting RRWH systems, it is important to verify the RWH potential of the area of interest and conclude whether the conditional parameters produce a satisfactory reliability for water supply. The RRWH potential of any region depends on the amount of rainfall, the surface (rooftop) area used to capture the rainwater and surface runoff coefficient (that is, the proportion of total rainfall that can be captured). The runoff coefficient used depends on the type of material of the roof surface (Table 2.1). The potential rainwater supply of the system is usually deduced by the following equation (Tripathy and Pandey, 2005): S= R x A x Cr (1) where S is the potential rainwater supply in m3, R is the mean annual rainfall in m, A is the catchment area in m2 and Cr is the runoff coefficient. RRWH reliability of a system defines its quality of performance and can be determined through two equations (Liaw and Tsai, 2004): (1) the volumetric reliability, that is, the total actual amount of rainwater supply over demand or

(2) the fraction of time that demand can be met: Re = 1- n/N Where n is the number of time units (days) when demand exceeds storage while N is the total number of time units in the time sequence.

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Table 2.1: Coefficient of runoff for common roof types (Kumar, 2004). Roof Type Galvanized Iron Sheet Asbestos Sheet Tiled Roof Concrete Roof Runoff Coefficient 0.90 0.80 0.75 0.70

In their study, Tripathi and Pandey in the year of 2005 used the equation 1 to calculate the rooftop rainwater potential for Zura village in Kutch district in Gujarat, India. The number of households with different roof areas was used to determine the total rooftop area which was then multiplied by the annual rainfall and runoff coefficient to obtain the amount of water stored collectively from the pucca houses in the village. The researchers then divided the stored water supply by the demand (total population x daily per capita water demand) to determine the amount of time the collected water could be used (without replenishing) by the village. Tripathi and Pandey concluded that the RRWH can be used as a source of domestic water supply for similar water stressed (500 mm of annual rainfall) villages in arid parts of India. In another study done by M. Dinesh Kumar in the year of 2004 in the city of Ahmadabad in a semi-arid part of India, the RWH equation was used to determine the per capita water harvested for 3 different household stocks; independent bungalow, 3story apartment and 10-story apartment. Rooftop areas were dependent on the household stock and the highest, average and lowest precipitation values with once in 6 years probability of occurrence were used to access the feasibility of RWH in low-

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rainfall areas (Kumar, 2004). The study concluded that the physical feasibility of RWH in urban areas with low rainfall is less than desirable. In addition government Subsidies for RWH systems were not recommended for areas characterized with annual rainfall of less than 400 mm. These two studies considered both the regional variation of RWH and its dependence on the social demography of the study area. Several other studies (Kumar, 2007; Pudyastuti, 2006; Thomas, 1998) show that RWH is suitable in areas that receive above 1200 mm of rainfall to solely sustain domestic demand. However, the study on Zura village in India shows that even under low rainfall conditions, the number of households used in harvesting and the population allowed for a satisfactory water supply through rooftop harvesting, perhaps due to large roof areas and storage volume (Kumar, 2007). In addition to storage and demand characteristics, poor roofing

structures, high household density and sparsely distributed houses, typical in many Asian and African countries, are factors that can greatly reduce the practicality of RWH in low rainfall areas.

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2.3 Adoption of RWH As a traditional practice, RWH has gained popularity in the formal settings within the last decade. The practice, that is still used in many tropical islands and semiarid rural areas (Tripathi and Pandey, 2005), has been introduced more efficiently into urban areas and in temperate regions as a way to satisfy higher demand or as a water conservation method. Although literature on this technique is not extensive, current literature does highlight the main geographical regions that play key roles in the development and research of RWH. 2.3.1 Asia RWH has wide spread adoption throughout Asia. India is leading in rainwater capture for domestic use in Asia where some variants of RWH have been used for over 8000 years (Pandey et al, 2003). In 2001, India was approaching the level of water stress with 1,820 cubic meters of annual renewable freshwater per capita which is estimated to decrease to 1,341 cubic meters by 2025 (Tripathi and Pandey, 2005). The Indian government has created subsidies to encourage the adoption of DRWH to harness the rainfall and balance out the declining water table in many parts of the country (Tripathi and Pandey, 2005). RWH is also commonly implemented as a climate change adaptation strategy (Pandey et al, 2003). Sir Lanka has practiced RWH since the 5th Century and even with the introduction of piped systems and boreholes, the RWH option has once again gained popularity this last decade (Ariyananda, 1999). With about 1,250 mm of annual rainfall (Sri Lankas main source of freshwater), harvesting rainwater has been an ideal solution. Over the years, growing population,

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urbanization and deforestation have increased the competition for domestic water supply hence the country has invested in research to improve the RWH technology. The government of Sri Lanka in collaboration with the World Bank established the Community Water Supply and Sanitation Project (CWSSP) that provides water supply and sanitation infrastructure that can be managed by communities (Ariyananda, 1999). Initially the CWSSP provided these communities with water supply through shallow wells, house connections and either hand or motorized pump wells. Rainwater collected was introduced as a solution to the challenge of providing water supply to the uphill settlements (Ariyananda, 1999). 2.3.2 Other Regions of the World Outside of Asia some more developed regions are utilizing RWH to provide partial supply and reduce the high cost of piped water for a variety of activities such as gardening, aquaculture, nurseries, domestic supply, and livestock farming for example (Gould, 1999). Germany is one of the countries investigating the RWH models in urban areas (Gould, 1999). RWH is an economic way of substituting potable piped water with collected rainwater for low quality uses such as flushing toilets and laundry (Herrmann, 1999). Although the utilization of rainwater is a relatively recent focus (within the last 20 years), there has been accelerated use of the technology for private and commercial sectors. The decentralization of water supply has been accepted and in many cases subsidized by city councils as it reduces storm overflow (Herrmann, 1999). There have been efforts by local governments to encourage households to capture rainwater

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for domestic use and divert exceeding amounts to recharge groundwater, however another objective is to control urban flooding and storm water drainage. Several places in the country have received grants and subsidies to facilitate this movement (Gould, 1999). According to Herrmann in 1999, about 100,000 rainwater storage tanks have been provided for rainwater storage purposes allowing for the storage of over 600,000m3 of rainwater. The widespread use of RWH in developed countries such as Australia, USA and New Zealand, is mainly for the purpose of water supply in the rural and drier regions. In semi- arid and arid Australia, rainwater is collected for use in farming and domestic activities and more than one million people rely on rainwater as their solely domestic water supply (Gould, 1999). Large rainwater catchments are utilized in Western Australia to provide water for livestock farms and small settlements (Gould, 1999).

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2.3.3 Bangladesh The recent detection of high level of arsenic concentration in numerous shallow tubewell water mostly across Bangladesh has caused serious problem for supplying safe water for drinking and other domestic uses. It is reported that more than 4000 people are suffering from arsenic-related diseases ranging from melanosis to skin cancer. It has been also reported that about 70 million people are likely to be affected through probable arsenic contamination of shallow tubewells currently serving as water points mainly for drinking and cooking purpose. Efforts to develop remedial solution are still far from making a comprehensive breakthrough. Known arsenic removal methods work fairly well only under strictly controlled conditions, making such use impractical at household level. The fate of affected patients in terms of developing drugs remains even more uncertain. Researchers are, however, unanimously agreed that the known treatment so far is the immediate cessation from the use of arsenic-contaminated water and resumption of the use of arsenic-free water. As arsenic contamination of groundwater becoming widespread, the increasing awareness of people is enticing them to find a remedial measure. They are looking forward to an alternative source that is safe, cost-effective, available and acceptable. It is also evident that though some people recognized rainwater is safe to drink; their mental preparedness is not adequate to adopt it in their life. However, it is necessary to popularize the use of rainwater as an alternative source of drinking and cooking water. Mass awareness building and training programme on the storage procedures are required. When people will know that a scientific and cheap method is within their

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reach and it is for betterment of their health, it will positively change their attitude and practice towards multi-uses of rainwater. Dhaka has a critical water supply problem, one of the worst for a South Asian city. According to a study by the Institute of Water Modeling based in Bangladeshs capital city, its groundwater level is falling by three meters per year. Groundwater has already receded by fifty meters in the past 40 years, bringing the current level to sixty meters below ground. The supply-demand gap is approximately 500m liters per day. The situation is so problematic that in the summer of 2010, the Government of Bangladesh deployed troops to manage water distribution in Dhaka. Since 1963, the population of Dhaka has grown by thirteen times. When Bangladesh gained its independence in 1971, Dhaka faced a growing influx of rural-to-urban migration. The city expanded into the low-lying marshlands at its borders. Historically, most of Dhakas water supply comes from its two rivers, the Buriganga and the Shitalakkhya. But as population has increased and industry has expanded, river water has become contaminated with industrial waste. Today, groundwater is expected to satisfy over 80% of the citys water supply. Infrastructure in Dhaka is not robust enough to sufficiently recharge groundwater. In a recent seminar, international NGO Water Aid and Bangladeshs Institute of Engineers concluded that rainwater harvesting needs to be included in establishing the countrys bylaws. In 2008, it was recommended that 40-50% of building premises should remain unpaved and that half of that area should be under green cover to allow for natural recharge of aquifers. The caveat though is that 65% of Dhaka is already paved and the remaining 35% does not ensure natural recharge of aquifers because top soil in most of these locales consists of clay.

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Rainwater harvesting, low-cost systems that collect and store rainwater for year-round use, offers a cost-effective and practical solution to ease Dhakas water crisis. It is estimated that rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems could supply more than 15% of Dhakas requirements. Since 1997, one thousand RWS have been installed in Bangladesh, mostly in rural areas. The systems capacities vary from 500L to 3,200L, at costs in the range of US$50-150. If RWH is undertaken as a serious investment, it could help conserve groundwater and recharge the water table. About 150 billion liters of rainwater could be harvested during the monsoon season alone. Water can be stored for four to five months without bacterial contamination an important fact given that 110,000 children in Bangladesh die of waterborne illnesses every year. There has been precedence of public-private partnerships working to establish RWH in Bangladesh. In early 2008, Coca-Cola Far East Ltd teamed up with Plan Bangladesh to install RWS in five primary schools in the Mirpur and Borguna Sadar areas of the country to ensure potable drinking water for school students. In 2009, Coca-Cola became involved in a new partnership with UN-Habitat called The Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation Project. It is a two-year project valued at US$300,000. The goal is to impact six thousand families by demonstrating RWH and other water conservation and storage systems. RWH will be set up at twenty schools while drinking water and sanitation systems will be set up at thirty schools. The commissioned RWH recharge capacity is projected to be 3.25m liters per year. So rainwater harvesting is one of the most efficient, available and cheap method for Bangladesh to adopt for solving the acute problem of safe water.

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CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

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3.1 METHODOLOGY: The research project is about introducing a Rainwater Harvesting System for both residential and industrial area to develop an Alternative source of water for consumptive purpose. To achieve the research objectives, the methodology of this research is divided into following parts Data Collection Procedure Data Analysis Result

The whole Methodology of the project can be represented through the Flow chart below -

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3.1.1 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE: The data collection procedure is the collection of work done to collect and store the water sample. Data collection includes survey. Small scale RWHS setup, experimentation, trials and collection and storage of water sample. The steps are briefly described here. 3.1.1.1 Survey: In civil engineering surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. In general language it is the initial visit where the project or experiment will be taken place. The steps followed in the research project are categorized and explained below. 3.1.1.1.1 Study Approach: Bangladesh is categorized as a developing country whose economy is rapidly growing. Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh. All the activities regarding any development is Dhaka centered. As a result for a better and safer living people from all districts are moving towards Dhaka. This makes Dhaka the most densely populated mega city of this world. With the growing population and development of Dhaka city, the demand for water is also increasing. Dhaka WASA is finding it difficult to meet this exponential demand.

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The statistical data showing the relation between population growth, water demand and shortfall of water supply is given below the Table-3.1 and Figure-3.1:

Table 3.1: Prediction of population and water demand in Dhaka urban area Shortfall(mld) with present water supply(2200 mld) 200 850 1486 2219 3085

Year 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

Population (million) 12.27 14.93 18.04 21.63 25.87

Water Demand(mld) 2400 3050 3686 4419 5286

Water Demand and Supply

Figure 3.1: Showing water demand and supply with growing population (Source: Dhaka WASA)

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Currently, with the help of some 546 water-supply pumps, DWASA supplies about 2.2 million cubic meters (MCM) of water a day against city's daily demand of 2.4 MCM. Only 15% of the water is supplied from the two surface water treatment plants at Chadnighat and Syedabad. DWASA is dependent on groundwater for the rest 85% water demand. This is resulting the groundwater to drop by 3 meter every year. According to the Dhaka Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA), the Ground water table was at 11.3m below the surface in the 1970s and at 20m in the 1980s. Dhaka's groundwater table has gone down by 35m in the past 11 years. However, water level has drastically fallen since 1996.

The continuous dropping of groundwater table over the past 14 years is graphically shown in Figure-3.2:

Figure 3.2: Groundwater depletion with time (years) (Source: Dhaka WASA)

26

This is mainly because the estimated mean annual recharge for Dhaka city is 300 350 MCM, which is much less than the annual abstraction of 700 MCM. After every few years the pumps has to be relocated or new deeper installation has to be installed. If this process continues then within few years groundwater depth will not be any more within pumping depth. From the past history with the growing demand for water supply was increased which caused the Deep Tube Well to go from deep to deeper as shown below Table-3.2:

Table 3.2: Historical data of water supply Year Supply ( MLD ) DTW 1963 1970 1980 1990 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2004 2005 (Source: Dhaka WASA) 130 180 300 510 810 870 930 1070 1130 1220 1550 1437 1460 30 47 87 140 216 225 237 277 308 336 394 382 423

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The demand will surely not decrease but due to the shortage of groundwater, supply will surely decrease. One of the major threats to the city due to declining groundwater levels is land subsidence, which can be triggered by earthquakes of greater magnitudes. So, an alternative source of water or a method to recharge groundwater is of utmost importance in Dhaka city for preserving environmental balance along with meeting human demand. 3.1.1.1.2 Condition of Rainfall in Dhaka City Dhaka has a climate. It has a distinct monsoonal season with an average 2075 mm (1953-2009) of rain every year. Nearly 88% of the annual average rainfall of 1,826 millimeters occurs between May and October. Water logging occurs after 2-

3hrs of continuous raining.

Monthly average rainfall of Dhaka

Figure 3.3: Monthly average rainfall of Dhaka

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3.1.1.1.3 Study Area: Our study covers the urban areas of Bangladesh, but to carry out the research work and for setting up RWHS, Tejgaon industrial area of Dhaka city was selected. The RWHS was setup on the rooftop of Block C of Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology. An area about 100 sq ft of the rooftop was used for this purpose.

Figure 3.4: Study Area (AUST, block-c) (Source: AUST)

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3.1.1.2 Small Scale RWHS: A small scale RWHS was setup on the roof top of AUST. The setup of the RWHS, experimentation, trials and sample collection & storage are vital part of the Data Collection Procedure 3.1.1.2.1 Experimentation: The experimentation process includes setting up of RWHS, installation process and cost measurements. 3.1.1.2.1.1 Equipment: Equipments needed to complete the research work are enlisted below Gutter: GI sheet made gutter. Dimension of 8ft * 3ft Bricks: For inclination and support to the gutter The First Flush Device: To drain the first fault water. It consists of 6in pvc pipe along with GI elbow and screw cap at the end Filtration Drum: Plastic made,15 inch in diameter,15 inch in height Filtration Bed: Consists of four layer,5 cm well graded gravel,5 cm well graded brick chips,12.5 cm sand, 12.5 cm well graded gravel Water Storage Drum: Plastic made, Capacity of 30 gallon, dia of 18in,height of 24 inch Steel Frame: Steel made, 24 in square, height of 49 in Outlet Key: 1in Distribution Pipe: 1in

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Aggregate: Sand and Gravels Cement: white cement; to keep the whole structure stable

This equipments may vary with the type of RWHS setup. 3.1.1.2.1.2 Installation Process The whole project work was done in the month of May and June. Because the monsoon starts in Bangladesh in the month of May, and generally lasts till September. The installation process are described below Rooftop Water Tank of the university was used to install the GI sheet made gutter The GI sheet made gutter was used as the catchment area At first the gutter was placed on the top of the water tank. In order to drain the rain water through the gutter, two brick made walls were used. A slope of 1/6 was maintained between the walls. The gutter was tied with the brick walls to give stability Rainwater drains through the first flush device to the collection Pipe The collection pipe opened to the filtration drum Filtration drum was placed on top of the main storage tank with the help of the extended frame. In order to prevent the filtered water becoming polluted a plastic paper was used as a shade from the bottom of the filtration bed to the top of the storage tank. The filtered water can directly enter the storage tank. A outlet key was placed, 3 in up from the bottom of the storage tank to collect water

31

The layout of the RWHS is given below

Brick wall

Steel sheet

Pipe

Filter bed Storage Drum Supportive Steel Frame

Isometric view

Top view

Front view

Figure 3.5(a): Layout of the project

32

Figure 3.5(b): RWHS on AUST


33

3.1.1.2.1.3 Cost Measurements The total cost estimation of the RWHS is given below. The costs may vary with the market price. The project cost nearly 7000 BDT.

Table 3.3: Cost of equipments Item Gutter Storage drum Filtration drum Steel Frame 6in dia pipe 1in ball bulb Outlet key Fast flush device Cement Other cost TOTAL COST Price in BDT 600 650 450 3000 70tk/ft 350 100 400 150 1000 7000

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3.1.1.2.2 Trials: Based on the quality, water is termed into two types Portable water : Physically, chemically, and bacteriologically acceptable Palatable water: Free from turbidity, color, taste, odor, and moderate temperature. In a sense it has to be physically acceptable. Now to ensure these quality in the harvested water, the filter bed which was installed initially was given trial as if it can provide physically accepted water or not Trials on Filtration Bed To ensure that the harvested water from rain is safe for drinking, filtration bed was installed. Two trials were given too. 1st trial: In the initial or 1st trial (Figure-c) of filtration bed some problems were detected. Turbidity was found because of the presence of sand in the water sample. Again the color of the sample was not clear. To solve those problems, 2nd trial was given. 2nd trial: In the 2nd trial (Figure-d), course sand was used in the place of fine sand to solve the turbidity (sand) problem. A pair of thin net was also introduced in the lowest layer upon the opening of the filter bed. Also well graded layers of stone chips & brick chips were used instead of gap graded & uniform graded layers in 1st trial.

35

In Figure 3.6 different elements of the filter bed and the layout are given-

(a)

(b)

Gravel Brick chips

Well Grade Gravel Well Grade Brick chips

Fine sand

Course sand

Gravel

Well Grade Gravel

Filter Bed (1st Trial)

Filter Bed (2nd trial)

(c) Figure 3.6: Components (a,b) & layout of Filter bed (c,d)

(d)

36

3.1.1.2.3 Sample Collection & Storage: There are procedure which must be followed while collecting and storing water sample. In this research the procedures proposed by Minnesota Pollution Control Agency are followed.

3.1.1.2.3.1 Sampling Procedure Sample Holding/Travel Time Samples must be collected as soon as possible. For water samples, the time from sample collection to initiation of analysis should be no longer than 24 hours. If time exceeds 30 hours, results for total and faecal coliform analyses are invalid due to bacterial stress and die-off. Sample Containers Water samples for microbiological examination should be collected in sterilizable, non- reactive, glass (borosilicate) or plastic bottles. Pre-sterilized plastic bags with or without DE chlorinating agent, available commercially, may be used. (*Plastic bottles reduce the possibility of breakage during sample transit.)Bottles should be carefully washed and rinsed, with a final distilled or deionized water rinse.

37

Potable Water Samples taken from tap Taps used for sampling must be free of aerators, strainers, hose attachments, mixing type faucets and purification devices. Avoid leaky taps. Always take sample from cold water tap. Flush tap by running water (to waste) for 2-3 minutes; this will allow for adequate flushing of the pipe between water main and tap. If tap appears to be dirty, clean with a sodium hypochlorite solution , then allow water to run for an additional 2 to 3 minutes to rinse Aseptic Sampling Procedure Wash hands prior to sampling. Remove lid of sample container with one hand. While holding lid with one hand, fill bottle with other hand.

Some important points on which emphasis should be given are Do not adjust water line or water flow rate before taking sample. Do not rinse bottle prior to sampling. Be careful not to touch sides or inside lid of bottle to anything. These measures will prevent sample from becoming contaminated. Do not overfill sample container. Make sure there is approximately 1 inch of air space at top of container to allow for adequate shaking prior to analysis.

38

Immediately replace lid tightly. If there is any question as to whether or not a sample has become contaminated, discard and resample.

Samples should be placed on ice/ice packs during transit to laboratory to maintain temperature below 10C.

3.1.1.2.3.2 Collection and Storage of Research Project Sample The RWHS was completed at the month of July. The rainfall occurred at 23rd of July and the sample was collected at the morning of 24th July maintaining all above mentioned procedures. The sample was stored in the freezer at 5C for two days. An amount of one liter sample water was collected for testing.

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3.1.2 DATA ANALYSIS: Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains. Data analysis is a body of methods that help to describe facts, detect patterns, develop explanations, and test hypotheses. In this thesis Data analysis is done in three steps Test the quality of sample Compare sample with standards Analysis of surveyed data

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3.1.2.1 Test the quality of sample: To ensure the quality of the harvested water, some tests were run on the collected sample water. The experiments were done in the universitys Environmental Lab. The results are enlisted in the table below

Table 3.4: Harvested Sample Quality


Name of the test Experimente d Value pH Turbidity 0.055 JTU Co2 5 mg/ l TDS 300 mg/l Iron 0.11 mg/ l Free Chloride 1.77 mg/l Conductivity 24.3 mg/l Dionizer 0.26 mg/l Redox potential 288 mg/l

7.2

In addition to our research work, the water of the university (AUST), was also tested. The university uses ground water for all purposes. The test results are -

Table 3.5: University (AUST) Water Sample Quality Name of the tests Experimented value pH Turbidity 0.044 JTU (.85 JTU) CO2 Iron 0.13 mg/l Conductivity Dionizer 0.18 mg/l Redox potential 217 mg/l

6.77

37 mg/l

88.5 mg/l

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3.1.2.2 Compare Sample Data With Standards: The primary purpose of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality is the protection of public health. The Guidelines are intended to support the development and implementation of risk management strategies that will ensure the safety of drinking-water supplies through the control of hazardous constituents of water. These strategies may include national or regional standards developed from the scientific basis provided in the Guidelines. World Health Organization (WHO) generally sets a limit of standard values of different elements of drinking water. In developing national drinking-water standards based on these Guidelines, it will be necessary to take account of a variety of environmental, social, cultural, economic, dietary and other conditions affecting potential exposure. This may lead to national standards that differ appreciably from these Guidelines. A programme based on modest but realistic goals including fewer water quality parameters of priority health concern at attainable levels consistent with providing a reasonable degree of public health protection in terms of reduction of disease or reduced risk of disease within the population may achieve more than an overambitious one, especially if targets are upgraded periodically. Like many other countries Bangladesh also has standards for drinking water too.

42

The comparison between the BS (Bangladesh Standard) and harvested water sample and university water sample are enlisted below: Table 3.6: Comparison with standard values Bangladesh Standard 6.5-8.5 10 JTU Experimented value (Harvested Rainwater) 7.2 .055 JTU (1.04 FTU) 5 mg/l 1000 mg/l 0.3-1 mg/l 300 mg/l 0.11 mg/l 1.77 mg/l 24.3 mg/l 0.26 mg/l 288 mg/l Experimented Value (University water) 6.77 0.044 JTU (0.85 FTU) 37 mg/l 278 mg 0.13 mg/l 1.68 mg/l 88.5 mg/l 0.18 mg/l 217 mg/l

Name of the Test pH Turbidity CO2 TDS Iron Free Chlorine Conductivity D-ionizer Redox potential

3.1.2.3 Analysis of Survey Data & Storage Calculation For gathering further information on the thesis topics, a survey work was also performed. The survey was carried out in two companies 1) ACI Limited 2) Runner Group of Companies The data collected from the survey were used to calculate the storage capacity of those companies and also to Cost-Benefit analysis. The university was also considered for this calculation.

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3.1.2.3.1 Storage capacity Calculation To know the amount of water that can be saved through RWHS is impotent. The efficiency of the RWHS is also calculated through the storage capacity. The total storage capacity of AUST, ACI Limited and Runner Group of Companies are given below AUST Total boundary area Total rooftop area Total free rooftop area The volume of the underground reservoir = 400,000 sq ft = 32,530.5 sq ft = 12,500 sq ft = 15000 cu ft

Considering 1/3 of the reservoir water is used daily in AUST for all consumptive purpose, Total daily water consumption of AUST = 37,402gallon (US)

Consumption of AUST during the five month of monsoon = (37402*30*5) = 5,610,300 gallon Total precipitation in Dhaka city, During the monsoon (May- September) = 5016 mm (Source: http://www.bmd.gov.bd) So, the volume of rainfall = 1748 cu meter

Now, Considering 30% of the rooftop can be used for rainwater harvesting, The amount of water that can be harvested = 461773 US gallon

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Using Runoff coefficient table, Amount of harvested water

= 461773 * 0.8 = 369418.4 gallon

So the percent of water that can be saved

= (369418.4 /5,610,300)*100 = 6.5 % So, using only 30% of the free rooftop area of AUST, an amount of 6.5% ground water can be saved. ACI Limited Total Area Total rooftop area Free rooftop area = 10,200 sq ft = 6000 sq ft = 6000 sq ft

Considering 30% of the rooftop can be used for RWHS, Harvested area Total precipitation in Dhaka city, During the monsoon (May- September) = 1800 sq ft

= 5016 mm

So, the volume of rainfall using 1800 sq ft of rooftop = 839 cu meter = 221640 gallon Using Runoff coefficient table, Amount of harvested water

= 221640 * 0.8 =177312 gallon

From the survey, daily consumption for all purpose = 2324 gal Total consumption in the monsoon = 2324*5*30 = 348,600 gallon

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The percent of water saved

= (177312/348600)*100 = 50 % So, using only 30% of the free rooftop area of ACI Limited, an amount of 50% ground water can be saved. Runner Group of Companies Total Area Total rooftop area Free rooftop area = 9000 sq ft = 9000 sq ft = 7000 sq ft

Considering 30% of the rooftop can be used for RWHS, Harvested area Total precipitation in Dhaka city, During the monsoon (May- September) = 2100 sq ft

= 5016 mm

So, the volume of rainfall using 2100 sq ft of rooftop = 979 cu meter = 258625 gallon Using Runoff coefficient table, Amount of harvested water = 109103 * 0.8 = 206900 gallon From the survey, daily consumption for all purpose = 1500 gal Total consumption in the monsoon = 1500*5*30 = 225000 gallon

The percent of water saved

= 206900/225000 = 92% So, using only 30% of the free rooftop area of Runner Group of Companies, an amount of 92% ground water can be saved.

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3.1.2.3.2 Contribution to Groundwater Recharge If the system can be used for ground water recharge then a significant amount of water can be recharged. Total area of Dhaka City = 1528 km2

(Source: www.rrcap.unep.org/reports/soe/dhaka.../2-1dhaka-Introduction.pdf) Total population of Dhaka City Total Annual Rainwater = 20 million = Annual rainfall x Area = 2.1 m x 1528 x 106 = 3208.8 x 106 m3/yr

Assuming 25% of the total rainwater is used in recharging groundwater. Total water recharge naturally = 0.25 x 3208.8 x 106 = 802.2 x 106 m3/yr

Considering 65% of the area of the Dhaka City is covered by concrete as a continuous roof. = .35 x 802.2 x 106 = 280.77 x 106 m3/yr = 769,232 liter/day If half of the covered area can be used for the rain water harvesting and 50% of the rain water can be recharged, Actual water recharge in Dhaka Additional ground water recharge = 769.23 x 106 x 0.65 x 0.5 x .5 x 0.85 = 106.25 x 106 m3/yr = 291,100 liter/day

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3.1.2.3.3 Cost Benefit Analysis A cost benefit analysis is done to determine how well, or how poorly, a planned action will turn out. Although a cost benefit analysis can be used for almost anything, it is most commonly done on financial questions. The cost for water in the monsoon for AUST, ACI Limited and Runners Group of Companies are analyzed in this part Price of water = 6.34 taka per 1000 liter (Source: www.theindependentbd.com/paper-edition/front-page) ACI Limited Demand of water during the monsoon

= 348,600 gallon = 1319594 liter = (1319594/1000)* 6.34 = 8366 tk

So, the total cost

As rainwater can serve 50% of the demand The savings will be = (8366*50)/100 = 4183 taka

Again, one 10 horse power water pump runs 8 hour per day for lifting water from the ground and to load the overhead water tanks. Per unit cost in the industrial area (Source: BPDB) So cost for raising water in the monsoon As rainwater can serve 50% of the demand So, the savings will be = {(71616*50)/100} = 35818 tk = 35818+4183 = 40000 tk = 8 tk

= (10*8)*0.746*8*5*30 = 71616 tk

Now the total savings

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Runners Group of Companies Demand of water during the monsoon

= 198150 gallon = 750079 liter = (750079/1000)* 6.34 = 4755 tk

So, the total cost

As rainwater can serve 55% of the demand, The savings will be

= (4755*92)/100 = 4375 taka

Again, from the survey it is found that monthly cost for water = 30000 tk As rainwater can serve 55% of the demand water So, the savings will be Now the total saving = {(30000*92)/100}*5 = 138000 tk = 138000+4375 = 142375 tk

AUST AUST only uses ground water for all types of consumptive purposes. Three 9 horse power water pumps run 2 hours per day. 2 of them are used to lift water from the ground to the main reservoir. And the rest is used to load the overhead water tank from main reservoir. So cost for raising water in the monsoon (Source: AUST) As rainwater can serve 3% of the demand water So, the savings will be = {(48340*6.5)/100}*5 = 15710 tk = ((9*3)*2)*0.746*8*5*30 = 48340 tk

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Costs-Benefits Analysis
AUST ACI Limited 154755 142375 Runners Group of Companies

75800 48340 15710 40000

Expances during the monsoon (tk)

Savings during the monsoon (tk)

Figure 3.7: Comparison of Costs-Benefits Analysis

In the research project the adoption of RWHS largely depends on the cost-benefit of the total system. Analysis shows that RWHS is more economical during the monsoon than of ground water pumping.

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3.1.3 RESULT The results section is organized to show how the dates are tested; comment on the research question or hypothesis should also be presented. If the harvested rainwater is safe for drinking purpose or not, does it meets the Bangladesh Standard water quality, if it is cost beneficial or not these topics are discussed here. 3.1.3.1 Water Sample Quality The water quality of the harvested rainwater was tested in the Environmental Laboratory of AUST. The report collected from the laboratory is arranged in table 3.6. The comparison of the parameters with BS guideline, whether harvested water is acceptable as drinking purpose or not are discussed below. pH In general, water with a pH < 7 is considered acidic and with a pH > 7 is considered basic. The normal range for pH in surface water systems is 6.5 to 8.5 and for groundwater systems 6 to 8.5. Alkalinity is a measure, of the capacity of the water to resist a change in pH that would tend to make the water more acidic. From the laboratory test, pH value of the harvested water was found 7.2, which is well inside the BS. On the other hand the university water pH was found to be 6.77, which is very slightly acidic. So in the case of pH, the harvested water quality is ok. pH
Experimented value (Harvested Rainwater) Experimented Value (University water) Bangladesh Standard

7.2

7.5

6.77

Figure 3.8: Comparison of pH


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Turbidity Turbidity is the suspended matter which can be removed from water through filtration. On the other hand, is a measure of the amount of light scattered and absorbed by water because of the suspended matter in the water. Turbidity is the lack of clarity or brilliance in water. Water may have a great deal of color, and still be clear and without suspended matter. BS for turbidity is 10 JTU. The harvested water was found 0.055 JTU from the test. The value is found to be 0.044 JTU from the university water. So the harvested water is acceptable in the turbidity standards.

Turbidity (JTU)
Bangladesh Standard Experimented value (Harvested Rainwater) Experimented Value (University water)

10 0.055 0.044

Figure 3.9 Comparison of Turbidity (JTU)

52

TDS TDS is defined as the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid that are present in a molecular, ionized or micro-granular suspended form. According to the Bangladesh standard guide line total dissolved solid in water must be <1000. From the experiment harvested water TDS value was found 300 mg/l. So the TDS of the sample water is acceptable. TDS (mg/l)
Experimented value (Harvested Rainwater) Experimented Value (University water) Bangladesh Standard

1000 300 278

Figure 3.10: Comparison of TDS (mg/l) Iron According to the Bangladesh standard iron in the water sample ranges between 0.3-1 mg/l. The amount of Iron found in the sample water was 0.11 mg/l, which is slight low than the BS. So it can be said alright because in the university water it has been found 0.13 mg/l. Iron (mg/l)
Experimented value (Harvested Rainwater) Experimented Value (University water) Bangladesh Standard

0.65 0.11 0.13

Figure 3.11: Comparison of Iron (mg/l)

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Other Properties Some other properties of water were also examined. The properties are- CO2, Free Chlorine, Conductivity, D-ionizer and Redox potential. As Bangladesh Standard does not provide too much importance in these properties for drinking water, so there is no such strict limit for these properties. But these properties were found to be in the close range to the university water.

Comment The harvested rainwater properties were found acceptable for drinking and other purpose from the view of pH, Turbidity, TDS and Iron. The color of the sample water was also found acceptable. But only these properties are not enough to say that it is safe for drinking purpose. For other purpose it can be accepted. Some important properties such as Fecal Coliform, Hardness, Sulphate, Carbonate, Nitrate were failed to be tested because of the limitation of facilities in the laboratory. So without running these tests the harvested water cannot be used for drinking purpose.

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3.1.3.2 Storage Capacity Comparison In rainwater harvesting, calculation of supply and demand of water is very important. Storage is the difference between actual supply of fresh water and the demand. The amount of water that can be saved through harvesting are enlisted in Table 3.7

Table 3.7: Storage Comparison between AUST, ACI limited and Runners Group of Companies

AUST Total boundary area Total rooftop area Total free rooftop area Total daily water consumption Consumption during the five month of monsoon Considering 30% of the rooftop the amount of water that can be harvested Total Savings 6.5% 369418.4 gallon 400,000 sq ft 32,530.5 sq ft 12,500 sq ft 37,402gallon (US) 5,610,300 gallon

ACI Limited 10,200 sq ft 6000 sq ft 6000 sq ft 2324 gal 348,600 gallon 177312 gallon 50%

Runner Group of Companies 9000 sqft 9000 sq ft 7000 sq ft 1321 gal 198150 gallon

206900 gallon

92%

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Comparison of between AUST, ACI limited and Runners Group of Companies


AUST 9000 10,200 9000 6000 6000 400,000 32,530.50 12,500 369418.4 50 6.5
Total boundary area (sq. ft) Total rooftop area (sq. ft) Total free rooftop area ( sq ft) Total daily water consumption (gallon (US)) Consumption Considering Total Savings during the 30% of the (percentage) five month of rooftop the monsoon amount of ( gallon) water that can be harvested ( gallon)

ACI Limited

Runner Group of Companies 1321 2324 198150 348,600 206900 92 177312

7000

37,402

5,610,300

Figure 3.12: Comparison of between AUST, ACI limited and Runners Group of Companies

Comment In the research, for calculating storage capacity only 30% of the free rooftop of the buildings was considered. From table 3.7 it can be said that in the months of monsoon AUST, ACI Limited and Runners group of Companies can save up to 6.5%, 50% and 92% respectively. In this case it should be mentioned that the data used for calculation were collected from a survey carried out to those places.

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3.1.3.3 Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis means collection, examination, summarization, manipulation, and interpretation of quantitative data to discover its underlying causes patterns, relationships, and trends. Statistical analysis refers to a collection of methods used to process large amounts of data and report overall trends. Statistical analysis is particularly useful when dealing with noisy data. In the research work the samples of harvested rainwater and the water used in AUST are compared with the Bangladesh Standard. Statistical analysis is performed to correlate between the sample properties. The samples were analyzed through one sample t test and pair sample t test. The results gained through the analysis may not be too much significant because only two samples were used to run these tests.

Table 3.8: One-Sample Test Test Value = 0 Sample t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference

Bangladesh Standard

1.026

.380

254.8750

University (AUST) Water Sample Quality

1.642

.152

49.9462857

Harvested Sample Quality

1.639

.140

69.6327778

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Table 3.9: Paired Samples Correlations Sample N Correlatio n Sig.

Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3

Bangladesh Standard & University (AUST) Water Sample Quality

.349

.773

Bangladesh Standard & Harvested Sample Quality

1.000

.000

University (AUST) Water Sample Quality & Harvested Sample Quality

.943

.001

Table 3.10: Paired Samples Test Sample Sig. (2-tailed)

Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3

Bangladesh Standard - University (AUST) Water Sample Quality

.285

Bangladesh Standard - Harvested Sample Quality

.382

University (AUST) Water Sample Quality - Harvested Sample Quality

.828

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Comment: From the statistical analysis some decisions can be made, which areIn Table 3.8 where significances are found from one sample t test, it can be seen that the significances have decreased. It means singular data cannot represent much significance all alone.

One Sample t Test


Bangladesh Standard, 0.38 University (AUST) Water Sample Quality, 0.152

Harvested Sample Quality, 0.14

Significance

Figure 3.13: One sample t test From table 3.9 in which pair sample test have been performed, the correlations between the samples have much improved. The correlation is found to be 1 in case of BS and harvested rainwater, which means the sample qualities are the same or does not differ by much. It is also close to one in case of AUST and Harvested rainwater, but decreased between BS and AUST samples. Paired Samples Correlations
Bangladesh Standard & University (AUST) Water Sample University (AUST) Water Sample Quality & Harvested

Bangladesh Standard & Harvested Sample Quality, 1.000 Correlation

Figure 3.14: Paired Sample Correlation

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When Table 3.8 and 3.10 are considered it is seen that, the result of significances between pair sample and one sample t test the significances have varied. The significances have improved in case of pair sample test than of one sample test. It means the samples have much similar qualities when they are tested in a group than of singular. Comparison of Significance
Significance (one) 0.38 0.285 0.152 0.14 0.382

0.828

Bangladesh University Standard (AUST) Water Sample Quality

Harvested Sample Quality

Bangladesh Bangladesh University Standard - Standard - (AUST) University Harvested Water (AUST) Sample Sample Water Quality Quality Sample Harvested Quality Sample Quality

Figure 3.15: Comparison of Significance (One & Paired Sample) From Table 3.8 and 3.9 it is seen that, in the case of pair sample test the correlations between the samples are more improved than that of one sample t test. The values have deviated a bit when the samples were compared with the BS. Its because BS does not provide all standards for water samples which were tested in the laboratory.

So, from the above it can be said that, the results gained from the statistical analysis are seen to be scattered. It is because of the limitation of collected samples. To get a stable result or decision more samples are required.

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CHAPTER 4 GIS PRESENTATION

61

Divisional Rainfall Intensity of Bangladesh

RAJSHAHI + RANGPUR 8414

DHAKA 5016mm

SYLHET 4136

KHULNA 4227 BARISAL 4920 CHITTAGONG 22976

(Source: http://www.bmd.gov.bd)

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Rainfall Intensity in Monsoon For Bangladesh


80000 70000 MONSOON (mm) 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 YEAR 2005 2010 2015 Monsoon

(Source: http://www.bmd.gov.bd) Rainfall Intensity in Monsoon For Division


80000 RAINFALL INTENSITY (mm) 70000 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 DHAKA KHULNA RAJSHAHI BARISAL RANGPUR SYLHET

(Source: http://www.bmd.gov.bd) Figure 4.1: Rainfall Intensity

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Summarised Information
AUST 9000 10,200 9000 6000 6000 400,000 32,530.50 12,500 369418.4 50 6.5
Total boundary area (sq. ft) Total rooftop area (sq. ft) Total free rooftop area ( sq ft) Total daily water consumption (gallon (US)) Consumption during the five month of monsoon ( gallon) Considering 30% of the rooftop the amount of water that can be harvested ( gallon) Total Savings (percentage)

ACI Limited

Runner Group of Companies 1321 2324 198150 348,600 206900 92 177312

7000

37,402

5,610,300

Figure 4.2: Summarized Information Comparing the Study Areas

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION

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5.1 CONCLUSION The current water availability and supply condition of Dhaka city is very vulnerable which will deteriorate in future. This is alarming for both government and private sector, and this crisis will question the survival of mankind at some point of time in future. So dependency on groundwater has to be decreased and the possibility of surface water treatment plant for Dhaka City is also not that bright. So right now the only and most potential alternative is Rainwater Harvesting. This will meet the water demand of the community during severe crisis. The installation of Rainwater Harvesting will increase only 0.5% of the cost of the building which is very much affordable as water is one of few important elements for human survival whose availability is of more importance than its cost. Rainwater Harvesting will recharge 108 MCM per year which is equal to 31% of the deficit Dhaka faces every year. This also increases the sustainability of groundwater by recharging it. So, for the sake of our survival in Dhaka, a revolution of rainwater harvesting has to be adapted which will involve all the roofs of the city catching water in every possible way. In this research the detailed study was done on AUST. The small scale RWHS was setup on the rooftop of AUST. Again for determining the present water supplydemand situation a survey was also carried out on ACI Limited and Runners group of companies. The storage capacity, cost-benefit analysis was also performed to justify the importance of Rainwater Harvesting in Dhaka City. The statistical analysis shows the correlations between the water collection sources and water qualities. Here Dhaka City represents all the urban areas of Bangladesh. And for all areas of Bangladesh

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both urban and rural, it can be said that, Rainwater Harvesting is the most efficient, economical and environmental friendly source of alternative water.

5.2 MAJOR FINDING of THE STUDY

The research highlights on establishing Rainwater Harvesting as an alternate source of water. Through this research work some major aspects were revealed. The decisions that came through this research work are Rainwater Harvesting can be an alternative source of drinking water. Industries can adopt Rooftop RWHS. Rainwater harvesting is more economical than of ground water pumping Proper treatments are to be applied before using rainwater for consumptive purpose.

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5.3 FUTURE SCOPE of STUDY Due to lack of time and facilities some assessment was not done, which is kept for future study Although data from primary sources were used for this study to assess the portability of rainwater, but no research was done on the volume of First Flush with respect to intensity of rainfall, location and time. Determination of an effective First Flush volume will definitely increase the credibility of rainwater to be chosen as an alternative technology. The sample used for tests was collected only once from the small scale RWHS. More samples collected on different dates will be more helpful to judge the water quality. Only two companies were selected for this research, if more consumers can be taken into consideration then there is a better chance of collecting satisfactory number of data to run statistical analysis and to get a significant result. There is good possibility of generating electricity by using RWHS, which will be the combination of rainwater harvesting and green energy.

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References: 1. World Bank,(2001), URL http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=104231&piPK=732 30&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projectid=P050745, access on: March, 2012

2. Hussain & Ziauddin, (1989), Rainwater harvesting for application in rural Bangladesh, URL www.bfjbrochez.be/.../Lee%20and%20Visscher%20Rainwater.pdf

3. Al-Muyeed and M. Habibur Rahman, Arsenic crisis of Bangladesh and mitigation measures, URL http://www.iwaponline.com/jws/058/jws0580228.htm

4. Smith, Lingas and Rahman, (2000), Arsenic: An Abundant Natural Poison, URL www.csa.com/discoveryguides/arsenic/review.pdf

5. Hussain & Ziauddin, (1989), Rainwater harvesting for application in rural Bangladesh, URL www.bfjbrochez.be/.../Lee%20and%20Visscher%20Rainwater.pdf

6. Han A. Heijnen, Environmental Health Advisor, Towards Water Quality Guidance for Collected Rainwater, URL www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/ircsa/abs/10th/3_02.html

7. Mbilinyi, (2005), Water Harvesting, An Overview, URL www.awiru.co.za/pdf/_WaterHarvestingWorkingPaper3.pdf

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8. Babu and Simon, (2006), Assessing the reliability of roof top rainwater harvesting, URL www.geography.siu.edu/pdfFiles/Graduate/GradPapers/Mundia.pdf

9. Zhu et al, (2004), Rainwater harvesting, quality assessment and utilization in Kefalonia Island, Greece, URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135407000759

10. Kahinda et al, (2007), A GIS-based decision support system for rainwater harvesting, URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706509000606

11. Sundaravadivel, (2007), Rainwater harvesting for recharging shallow groundwater, URL http://www.wateraid.org/documents/plugin_documents/wa_nep_report_rwh_2 6_september_2011.pdf

12. Tripathy and Pandey, (2005), Study of rainwater harvesting potential of Zura village of Kutch District of Gujarat, URL http://www.krepublishers.com/02-Journals/JHE/JHE-18-0-000-000-2005Web/JHE-18-1-000-000-2005-Abst-PDF/JHE-18-1-063-067-2005-1280Tripathi-A-K/JHE-18-1-063-067-2005-1280-Tripathi-A-K-Full-Text.pdf

13. Kumar, (2004), Roof Water Harvesting for Domestic Water Security, URL http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02508060408691747

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15. Ariyananda, (1999), Quality of Collected Rainwater from Sri Lanka, URL www.lankarainwater.org/pubs/papers/qocrwfsl2001.pdf

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19. AUST, Engineering Section Access on: May, 2011

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21. The independent, Rising cost of water for Dhaka City, URL http://theindependentbd.com/paper-edition/editorial/editorial/43717-risingcost-of-water-for-dhaka-city.html, access on: March, 2012

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APPENDIX

APPENDIX-1

Questionnaire

Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology


Data Collection Sheet on

INVESTIGATION OF UTILIZING RAINWATER AS ALTERNATE SOURCE OF WATER IN TEJGAON INDUSTRIAL AREA


Name of the Company

Address

GIS Co-ordinates

Informers Name

Designation

Total No of Users

Amount of Water Used (Drinking Purpose) Max : Amount of Water Used (Industrial purpose) Maxm : Total No of Wash Rooms Minm :
m

Minm :

Daily/Monthly Expense of Water (Drinking Purpose) Max :


m

Minm :

Daily/Monthly Expense of Water (Industrial Purpose) Max


m:

Minm : Electricity Used For Water Purpose

Max : Roof Top Areas of the Company Total :

Minm :

Useable :