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Yosuke Suzuki Psychology HL Paper 1 Review Guide SAQ BLOA 1.

Outline principles that define the biological level of analysis (for example, patterns of behaviour can be inherited; animal research may inform our understanding of human behaviour; cognitions, emotions and behaviours are products of the anatomy and physiology of our nervous and endocrine systems). There are physiological origins of behaviors Brain processes, neurotransmitters, hormones, & genes Humans should be studied as biological systems Physiological factors work with environmental stimuli in behavior Three principles => Behavior can be innate since it is genetically based Evolution may play a key role in behavior Animal research can provide insight into human behavior There are biological correlates of behavior Finds a link between a specific biological factor and a specific behavior STUDY Paul Broca and post-mortem studies Aim: to investigate patients with brain damage Method: Post-mortem studies, autopsy of patients with brain damage. Results: Language processing is localized in the brain People suffering from damage in the left frontal lobe were unable to understand and make grammatically complex sentences. Patients had problems producing speech, but could understand it - Brocas aphasia RELEVANCE: Results support the third principle that biological correlates affect a specific behavior Frontal lobe affects language processing in humans

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BLOA Explain how principles that define the biological level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies). Third principle - biological correlates of behavior Localization of brain function STUDY

Paul Broca and post-mortem studies Aim: to investigate patients with brain damage Method: Post-mortem studies, autopsy of patients with brain damage. Results: Language processing is localized in the brain People suffering from damage in the left frontal lobe were unable to understand and make grammatically complex sentences. Patients had problems producing speech, but could understand it - Brocas aphasia RELEVANCE: Results support the third principle that biological correlates affect a specific behavior Frontal lobe affects language processing in humans

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BLOA Explain one study related to localization of function in the brain (for example, Wernicke, Broca, Gazzaniga and Sperry). Referred as different parts of the brain have a specific function in human behavior and cognition STUDY

Paul Broca and post-mortem studies Aim: to investigate patients with brain damage Method: Post-mortem studies, autopsy of patients with brain damage. Results: Language processing is localized in the brain People suffering from damage in the left frontal lobe were unable to understand and make grammatically complex sentences. Patients had problems producing speech, but could understand it - Brocas aphasia Evaluation: Limited to dead patients Limited to brain damaged patients Consent of dead people RELEVANCE: Results support the third principle that biological correlates affect a specific behavior Frontal lobe affects language processing in humans

Studies in the localization of brain function led to the desire to map out the brains functions. Localization may not explain all human behavior, but mapping out the brain was an important step forward in brain research.

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BLOA Using one or more examples, explain effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour (for example, the effect of noradrenaline on depression).

Neurotransmitters are the bodys natural chemical messengers which transmit information from one neuron to another. Fits into receptor sites on the post-synaptic membrane Different neurotransmitters have different effects on human behavior. Mood, memory, sexual arousal, and mental illness Serotonin is a transmitter that can affect behavior, sleep, emotion, and arousal levels STUDY Hirai et. al Aim: To study how sensory deprivation affects the brain Method: Took blood tests of Buddhist monks on a 72-hour pilgrimage to a holy mountain. Monks were exposed to cold weather, and did not consume food nor water, nor spoke Blood test was taken before the monks ascended the mountain Another blood test was taken right after monks reported hallucinations Results: They found increased levels of serotonin in the monks brains. Serotonin activated the hypothalamus and the frontal cortex resulting in hallucinations Sensory deprivation triggered the release of serotonin which altered the way the monks experienced the world RELEVANCE: Results show that neurotransmitters affect behavior Monks experienced the world differently because of a change in the levels of certain neurotransmitters Certain neurotransmitters affect behavior differently. Most psychologists consider than neurotransmitters play a role, but does not solely rely on neurotransmission to explain behavior.

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BLOA Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behaviour. Another class of chemicals that affect behavior Produced by the glands Some chemicals serve as hormones and neurotransmitters Oxytocin is a hormone released with touches and hugs Appears to change brain signals related to social recognition via facial expression Has been called the love hormone since it has been an effective mediator of human social behavior When oxytocin is given to healthy individuals, brain circuits involved in fear are affected and there is an increase in trust and generosity. Associated with bonding between mother and child as well as lovers Melatonin is a hormone that is believed to be related to sleep regulation Produced by the pineal gland Melatonin levels peak in the middle of the night and decreases towards the morning Correlates with the circadian rhythm - biological clock Rosenthal -> higher levels of melatonin contributed to seasonal affective disorder (SAD) - subcategory of depression characterized by sleepiness and lethargy as well as cravings for carbohydrates Phototherapy is often the main treatment for people with SAD

CLOA 1. Outline principles that define the cognitive level of analysis (for example, mental representations guide behaviour, mental processes can be scientifically investigated). Cognitive psychology concerns itself with the structure and functions of the mind. Cognition refers to processing information such as perception, thinking, problem solving, memory, language, and attention. Cognition is based on ones mental representations of the world. People have different experiences therefore they have different mental representations. Three principles Human beings are information processors and that mental processes guide behavior Mind is like a complex machine The mind can be studied scientifically through developing theories and using a num ber of different research methods Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors Bartlett first coined the term schema CASE STUDY Clive Wearing Suffered from retrograde and anterograde amnesia MRI scanning to the brain shows damage to the hippocampus and some frontal regions of the brain Findings: Trauma disrupts consolidation of memory Emotional memory is still intact - still loves wife very much Shows affection to his wife Trauma only affected his memory and not other parts of his brain 2. Explain how principles that define the cognitive level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies).

The mind can be studied scientifically through developing theories and using a number of different research methods

CASE STUDY Clive Wearing Suffered from retrograde and anterograde amnesia MRI scanning to the brain shows damage to the hippocampus and some frontal regions of the brain Findings: Trauma disrupts consolidation of memory Emotional memory is still intact - still loves wife very much Shows affection to his wife Trauma only affected his memory and not other parts of his brain

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CLOA Explain how biological factors may affect one cognitive process (for example, Alzheimers disease, brain damage, sleep deprivation). Brain - in charge of many cognitive processes In charge of memory Different parts of the brain have different functions

CASE STUDY Clive Wearing Suffered from retrograde and anterograde amnesia MRI scanning to the brain shows damage to the hippocampus and some frontal regions of the brain Findings: Trauma disrupts consolidation of memory Emotional memory is still intact - still loves wife very much Shows affection to his wife Trauma only affected his memory and not other parts of his brain

SCLOA 1. Outline principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis (for example, the social and cultural environment influences individual behaviour; we want connectedness with, and a sense of belonging to, others; we construct our conceptions of the individual and social self). Three principles Human beings are social animals and we have a basic need to belong The relationship between an individual and a group is bidirectional Because humans are social animals, they have a social self Social identities are important to the definition of who we are Culture influences behavior Cultural norms and values that define a society Study of culture may help understand and appreciate cultural differences Peoples views of the world are resistant to change How the world is understood: how the world works, why it works, values in a community. STUDY Howarth AIM: Study how adolescent girls in Brixton describe and evaluate themselves METHOD: Focus-group interview of adolescent girls in Brixton RESULTS: Adolescent girls from Brixton had a positive view of being from Brixton Example of positive social identity based on group belonging RELEVANCE: Results support the idea that the adolescent girls had the basic need to belong in this case to belong to Brixton Supports principle that humans are social animals that have a basic need to belong Explain how principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis may be demonstrated in research (that is, theories and/or studies). STUDY Howarth AIM: Study how adolescent girls in Brixton describe and evaluate themselves METHOD: Focus-group interview of adolescent girls in Brixton RESULTS: Adolescent girls from Brixton had a positive view of being from Brixton Example of positive social identity based on group belonging RELEVANCE: Results support the idea that the adolescent girls had the basic need to belong in this case to belong to Brixton

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Supports principle that humans are social animals that have a basic need to belong

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Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour. Attribution is how people interpret and explain causal relationships in the social world. Situational factors - People discussing their own behavior - puts the blame on external factors Dispositional factors - People observing someone elses behavior - blame on internal, personal factors CASE STUDY Evans-Pritchard AIM: Investigated the Azande people of Central Africa SITUATION: A granary doorway collapsed and people under the doorway were killed. The Azande people attributed the situation to witchcraft since they questioned why those particular people were happened to be sitting under the doorway first. RESULTS: Dispositional factor: It may be that the people who died were unforgiving or out of line with their ancestors Situational factor: The doorframe was destroyed by the termites RELEVANCE: The results show that different people have different attributions.

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SCLOA Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behaviour. Stereotype is defined as a social perception of an individual in terms of group membership or physical attributes Could be positive or negative A form of social categorization Could be formed as a means of taking on the in-groups social representations of the out-group. Campbell argues that there are two key sources of stereotypes Personal experience with individuals or groups Gatekeepers - media, parents, & members of our culture Stereotypes have a basis in some reality Hamilton et. al argue that stereotypes are the result of an illusory correlation - people see a relationship between two variables when there is none Causes people to overestimate a link between two variables Once illusory correlations are made, people tend to seek out information that supports their illusions between two variables Confirmation bias - overlooking evidence that doesnt support an individuals belief Makes stereotypical thinking resistant to change STUDY Snyder and Swann METHOD: Told female college students that they would meet a person who was either introverted or extroverted. Participants were asked to make a questionnaire. Questions confirmed their perceptions of introverts and extroverts RESULTS: Questions asked confirmed participants stereotypes of each personality type.

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SCLOA Explain social learning theory, making reference to two relevant studies. ASSUMPTIONS: humans learn behavior through observational learning, people can learn by watching models and imitating their behavior Attention: The person must first pay attention to the model Retention: The observer must be able to remember the behavior that has been observed Motor reproduction: The observer has to be able to replicate the action Motivation: Learners must want to demonstrate what they have learned Several factors that influence whether the observer decides to imitate and learn Consistency of the behavior in similar situations Identification with the model - imitating models who are like ourselves Rewards/punishment received when model behaves a certain way Liking the model - warm and friendly models are more likely to be imitated than cold, uncaring models. STUDY Bandura et. al AIM: They wanted to see whether children would imitate aggression modeled by an adult METHOD: 36 boys and girls aged 3-6 divided into groups regarding their behavior observed from teachers and parents One group was exposed to adult models who showed aggression by bashing an inflatable Bobo doll Another group observed a non-aggressive adult who assembled toys for 10 minutes Another group served as a control and did not see any model After, all the children were placed in a room with toys. Then they were asked to leave being told that those toys were for other children and they were placed in a room with the bobo doll. RESULTS: Social learning was demonstrated in the study, since the children showed signs of observational learning. Girls are more likely to imitate verbal aggression Boys are more likely to imitate physical aggression EVALUATION: Criticized for low ecological validity - lab setting and unnatural setting There is only a brief encounter with the model Children are intentionally frustrated after they begin to play with a toy and it is stripped. Method does little to predict what happens if a child is repeatedly exposed to aggressive parents or violence on television. Aggression with the Bobo doll is not standardized APPLICATION OF THEORY There is a chance that television will lead to more violent children

Eron et. al carried out a longitudinal study, monitoring children over a 15-year period. They found a positive correlation between the number of hours of violence watched on television by elementary school children and the level of aggression demonstrated when they were teenagers. They also found that those who watched a lot of television violence when they were 8 were more likely to be arrested and prosecuted for criminal acts as adults. EVALUATION OF THEORY POSITIVE Helps explain why behaviors may be passed down in a family or within a culture Explains why children can acquire some behaviors without trial-and-error learning NEGATIVE A behavior acquired may not always be demonstrated Does not explain why some people never learn a behavior, in spite of the theorys criteria being met

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SCLOA Define the terms culture and cultural norms. Many psychologists have similar definitions for culture. Matsumoto mentions that culture can be defined as a dynamic system of rules, implicit and explicit, established by a group(s) to ensure their survival, involving attitudes, values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors Culture is dynamic - may change over time in response to environmental and social changes Have different dimensions in culture Individualism and Collectivism Short-term and Long-term orientation Cultural norms can be explicit and implicit Can be defined as the behaviors that are typical of specific groups. Gives people a sense of control in their lives, as well as a sense of safety and belonging STUDY Wei et. al AIM: Investigate the influence of collectivism and individualism in conflict resolution communication styles METHOD: Questionnaires and correlational analysis used 600 managers in Singapore were split into their respective nationalities Questionnaires were designed to analyze the participants conflict resolution communication style RESULTS: The higher the schore in the individualist dimension, the more likely the manager was to adopt a dominating conflict resolution style. American managers were generally more likely to adopt to a dominating conflict resolution style than the Asian managers. In some cases, the American participants whos lived in Singapore for many years would adopt to an avoidance resolution style. EVALUATION: Uses large and possible representative cross-cultural sample of managers so results may be generalized Relies on self-reports, but overall results are reliable May affect the participants because they may want to look good RELEVANCE: Shows that different cultures have different cultural norms Shows that culture is dynamic since some American participants whove lived in Singapore adopted to the Asian culture and behaved similar to how an Asian manager would

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SCLOA Using one or more examples, explain emic and etic concepts. Understanding the role of culture in human behavior is essential in a diverse, multicultural world.

Emic concept Research in emic concepts studies one culture alone to understand culture-specific behavior Attempts to study behavior through the eyes of the people who live in that culture Focuses on norms, values, motives and customs of the members Bartlett mentioned the extraordinary ability of Swazi hersmen to recall individual characteristics of their cattle. He explained that the Swazi culture revolves around the possession and care of cattle and it is important for people to recognize their animals because this is part of their fortune. Etic concept Compares psychological phenomena across culture to find out what could be universal in human behavior Investigates whether phenomena are culture specific or universal STUDY Kashima et. al found a difference in the way people explain their own success when they compared Japanese and American participants Americans participants tended to attribute their success to dispositional factors Japanese participants tended to attribute their success to situational factors RELEVANCE American participants demonstrated the self-serving bias People taking credit for their success and dissociating themselves from their failures Japanese participants demonstrated the self-effacing bias Japanese tended to attribute their failures to their lack of abilities Japanese tended to attribute their success to their team