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# Introduction :

Essentially, a transformer consists of two or more windings coupled by mutual magnetic flux. If one of these windings, the primary, is connected to an alternating-voltage source, an alternating flux will be produced whose amplitude will depend on the primary voltage, the frequency of the applied voltage, and the number of turns. The mutual flux will link the other winding, the secondary, 1 and will induce a voltage in it whose value will depend on the number of secondary turns as well as the magnitude of the mutual flux and the frequency. By properly proportioning the number of primary and secondary turns, almost any desired voltage ratio, or ratio of transformation, can be obtained.

Objectives :
- To study the voltage and current ratio - To determine the polarity of T.F winding -To learn how to connect T.F winding in either aiding or opposing connections - To run the short circuit test and to determine the T.F short circuit currents - To study T.F voltage regulation with varying loads

Procedure:
I- VOLTAGE , CURRENT RATIO AND SHORT CIRCUIT Instrument and components: Connection Lead Set AC Ammeter Three-Phase Power Supply
List the rated voltage for each of the three windings

winding E3-4

082

## List the rated voltage between the following windings

winding winding winding winding winding winding winding E7-8 E8-4 E7-4 E5-9 E9-6 E3-7 E3-8 136 103 11 003 112 112 112
List the rated current between the following windings

winding E1-2 0

winding E3-4

winding E5-6

winding E3-8

111

1111

## winding E3-7 1111

winding E8-4

1111

Using the lowest range of your ohmmeter, measure and record the dc resistance of each winding R1-2 016 R3-4 011 R5-6 016 R3-7 2 R7-8 0 R8-4 110 R3-8 613 R7-4 210 R5-9 111 R9-6 111

## Measurement tasks : 1- Connect the circuit shown in fig .

2-Measure the output voltage E2: V1-2 V3-4 V5-6 V3-7 V7-8 V8-4 V3-8 V7-4 V5-9 V9-6 002 061 002 181 101 12 002 180 112 112

SHORT CIRCUIT TEST: Objective to determine the short circuit voltage required to circulate full load current in the transformer winding ; 1-2 , 5-6 and 3-4 Winding 1-2 and 5-6 each have 360 turns and winding 3-4 has 622 turns Connect the circuit shown in fig. and make sure that the power supply is off and the voltage varies is adjusted to the zero voltage position

The primary short circuit current The applied short circuit voltage The secondary short circuit current Winding 1-2 and winding 3-4: Connect the circuit shown in fig:

## Winding 5-6 2A 61v 2A

The primary short circuit current The applied short circuit voltage The secondary short circuit current

## Winding 3-4 1.15A 30v 2A

EXCITING CURRENT PHENOMENA: Objective : to determine the effect of core saturation upon the exciting current of the transformer Connect the circuit shown in fig:

Turn on the power supply and adjust for 0.05 A ac Measure and record the input voltage E1 and the output voltage E2 for each the exciting currents listed in table Current I1 A ampere 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 Voltage E1 V volts 230 260 280 300 315 325 340 350 Voltage E2 V volts 230 260 380 300 315 325 340 350

Plot your recorded voltage values E1 on the vertical axis and I1 on the horizontal axis:

## 400 350 300 250

E1

200 150 100 50 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

I1

TRANSFORMER POLARITIES

Instrument and components model: Connection Leads AC voltmeter Three-Phase Power Supply DC volt-ammeter
8550 8429 8575 8946

Procedure :

## E5-6 volt 110

E2-6 volt

Remove the connection between terminals 1 and 5, connect terminals 1 and 6 together and connect the voltmeter between terminals 2 and 5 as shown in fig.

## E5-6 volt 110

E2-5 volt

220

Conclusion :
In first case is called subtractive the voltage is 0 and second case is called additive the voltage is 220.

TRANFORMER REGULATION

Objectives :
To study the voltage regulation of the transformers with varying loads To study the transformers regulation with inductive and capacitive loading

Procedure :
The transformers regulation well be obtained by actual transformers loading , with a pure resistance load , inductive load and capacitive load.

Steps :
Connect up the transformers as shown in fig. so that the primary voltage will be fed from 220 v and the secondary voltage will give the rated voltage

The input voltage E1, the input current I1, secondary current I2 secondary voltage V2:
Resistance load

Load R

E1

I1 Amp

I2 Amp

Inductive load

Load R

E1

I1 Amp

I2 Amp

Load R

E1

I1 Amp

I2 Amp

## V2 volt 220 225 230 240 240 260

For Resistance load Plot your recorded voltage values E2 on the vertical axis and I2 on the horizontal axis

222 220 218 216 E2 214 212 210 208 0 0.5 1 I2 1.5 2

For Inductive load Plot your recorded voltage values E2 on the vertical axis and I2 on the horizontal axis:

225 220 215 210 E2 205 200 195 190 0 0.5 1 I2 1.5 2

For capacitive load Plot your recorded voltage values E2 on the vertical axis and I2 on the horizontal axis:

265 260 255 250 245 E2 240 235 230 225 220 215 0 0.5 1 I2 1.5 2 2.5

Conclusion :

If you connect load resistance or Inductive in voltage drop occurs secondary . If you connect capacitive load the voltage increase .

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