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# VCE Unit 3: SAC 4 Outcome 3.

## SAC 4 Annotated Folio of Practical Activities for Electronics

Outcome 2
NAME ___________________________ ID ____________ Score _____ / 20 Conditions for the task You will complete three practical activities: Ohmic and Non-Ohmic Resistors in Series and Parallel You will work in pairs or small group to collect the results in 9.05 You will work individually to analyse your results and write your evaluation and conclusion in 5.04 Date: 7 May 2012

Investigation of Diodes 1 You will work in pairs or small group to collect the results for Parts A & B in 9.05 You will work individually to complete Part C in 5.04 You will work individually to analyse your results and write your conclusion in 5.04 Date: 14 May 2012

The Amplifier Simulation Investigation You will work individually to complete the investigation in 5.04 You will work individually to write your conclusion in 5.04 Date: 21 May 2012

You must record all results individually in this Booklet. The teacher will collect the Booklet on completion of each activity. All work will be completed in class time.

## Ohmic & Non-Ohmic Resistors in Series and Parallel Circuits

AIM:
To measure current and voltage for an Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistor individually and when combined in series and parallel. To recognise how Current vs Voltage graphs differ for Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistors To use Raw Data and Excel to find the relationship between current and voltage for the Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistor. To compare the actual relationship between current and voltage measured by experiment for series and parallel circuits with the relationship predicted by theory from Processed Data.

THEORY:
Symbols: Voltage V Current I Resistance R = V/I, Ohmic Resistance Ro (constant), Non-Ohmic Resistance Rn (changes with current) Resistance of Ro and Rn in series Rs Resistance of Ro and Rn in parallel R// For an Ohmic resistor a graph of Voltage, V vs Current, I is a straight line through the origin with gradient equal to the constant resistance, R. A light globe is a Non-Ohmic resistor whose resistance increases with current.
2 Resistors combined in Series and Parallel

APPARATUS:
DC power supply, 15 resistor (Ohmic resistor), rheostat (variable resistor), 12 V 36 W light bulb (Non-Ohmic resistor), ammeter, voltmeter, connecting wires.

METHOD:
Four different loads will be placed in the circuit shown:

## VCE Unit 3: SAC 4 Outcome 3.2

Load 3. Rs = Ro in series with Rn (Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistors in series) Load 4. R// = Ro in parallel with Rn (Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistors in parallel) 1. Connect the power supply, rheostat, ammeter, voltmeter and Load 1 as shown in the circuit
diagram. To avoid damaging the multimeters, use their largest scales initially then change to the relevant scale. 2. Adjust the rheostat to vary the voltage across the load and record 10 widely spaced values of voltage and corresponding current in the Raw Data Table. Note: the light bulb will not glow for low currents 3. Repeat 1. 3. for Loads 2, 3 and 4

## Raw Data Table

Ohmic/Non-Ohmic Circuits
Ohmic V(V) I (A) Non-Ohmic V(V) I (A) Series (Actual) V(V) I (A) Parallel (Actual) V(V) I (A)

Analysis
4. Copy your data from the Data Table into Excel 5. Plot a Scatter Plot of Current vs Voltage for the Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistances on the one set
of axes. For the Ohmic resistor insert a linear trend line through the origin and show the equation using correct symbols and significant figures Write the equation here: Equation 1: I = ____V For the Non- Ohmic resistor insert a power trend line and show the equation using correct symbols and significant figures Write the equation here: ____ Equation 2: I = ____V

## VCE Unit 3: SAC 4 Outcome 3.2

6. Plot a ScatterPlot of Voltage vs Current for the Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistances on the one set
of axes. For the Ohmic resistor insert a linear trend line through the origin and show the equation using correct symbols and significant figures Write the equation here: Equation 3: V

= ______ I

## What value does this equation predict fro Ro?

For the Non- Ohmic resistor insert a power trend line and show the equation using correct
symbols and significant figures Write the equation here: ____ Equation 4: V = ____I 7. Complete the Processed Data Table in Excel. Use: Equation 3 to complete Column 2 Equation 4 to complete Column 3 Equation 1 to complete Column 6 Equation 2 to complete Column 7

Ro = _____

## Processed Data Table

Series (Predicted) I (A) 4 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.0 0 Vo Vn Vs = Vo + Vn (V) V (V) Parallel (Predicted) Io In I// = Io + In (A)

0.20

8. Complete Columns 4 and 8. 9. Plot on the one set of axes, a Scatter Plot of Current vs Voltage for Series (Actual) from the Raw
Data Table and Series (Predicted) from the Processed Data Table.

## VCE Unit 3: SAC 4 Outcome 3.2

10. Plot on the one set of axes, a Scatter Plot of Current vs Voltage for Parallel (Actual) from the
Raw Data Table and Parallel (Predicted) from the Processed Data Table.

## Conclusion and Evaluation

A statement of how Ohmic and Non-Ohmic resistors differ and how the graphs plotted in points 9. and 10. support the theory for resistors in series and parallel. Was the experiment successful? How could it be improved? What are the sources of error?

## VCE Unit 3: SAC 4 Outcome 3.2

Investigation of DIODES
AIM:
1. To measure the forward and reverse resistance of diodes 2. To use Excel to plot the current-voltage characteristics of a diode 3. To use simulations to look at diode operation and rectification.

Theory:
A diode allows an electric current to flow in one direction, but blocks it in the opposite direction. Circuits that require current flow in only one direction only include one or more diodes. Diodes are based on semiconductor p-n junctions. In a p-n diode, conventional current can flow from the p-type side (the positive anode) to the n-type side (the negative cathode), but not in the opposite direction. The voltage drop across a normal silicon diode at rated currents when forward biased is 0.6 to 0.7 volts. This value is the diode turn-on voltage. For other diode types it has a different value. eg lightemitting diodes (LEDs) can be 1.4 V or more. A typical graph of Current vs Voltage for a diode is shown.

Equipment:
DC Power Supply 2 Digital Multimeters Board with1k resistor and diode Rheostat Leads

METHOD and DATA COLLECTION: Part A: The Multimeter and Diode Polarity
1. Multimeter: a. Connect the red lead to the V..mA jack and the black lead to the COM jack. b. The multimeter can measure voltage when connected in parallel with the circuit element and with the rotary switch set to the left voltage band. Start with the range at the highest range position and then reduce by turning the dial anticlockwise.

VCE Unit 3: SAC 4 Outcome 3.2 c. The multimeter can measure current when connected in series with the circuit element and with the rotary switch set to the right current band. Start with the range at the highest range position and then reduce by turning the dial clockwise. 2. Diode Operating Voltage: a. Use a multimeter to measure the voltage of the diode. Turn the multimeter dial to the special diode setting. Connect the black negative lead to the bar end of the diode and the positive red lead to the other end of the diode. The diode voltage for forward biased is shown. Vdiode = ____________V b. Next reverse the polarity of the multimeter leads so that the positive lead is now connected to the bar end. The diode is now reverse biased. The reading should show 1 indicating that current does not flow in the reverse direction. c. Compare the forward and reverse voltages. Explain how this will affect current flow in a circuit.

## Part B: Diode Current-Voltage Characteristics

1. To examine how the current through a diode varies as the potential difference across it is changed, connect the circuit as shown below with the diode forward biased. a. 1st connect the power supply to the rheostat using the 2 connections at the base. b. Next connect the lead from the 1000 to the top connection. c. Finally insert the 2 multimeters to measure the current and voltage for the diode.

1000 ohm
012V V - 15 1 k

1N4004
supply

## On Heathkit Electronics power supply

2. Vary the rheostat setting so that the potential difference, Vdiode across the diode from 0.0 Volts to the maximum possible. For each setting, record the voltage and current I in the table below. 3. Also record the uncertainty in voltage and current in the table heading by observing any fluctuations of the meter.

## Raw Data Table Forward biased

Vdiode (Volts) Vdiode = I (milliamps) I = Vdiode (Volts) Vdiode = I (milliamps) I =

## VCE Unit 3: SAC 4 Outcome 3.2

ANALYSIS:
4. Enter your results into an Excel Spreadsheet and create a Scatterplot of Current (mA) vs Vdiode (Volts). a. Your Scatterplot must show a Exponetial trendline with the Equation. b. Show x and y error bars. c. Use all the correct conventions. 5. How does the maximum value you found for Vdiode compare with the value of Vdiode found using the multi-meter? 6. How do values you found for Vdiode by the 2 methods compare with the expected range of 0.6 0.7?

Part C: Simulation
1. Diode: a. Go to http://www.falstad.com/circuit/e-diodevar.html and complete the following Table. Vdiode (Volt) 0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.72 I (indicate if pA, A or mA) b. Go to: http://www.falstad.com/circuit/e-diodecurve.html and observe the Current vs Voltage across the diode for a time varying input signal. c. Half-wave rectifier - Go to : http://www.falstad.com/circuit/e-rectify.html i. Sketch the circuit.

ii. What is the input Voltage from the ac power supply? = _____ V iii. What is the voltage across this diode? Vdiode = _______ V

VCE Unit 3: SAC 4 Outcome 3.2 iv. On the axes below sketch the input signal (green) from the power supply and the output signal (yellow) across the 640 resistor. Annotate your graph to indicate if current is flowing or not at different times.

CONCLUSION:
Summarise what you have learnt about the diode. Use the words forward bias, reverse bias and diode turn-on voltage. State and compare the diode turn-on voltages you measured.

10

## The Amplifier Simulation

Applet: http://ngsir.netfirms.com/englishhtm/Amplifier.htm

1) Open the Applet and use the default values for all variables unless told otherwise. You can

## 2) What is the voltage gain of the amplifier?

AV =

3) This is an inverting amplifier. What does that mean? 4) With an input signal with vin = 0.4 V (input amplitude = 0.2 V), what is vout?

(nb: means from peak to peak and we use lower case v for ac signals and upper case V for dc signals)

vout = V 5) Increase the input signal to vin = 0.8 V (input amplitude = 0.4 V). a) What is vout? vout = 8 V

## b) Describe and sketch the output signal. 11

6) Refresh and make RC = 1.8 k 7) What is the voltage gain of the amplifier?
AV =

vout = V

## 9) With an input signal with vin = 0.8 V.

a) What is vout? vout =

VCE Unit 3: SAC 4 Outcome 3.2 b) Describe and sketch the output signal.

10) Refresh and make R1:R2 = 6 11) With an input signal with vin = 0.4 V, what is vout?
vout = V

## 12) Increase the input signal to vin = 1.0 V.

a) What is vout? vout =

## b) Describe and sketch the output signal. 12

Conclusion:
Summarise what you have learnt about amplifiers. Use the words voltage gain, inverting amplifier, distortion and clipping in your answer.

## VCE Unit 3: SAC 4 Outcome 3.2

Assessment Sheet: SAC 4 Annotated Folio of Practical Activities for Electronics Name: _________________________ ID _____________ Score _______ / 20
Criterion Raw & Processed Data
A record of your observations and measurements and values determined from the raw data

Excellent (5)
Sufficient raw data has been collected. Data or observations are presented in well organised, correct ruled or computer generated tables. Data has been correctly processed when required Correct units and significant figures are given. Calculated values are presented. Error are recorded (when applicable)

Good (4)
One or two items required for excellent are missing.

OK (3)
About half of the items required for excellent have been completed

Most of the items required for excellent are missing. 2 Data that of another student and this is acknowledged 1 No data recorded or data that of another student and this is not acknowledged 0 Most of the items required for excellent are missing. 2 Calculations identical to those of another student 1 No calculations shown 0 Most of the items required for excellent are missing. 2 Answers identical to those of another student 1 Questions are not answered 0 Most of the items required for excellent are missing. 2 Conclusion identical to that of another student 1 No conclusion given 0

Analysis
Manipulations of data to get what you are after; include graphs in this section. Show sample of each type of calculation. Include calculations of absolute or relative error if required.

Questions 13

Correct graphs are presented. Graphs are used correctly to obtain required information All applicable formulas are listed. All symbols are defined. A sample of each type of calculation is shown. Setting out is neat, correct and easy to follow. All calculated values are clearly identified with units Analysis shows understanding All questions have been answered All answers are correct Answers are in clear English and/or are illustrated with a clear diagram. Answered are neatly presented. Answers show understanding

## One or two items required for excellent are missing.

About half of the items required for excellent have been completed

## Conclusion & Evaluation

This is a brief summary of your results and conclusions drawn from them. State any equations you found. State any values you calculated (with uncertainty if applicable). State the percentage difference from the expected value if possible. How could the experiment be improved?

A brief summary of results is given. Equations and values determined from the results are given. An objective, scientific conclusion relating theory to the results, using proper scientific language, is given. Sources of error are identified Suggestions for improving the experiment are given. Mistakes are acknowledged.