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I.

PROBLEMS OF PRONUNCIATION
a. Mother Tongue b. Habit of Mother Tongue c. Different pronunciation between first language and target language (TL)

II.

REASONS OF PRONUNCIATION PROBLEMS


a. Different elements between first language and TL. Example : [a] is [a] in Indonesia [a] is [ae] in English b. Different sound systems between first language and TL. Example : Thigh as same /tai/ Indonesia Thigh is /jai/ English

c. Similar phonetic features but different for distribution between both of languages Example : Bat Pick Cap = = = bad pig cab

Voiceless

Voiced

d. Similar phonetic features but have different allphones. Example : Pill/phil/ Take/thaek/ Aspirated = upper/ ppa(r)/ = but/bt un-aspirated

e. Similar sound of the phonetic features but different slightly in pronouncing. Example : Twelfths Listening Speaking World

III.

PHONETICS TRANSCRIPTIONS A. Short Vowels 1. // 2. // 3. / / 4. // 5. // D. Voiceless Consonants 1. /p/ 2. /t/ 3. /k/ 4. /t/ 5. /f/ 6. // 7. /s/ 8. // E. Voiced Consonants 1. /b/ 2. /d/ 4. /:/ 5. /:/ C. Diphthongs (Double Vowel Sounds) 1. /I/ 2. // 3. /aI/ 4. / I/ 5. /a/ 6. /e/ 7. // 8. /eI/ 3. /d/ 4. /g/ 5. /v/ 6. / / 7. /z/ 8. F. Other Consonants 1. /m/ 2. /n/ 3. // 4. /h/ 5. /e/ 6. /r/ 7. /w/ 8. /j/

6. /e/ 7. // B. Long Vowels 1. /i:/ 2. /u:/ 3. /:/

IV.

Organs Of Speech
1. Organs of speech are components which the sounds produced related to the characteristics of symbols. 2. The function of organs of speech is to produce the sounds which can be comprehended. 3. There are three main organs of speech : a. Mouth cavity b. Nose cavity c. Throat ( vocal cords ) PLACES OF ARTICULATION

1. Bilabial 2. Labiodental 3. Dental 4. Alveolar 5. Post-alveolar 6. Palatal 7. Velar 8. Glottal

: two lips (up-bottom) : /b/, /p/, /m/, /w/. : bottom lip and upper teeth : /f/, /v/. : tip tongue and alveolar ridge : //, //. : tip tongue and hard palate : /t/, /d/, /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /l/ /n/. : tip tongue and rim of tongue and alveolar ridge : /r/ : mid of tongue and alveolar ridge/hard palate : /j/, //, //. : back of tongue and soft palate : /k/, /g/, / /. : vocal cords : /h/.
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V.

ENGLISH SEGMENTAL AND SUPRA-SEGMENTAL PHONEMES


1. Segmental Phonemes Example : She datang = [ i:] = /-i/ = [da-tang] = /d-a-t-a-n-g/

2. Supra-segmental Phonemes a. Pitch Example : bisa tahu bisa tahu

Verb

Noun

b. Intonation Example : Do you know about that ?

c. Stress Stress word : - contrast : Noun = contrast Verb = contrast Stress sentence : Do you know about that?

d. Juncture Example : Night rate / nait-rt / open juncture Nitrate / naitrt / close juncture

VI.

ENGLISH STRESS (WORD AND SENTENCE)


1. Word Stress Three degrees of stress in eord a. Primary or strong stress ( ' ) b. Secondary or mediu c. Weak stress 2. Sentence stress a. That is your cr : pr someone to pronun. b. That is yur car : it is meant to emphasize the processor (your) c. d. at s your car : t s at s your car : t s eant to e p as e t e aff r at ve e e ent ( s) eant to e p as e certa n ob ect (t at-car) ary stress on car t s eant as a usua y way for stress ( ) : Nov : b r : u rant e poss b