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Teradata Interview Questions 1. What are the differences between the followings?

- Vertical & Horizontal Partitioning vs - Join & Hash Indexes vs - PPI

2. What is OLAP?
Online Analytical Processing, a category of software tools that provides analysis of data stored in a database. OLAP tools enable users to analyze different dimensions of multidimensional data. For example, it provides time series and trend analysis views. The chief component of OLAP is the OLAP server, which sits between a client and a database management systems (DBMS). The OLAP server understands how data is organized in the database and has special functions analyzing the data. 3. What is OLAP, MOLAP, ROLAP, DOLAP, HOLAP? Examples? OLAP - On-Line Analytical Processing. Designates a category of applications and technologies that allow the collection, storage, manipulation and reproduction of multidimensional data, with the goal of analysis. MOLAP - Multidimensional OLAP. This term designates a cartesian data structure more specifically. In effect, MOLAP contrasts with ROLAP. Inb the former, joins between tables are already suitable, which enhances performances. In the latter, joins are computed during the request. Targeted at groups of users because it's a shared environment. Data is stored in an exclusive server-based format. It performs more complex analysis of data. DOLAP - Desktop OLAP. Small OLAP products for local multidimensional analysis Desktop OLAP. There can be a mini multidimensional database (using Personal Express), or extraction of a datacube (using Business Objects). Designed for low-end, single, departmental user. Data is stored in cubes on the desktop. It's like having your own spreadsheet. Since the data is local, end users don't have to worry about performance hits against the server. ROLAP - Relational OLAP. Designates one or several star schemas stored in relational databases. This technology permits multidimensional analysis with data stored in relational databases. Used for large departments or groups because it supports large amounts of data and users. HOLAP:Hybridization of OLAP, which can include any of the above. 4. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OLTP AND OLAP?

5. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DELETE AND TRUNCATE?

Delete table is a logged operation, so the deletion of each row gets logged in the transaction log, which makes it slow. Truncate table also deletes all the rows in a table, but it wont log the deletion of each row, instead it logs the de-allocation of the data pages of the table, which makes it faster. Of course, truncate table cannot be rolled back. Truncate table is functionally identical to delete statement with no where clause both remove all rows in the table. But truncate table is faster and uses fewer system and transaction log resources than delete. Truncate table removes all rows from a table, but the table structure and its columns, constraints, indexes etc., remains as it is. In truncate table the counter used by an identity column for new rows is reset to the seed for the column. If you want to retain the identity counter, use delete statement instead. If you want to remove table definition and its data, use the drop table statement. You cannot use truncate table on a table referenced by a foreign key constraint; instead, use delete statement without a where clause. Because truncate table is not logged, it cannot activate a trigger. Truncate table may not be used on tables participating in an indexed view. 6. WHAT IS NORMALIZATION? EXPLAIN FIRST THREE NORMAL FORMS? Normalization is the process of efficiently organizing data in a database. There are two goals of the normalization process: eliminating redundant data (for example, storing the same data in more than one table) and ensuring data dependencies make sense (only storing related data in a table). Both of these are worthy goals as they reduce the amount of space a database consumes and ensure that data is logically stored. The Normal Forms The database community has developed a series of guidelines for ensuring that databases are normalized. These are referred to as normal forms and are numbered from one (the lowest form of normalization, referred to as first normal form or 1NF) through five (fifth normal form or 5NF). In practical applications, you'll often see 1NF, 2NF, and 3NF along with the occasional 4NF. Fifth normal form is very rarely seen and won't be discussed in this article. First Normal Form (1NF) sets the very basic rules for an organized database: Eliminate duplicative columns from the same table. Create separate tables for each group of related data and identify each row with a unique column (the primary key). What do these rules mean when contemplating the practical design of a database? It's actually quite simple. The first rule dictates that we must not duplicate data within the same row of a table. Within the database community, this concept is referred to as the atomicity of a table. Tables that comply with this rule are said to be atomic. Let's explore this principle with a classic example - a table within a human resources database that stores the managersubordinate relationship. For the purposes of our example, we'll impose the business rule that each manager may have one or more subordinates while each subordinate may have only one manager.

Intuitively, when creating a list or spreadsheet to track this information, we might create a table with the following fields: Manager Subordinate1 Subordinate2 Subordinate3 Subordinate4 However, recall the first rule imposed by 1NF: eliminate duplicative columns from the same table. Clearly, the Subordinate1-Subordinate4 columns are duplicative. Take a moment and ponder the problems raised by this scenario. If a manager only has one subordinate - the Subordinate2-Subordinate4 columns are simply wasted storage space (a precious database commodity). Furthermore, imagine the case where a manager already has 4 subordinates - what happens if she takes on another employee? The whole table structure would require modification. At this point, a second bright idea usually occurs to database novices: We don't want to have more than one column and we want to allow for a flexible amount of data storage. Let's try something like this: Manager Subordinates Where the Subordinates field contains multiple entries in the form "Mary, Bill, Joe" This solution is closer, but it also falls short of the mark. The subordinates column is still duplicative and non-atomic. What happens when we need to add or remove a subordinate? We need to read and write the entire contents of the table. That's not a big deal in this situation, but what if one manager had one hundred employees? Also, it complicates the process of selecting data from the database in future queries. Here's a table that satisfies the first rule of 1NF: Manager Subordinate In this case, each subordinate has a single entry, but managers may have multiple entries. Now, what about the second rule: identify each row with a unique column or set of columns (the primary key)? You might take a look at the table above and suggest the use of the subordinate column as a primary key. In fact, the subordinate column is a good candidate for a primary key due to the fact that our business rules specified that each subordinate may have only one manager. However, the data that we've chosen to store in our table makes this a less than ideal solution. What happens if we hire another employee named Jim? How do we store his manager-subordinate relationship in the database?

It's best to use a truly unique identifier (such as an employee ID) as a primary key. Our final table would look like this: Manager ID Subordinate ID 2<sup>ND</sup> Normal Form Over the past month, we've looked at several aspects of normalizing a database table. First, we discussed the basic principles of database normalization. Last time, we explored the basic requirements laid down by the first normal form (1NF). Now, let's continue our journey and cover the principles of second normal form (2NF). Recall the general requirements of 2NF: Remove subsets of data that apply to multiple rows of a table and place them in separate tables. Create relationships between these new tables and their predecessors through the use of foreign keys. These rules can be summarized in a simple statement: 2NF attempts to reduce the amount of redundant data in a table by extracting it, placing it in new table(s) and creating relationships between those tables. Let's look at an example. Imagine an online store that maintains customer information in a database. They might have a single table called Customers with the following elements: CustNum FirstName LastName Address City State ZIP A brief look at this table reveals a small amount of redundant data. We're storing the "Sea Cliff, NY 11579" and "Miami, FL 33157" entries twice each. Now, that might not seem like too much added storage in our simple example, but imagine the wasted space if we had thousands of rows in our table. Additionally, if the ZIP code for Sea Cliff were to change, we'd need to make that change in many places throughout the database. In a 2NF-compliant database structure, this redundant information is extracted and stored in a separate table. Our new table (let's call it ZIPs) might have the following fields:

ZIP City State If we want to be super-efficient, we can even fill this table in advance -- the post office provides a directory of all valid ZIP codes and their city/state relationships. Surely, you've encountered a situation where this type of database was utilized. Someone taking an order might have asked you for your ZIP code first and then knew the city and state you were calling from. This type of arrangement reduces operator error and increases efficiency. Now that we've removed the duplicative data from the Customers table, we've satisfied the first rule of second normal form. We still need to use a foreign key to tie the two tables together. We'll use the ZIP code (the primary key from the ZIPs table) to create that relationship. Here's our new Customers table: CustNum FirstName LastName Address ZIP We've now minimized the amount of redundant information stored within the database and our structure is in second normal form! 3<sup>RD</sup> Normal Form There are two basic requirements for a database to be in third normal form: Already meet the requirements of both 1NF and 2NF Remove columns that are not fully dependent upon the primary key. Imagine that we have a table of widget orders that contains the following attributes: Order Number Customer Number Unit Price Quantity Total Remember, our first requirement is that the table must satisfy the requirements of 1NF and 2NF. Are there any duplicative columns? No. Do we have a primary key? Yes, the order number. Therefore, we satisfy the requirements of 1NF. Are there any subsets of data that apply to multiple rows? No, so we also satisfy the requirements of 2NF.

Now, are all of the columns fully dependent upon the primary key? The customer number varies with the order number and it doesn't appear to depend upon any of the other fields. What about the unit price? This field could be dependent upon the customer number in a situation where we charged each customer a set price. However, looking at the data above, it appears we sometimes charge the same customer different prices. Therefore, the unit price is fully dependent upon the order number. The quantity of items also varies from order to order, so we're OK there. What about the total? It looks like we might be in trouble here. The total can be derived by multiplying the unit price by the quantity, therefore it's not fully dependent upon the primary key. We must remove it from the table to comply with the third normal form. Perhaps we use the following attributes: Order Number Customer Number Unit Price Quantity Now our table is in 3NF. But, you might ask, what about the total? This is a derived field and it's best not to store it in the database at all. We can simply compute it "on the fly" when performing database queries. For example, we might have previously used this query to retrieve order numbers and totals: SELECT OrderNumber, Total FROM WidgetOrders We can now use the following query: SELECT OrderNumber, UnitPrice * Quantity AS Total FROM WidgetOrders to achieve the same results without violating normalization rules. Before we begin our discussion of the normal forms, it's important to point out that they are guidelines and guidelines only. Occasionally, it becomes necessary to stray from them to meet practical business requirements. However, when variations take place, it's extremely important to evaluate any possible ramifications they could have on your system and account for possible inconsistencies DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLUSTERED AND NON-CLUSTERED INDEXES? There are clustered and nonclustered indexes. A clustered index is a special type of index that reorders the way records in the table are physically stored. Therefore table can have only one clustered index. The leaf nodes of a clustered index contain the data pages. A nonclustered index is a special type of index in which the logical order of the index does not match the physical stored order of the rows on disk. The leaf nodes of a nonclustered index does not consist of the data pages. Instead, the leaf nodes contain index rows. Consider using a clustered index for: o Columns that contain a large number of distinct values. o Queries that return a range of values using operators such as BETWEEN, >, >=, <, and <=.

o Columns that are accessed sequentially. o Queries that return large result sets. Non-clustered indexes have the same B-tree structure as clustered indexes, with two significant differences: o The data rows are not sorted and stored in order based on their non-clustered keys. o The leaf layer of a non-clustered index does not consist of the data pages. Instead, the leaf nodes contain index rows. Each index row contains the non-clustered key value and one or more row locators that point to the data row (or rows if the index is not unique) having the key value. o Per table only 249 non clustered indexes.

WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CONTROL FLOW AND DATA FLOW? Control Flow: 1. 2. 3. 4. Process Oriented Doesnt manage or pass data between components. It functions as a task coordinator In control flow tasks requires completion (Success, failure or completion)

5. Synchronous in nature, this means, task requires completion before moving to next task. If the tasks are not connected with each other but still they are synchronous in nature. 6. 7. Tasks can be executed both parallel and serially Three types of control flow elements in SSIS 2005 Containers: Provides structures in the packages Tasks: Provides functionality in the packages

Precedence Constraints: Connects containers, executables and tasks into an ordered control flow. 8. We can control the sequence execution for tasks and also specify the conditions that tasks and containers run. 9. It is possible to include nested containers as SSIS Architecture supports nesting of the containers. Control flow can include multiple levels of nested containers. Data Flow

Streaming in nature Information oriented Passes data between other components

Transformations work together to manage and process data. This means first set of data from the source may be in the final destination step while at the same time other set of data is still flowing. All the transformations are doing work at the same time. Three types of Data Flow components Sources: Extracts data from the various sources (Database, Text Files etc) Transformations: Cleans, modify, merge and summarizes the data Destination: Loads data into destinations like database, files or in memory datasets

WHAT IS THE MULTICAST SHAPE USED FOR?

The Multicast transformation distributes its input to one or more outputs. This transformation is similar to the Conditional Split transformation. Both transformations direct an input to multiple outputs. The difference between the two is that the Multicast transformation directs every row to every output, and the Conditional Split directs a row to a single output WHAT SHAPE WOULD YOU USE TO CONCATENATE TWO INPUT FIELDS INTO A SINGLE OUTPUT FIELD? Derived Column shape\Task can be used to concatenate columns

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q1 Explain architecture of SSIS? http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms141709(SQL.90).aspx Q2 Difference between Control Flow and Data Flow? Very easy. Q3 How would you do Logging in SSIS? Log using the logging configuration inbuilt in SSIS or use Custom logging through Event handlers. http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms141727.aspx Q4 How would you do Error Handling? its for you. Q5 How to pass property value at Run time? How do you implement Package Configuration? http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms141682.aspx Q6 How would you deploy a SSIS Package on production? 1. Create deployment utility by setting its propery as true . 2. It will be created in the bin folder of the solution as soon as package is build. 3. Copy all the files in the utility and use manifest file to deply it on the Prod. Q7 Difference between DTS and SSIS? Every thing except both are product of Microsoft :-)

Q8 What are new features in SSIS 2008? http://sqlserversolutions.blogspot.com/2009/01/new-improvementfeatures-in-ssis-2008.html Q9 How would you pass a variable value to Child Package? http://sqlserversolutions.blogspot.com/2009/02/passing-variable-to-child-package-from.html http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms345179(SQL.90).aspx Q10 What is Execution Tree? http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc966529.aspx Q11 What are the points to keep in mind for performance improvement of the package? http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc966529.aspx Q12 You may get a question stating a scenario and then asking you how would you create a package for that e.g. How would you configure a data flow task so that it can transfer data to different table based on the city name in a source table column? Q13 Difference between Unionall and Merge Join? http://sqlserversolutions.blogspot.com/2009/01/difference-between-merge-and-union-all.html Q14 May get question regarding what X transformation do?Lookup, fuzzy lookup, fuzzy grouping transformation are my favorites. For you. Q15 How would you restart package from previous failure point?What are Checkpoints and how can we implement in SSIS? http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms140226.aspx Q16 Where are SSIS package stored in the SQL Server? MSDB.sysdtspackages90 stores the actual content and ssydtscategories, sysdtslog90, sysdtspackagefolders90, sysdtspackagelog, sysdtssteplog, and sysdtstasklog do the supporting roles. Q17 How would you schedule a SSIS packages? Using SQL Server Agent. Read about Scheduling a job on Sql server Agent Q18 Difference between asynchronous and synchronos transformations? Asynchronous transformation have different Input and Output buffers and it is up to the component designer in an Async component to provide a column structure to the output buffer and hook up the data from the input. Q19 How to achieve multiple threading in SSIS? _________________________________________________________________________________________

Question 1 - True or False - Using a checkpoint file in SSIS is just like issuing the CHECKPOINT command against the relational engine. It commits all of the data to the database. Ans: False. SSIS provides a Checkpoint capability which allows a package to restart at the point of failure.

Additional information: Checkpoints in SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) Packages to restart from the point of failure Question 2 - Can you explain the what the Import\Export tool does and the basic steps in the wizard? The Import\Export tool is accessible via BIDS or executing the dtswizard command. The tool identifies a data source and a destination to move data either within 1 database, between instances or even from a database to a file (or vice versa). Question 3 - What are the command line tools to execute SQL Server Integration Services packages? DTSEXECUI - When this command line tool is run a user interface is loaded in order to configure each of the applicable parameters to execute an SSIS package. DTEXEC - This is a pure command line tool where all of the needed switches must be passed into the command for successful execution of the SSIS package. Question 4 - Can you explain the SQL Server Integration Services functionality in Management Studio? You have the ability to do the following: Login to the SQL Server Integration Services instance View the SSIS log View the packages that are currently running on that instance Browse the packages stored in MSDB or the file system Import or export packages Delete packages Run packages Question 5 - Can you name some of the core SSIS components in the Business Intelligence Development Studio you work with on a regular basis when building an SSIS package? Connection Managers Control Flow Data Flow Event Handlers Variables window

Toolbox window Output window Logging Package Configurations Question 6 - True or False: SSIS has a default means to log all records updated, deleted or inserted on a per table basis. False, but a custom solution can be built to meet these needs. Additional information: Custom Logging in SQL Server Integration Services Packages (SSIS) Question 7 - What is a breakpoint in SSIS? How is it setup? How do you disable it? A breakpoint is a stopping point in the code. The breakpoint can give the Developer\DBA an opportunity to review the status of the data, variables and the overall status of the SSIS package. 10 unique conditions exist for each breakpoint. Breakpoints are setup in BIDS. In BIDS, navigate to the control flow interface. Right click on the object where you want to set the breakpoint and select the 'Edit Breakpoints...' option. Additional information: Breakpoints in SQL Server 2005 Integration Services Question 8 - Can you name 5 or more of the native SSIS connection managers? OLEDB connection - Used to connect to any data source requiring an OLEDB connection (i.e., SQL Server 2000) Flat file connection - Used to make a connection to a single file in the File System. Required for reading information from a File System flat file ADO.Net connection - Uses the .Net Provider to make a connection to SQL Server 2005 or other connection exposed through managed code (like C#) in a custom task Analysis Services connection - Used to make a connection to an Analysis Services database or project. Required for the Analysis Services DDL Task and Analysis Services Processing Task File connection - Used to reference a file or folder. The options are to either use or create a file or folder

Excel FTP HTTP MSMQ SMO SMTP SQLMobile WMI Question 9 - How do you eliminate quotes from being uploaded from a flat file to SQL Server? In the SSIS package on the Flat File Connection Manager Editor, enter quotes into the Text qualifier field then preview the data to ensure the quotes are not included. Additional information: How to strip out double quotes from an import file in SQL Server Integration Services Question 10 - Can you name 5 or more of the main SSIS tool box widgets and their functionality? For Loop Container Foreach Loop Container Sequence Container ActiveX Script Task Analysis Services Execute DDL Task Analysis Services Processing Task Bulk Insert Task Data Flow Task Data Mining Query Task Execute DTS 2000 Package Task Execute Package Task Execute Process Task Execute SQL Task

etc. Question 11 - Can you explain one approach to deploy an SSIS package? One option is to build a deployment manifest file in BIDS, then copy the directory to the applicable SQL Server then work through the steps of the package installation wizard A second option is using the dtutil utility to copy, paste, rename, delete an SSIS Package A third option is to login to SQL Server Integration Services via SQL Server Management Studio then navigate to the 'Stored Packages' folder then right click on the one of the children folders or an SSIS package to access the 'Import Packages...' or 'Export Packages...'option. A fourth option in BIDS is to navigate to File | Save Copy of Package and complete the interface. Additional information: Deploying a SQL Server 2000 DTS Package vs. a SQL Server 2005 Integration Services Package (SSIS) Import, Export, Copy and Delete Integration Services Packages in SQL Server 2005 Question 12 - Can you explain how to setup a checkpoint file in SSIS? The following items need to be configured on the properties tab for SSIS package: CheckpointFileName - Specify the full path to the Checkpoint file that the package uses to save the value of package variables and log completed tasks. Rather than using a hardcoded path as shown above, it's a good idea to use an expression that concatenates a path defined in a package variable and the package name. CheckpointUsage - Determines if/how checkpoints are used. Choose from these options: Never (default), IfExists, or Always. Never indicates that you are not using Checkpoints. IfExists is the typical setting and implements the restart at the point of failure behavior. If a Checkpoint file is found it is used to restore package variable values and restart at the point of failure. If a Checkpoint file is not found the package starts execution with the first task. The Always choice raises an error if the Checkpoint file does not exist. SaveCheckpoints - Choose from these options: True or False (default). You must select True to implement the Checkpoint behavior. Additional information: Checkpoints in SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) Packages to restart from the point of failure Question 13 - Can you explain different options for dynamic configurations in SSIS? Use an XML file

Use custom variables Use a database per environment with the variables Use a centralized database with all variables Additional information: Using XML Package Configuration with SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) Packages Question 14 - How do you upgrade an SSIS Package? Depending on the complexity of the package, one or two techniques are typically used: Recode the package based on the functionality in SQL Server DTS Use the Migrate DTS 2000 Package wizard in BIDS then recode any portion of the package that is not accurate Additional information: Upgrade SQL Server DTS Packages to Integration Services Packages Question 15 - Can you name five of the Perfmon counters for SSIS and the value they provide?
SQLServer:SSIS Service SSIS Package Instances - Total number of simultaneous SSIS Packages running SQLServer:SSIS Pipeline BLOB bytes read - Total bytes read from binary large objects during the monitoring period. BLOB bytes written - Total bytes written to binary large objects during the monitoring period. BLOB files in use - Number of binary large objects files used during the data flow task during the monitoring period. Buffer memory - The amount of physical or virtual memory used by the data flow task during the monitoring period. Buffers in use - The number of buffers in use during the data flow task during the monitoring period. Buffers spooled - The number of buffers written to disk during the data flow task during the monitoring period. Flat buffer memory - The total number of blocks of memory in use by the data flow task during the monitoring period. Flat buffers in use - The number of blocks of memory in use by the data flow task at a point in time. Private buffer memory - The total amount of physical or virtual memory used by data transformation tasks in the data flow engine during the monitoring period.

Private buffers in use - The number of blocks of memory in use by the transformations in the data flow task at a point in time. Rows read - Total number of input rows in use by the data flow task at a point in time. Rows written - Total number of output rows in use by the data flow task at a point in time. _______________________________________________________________________

Database concepts Interview questions - Part 1


Next>> Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 Define Fact tables and dimension tables. Fact tables are central tables in data warehousing. They contain the aggregate values that are used in business process.............. Read answer Explain the ETL process in Data warehousing. Extraction, Transformation and loading are different stages in data warehousing................ Read answer What is Data mining? Data mining is a process of analyzing current data and summarizing the information in more useful manner.................. Read answer What are indexes? Index can be thought as index of the book that is used for fast retrieval of information. Index uses one or more column index keys and pointers to the record to locate record............... Read answer Explain the types of indexes? Clustered index Non-clustered..................... Read answer Define SQL. SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It allows access, insert/update/delete records and retrieve data from the database................... Read answer What is RDBMS? Explain its features. RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management System. It organizes data into related rows and columns................... Read answer

What is an Entity-Relationship diagram? It is a graphical representation of tables with the relationship between them................ Read answer Define referential integrity. It is the rules that are applied when the relationships are created. It ensures integrity of data and prevents inconsitent data into the tables............... Read answer Define Primary key and Foreign key. A column or combination of columns that identify a row of data in a table is Primary Key............ Read answer Define alternate key. There can be a key apart from primary key in a table that can also be a key. This key may or may not be a unique key.............. Read answer Database interview questions- April 06, 2009, 17:40 pm by Nishant Kumar

Delete vs. Truncate table.


Delete logs the deletion of each row whereas Truncate doesn't log deleted rows in the transaction log. This makes truncate command is bit faster than Delete command.

Define constraints.
Constraints enforce integrity of the database. Constraints can be of following types Not Null Check Unique Primary key Foreign key Database interview questions- April 12, 2009, 14:50 pm by Nishant Kumar

Define stored procedure.


Stored procedure is a set of pre-compiled SQL statements, executed when it is called in the program.

Define Trigger.
Triggers are similar to stored procedure except it is executed automatically when any operations are occurred on the table. Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4

Next>> Also read What is Data warehousing? Answer - A data warehouse can be considered as a storage area where interest specific or relevant data........ What is an OLTP system and OLAP system? Answer - OLTP: Online Transaction and Processing helps and manages applications based........ SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services Interview Questions What is SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS)? What are the new features with SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS)? What are SQL Server Analysis Services cubes? Explain the purpose of synchronization feature provided in Analysis Services 2005. Explain the new features of SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS). [Hint - Unified Dimensional Model, Data Source View, new aggregation functions and querying tools].................... OLAP interview questions Explain the concepts and capabilities of OLAP. Explain the functionality of OLAP. What are MOLAP and ROLAP? Explain the role of bitmap indexes to solve aggregation problems. Explain the encoding technique used in bitmaps indexes. What is Binning? What is candidate check?.................. Define Truncate and Delete commands. Answer - Truncate command is used to remove all rows of the column.The removed records are not recorded in the transaction log...... Define Primary and Unique key. Answer - The column or columns of the table whose value uniquely identifies each row in the table is called primary key. You can define column as primary key using primary key constraint while you create table..... What is index? Define its types. Answer - Index can be thought as index of the book that is used for fast retrieval of information. Index uses one or more column index keys and pointers to the record to locate record......... Define Normalization and De- Normalization. Answer - It is the process of organizing data into related table. To normalize database, we divide database into tables..... What is transact-SQL? Describe its types?

Answer - SQL Server Provides three types of Transact-SQL statements namely DDL, DCL, and DML....

Database concepts Interview questions - Part 2


<<Previous Next>> Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 Define SQL. Structured query language, SQL is an ANSI standard language that provides commands to access and update databases............. Explain the difference between DBMS and RDBMS. DBMS offers organized way of storing, managing and retrieving information.......... What are E-R diagrams? E-R diagrams, i.e. Entity-Relationship diagram represent relationship between various tables in the database.............. Explain the types of relationships in database. One-to-one One to one is implemented using single table by establishing relationship between same type of columns in a table............... What are the benifits of normalizing database? It helps to avoid duplicate entries. It allows saving storage space.................... What is normalization? It is the process of organizing data into related table. To normalize database, we divide database into tables and establish relationships between the tables............ What is denormalization? The process of adding redundant data to get rid of complex join, in order to optimize database performance. This is done to speed up database access by moving from higher to lower form of normalization................. Explain DML and DDL statements. Data definition language is used to define and manage all attributes and properties of a database.................. Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 <<Previous Next>>

Also read Define database objects. Answer - SQL Server database stores information in a two dimensional objects of rows and columns called table...... Define data, entity, domain and referential integrity. Answer - Data Integrity validates the data before getting stored in the columns of the table. SQL Server supports four type of data integrity..... SQL Server Optimization Tips Answer - Restricting query result means return of required rows instead of all rows of the table. This helps in reducing network traffic...... What are the lock types? Answer - Shared Lock allows simultaneous access of record by multiple Select statements. Shared Lock blocks record from updating and will remain in queue waiting while record is accessed for reading...... XSLT in SQL Server 2005 Overview of XSLT and the components that make up an XSLT style sheet. What is XSLCompiledTransform class of the .NET Framework? What is XSLTSetting class of the .NET Framework?

Database concepts Interview questions - Part 3


<<Previous Next>> Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 What is Union and Union All operator? Union is used to combine distinct records from two tables. Union all combines all records from two tables.............. What is cursor? A Cursor is a database object that represents a result set and is used to manipulate data row by row. When a cursor is opened, it is positioned on a row and that row is available for processing............. Explain the cursor types. DYNAMIC: It reflects changes happened on the table while scrolling through the row. STATIC: It works on snapshot of record set and disconnects from the server............... Explain in brief the cursor optimization tips. Close cursor when it is not required. You shouldnt forget to deallocate cursor after closing it................

What is sub-query? Sub-query is a query within a Query. Example of sub-query: Select CustId, Custname From Customer Where Cust_Id IN (Select Doct_Id from Doctor)............... Explain the use of group by clause. "Group By" is used to derive aggegate values by grouping similar data................ Difference between clustered and non-clustered index. Both stored as B-tree structure. The leaf level of a clustered index is the actual data where as leaf level of a nonclustered index is pointer to data............... Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 <<Previous Next>> Also read Querying and modifying XML data in SQL Server 2005 What is XQuery language? Explain the syntax rule of XQuery language. XQuery expression contains two parts: the Prolog and the Body. Explain them Explain PATH expression in XQuery with an example. SQL Server 2005 XML support Explain the concepts and capabilities of SOAP. Explain the purpose of Native XML mode in SQL Server 2005. Native XML Access vs. SQLXML. Benefits of Native XML Access in SQL Server 2005. Limitation for Native XML Web Services. Define Distributed Query and Linked Server? Answer - Distributed Query is a query which can retrieve data from multiple data sources including distributed data........ Describe in brief Databases and SQL Server Databases Architecture. Answer - A database is a structured collection of data. Database can be thought as simple data file...... What security features are available for stored procedures? Answer - Database users can have permission to execute a stored procedure without being......

Database concepts Interview questions - Part 4


<<Previous Next>> Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4

Define aggregate and scalar functions. Aggregate Functions return a single value by operating against a group of values. Scalar functions operate against a single value................ What are the restrictions applicable while creating views? Views can be created referencing tables and views only in the current database. A view name must not be the same as any table owned by that user. You can build views on other views and on procedures that reference views............. What is "correlated subqueries"? In "correlated subqueries", the result of outer query is passed to the subquery and the subquery runs for each row............... What is Data Warehousing? Data Warehousing is a process of storing and accessing data from central location for some strategic decision................ What is a join and explain different types of joins. Joins are used in queries to explain how different tables are related. Joins also let you select data from a table depending upon data from another table................ Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 <<Previous Next>> Also read What are the capabilities of Cursors? Answer - Cursors can support various functionalities that are listed here..... What are the ways to controlling Cursor Behavior? Answer - Cursors behavior can be controlled by dividing them into cursor types: forward-only, static,........ Define temporary and extended stored procedure. Answer - Temporary Stored Procedure is stored in TempDB database. It is volatile and is deleted once connection gets terminated or server is restarted...... Describe in brief authentication modes in SQL server. Answer - This is the default and recommended security mode. In this mode, access to SQL server is controlled by Windows NT..... Define Identity and uniqueidentifier property of Column.

Answer - Column with identity property contains unique system generated value in the table. Column with identity property is similar to AutoNumber field in MS Access....

Database index tuning interview questions


<<Previous Next>> What is Index tuning? Query performance as well as speed improvement of a database can be done using Indexes. The process of enhancing the selection of indexes is called Index Tuning.................. How is index tuning used to improve query performance? The Index tuning wizard can be used to improve the performance of queries and databases. It uses the following measures to do so:............... <<Previous Next>> Also read SQL Server Optimization Tips Restricting query result means return of required rows instead of all rows of the table. This helps in reducing network traffic...... SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services Interview Questions What is SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS)? What are the new features with SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS)? What are SQL Server Analysis Services cubes? Explain the purpose of synchronization feature provided in Analysis Services 2005. Explain the new features of SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services (SSAS). [Hint - Unified Dimensional Model, Data Source View, new aggregation functions and querying tools].................... What are the ways to code efficient transactions? Database users can have permission to execute a stored procedure without being.... What are the ways to controlling Cursor Behavior? Cursors behavior can be controlled by dividing them into cursor types: forward-only, static,........ What are cubes? A data cube stores data in a summarized version which helps in a faster analysis of data.......... What is snow flake scheme design in database? A snowflake Schema in its simplest form is an arrangement of fact tables.........

Database Optimization Interview questions


<<Previous Next>> Reasons of poor performance of query.

No indexes Excess recompilations of stored procedures. Procedures and triggers without SET NOCOUNT ON...............

What are the ways to code efficient transactions?

We shouldn't allow input from users during a transaction. We shouldn't open transactions while browsing through data...................

Explain Execution Plan.

SQL Server caches the plan of execution of query or stored procedure which it uses in subsequent call...................

What are Indexes?

Index can be thought as index of the book that is used for fast retrieval of information. Index uses one or more column index keys and pointers to the record to locate record............

Explain in brief the cursor optimization tips.

Close cursor when it is not required. You shouldnt forget to deallocate cursor after closing it. ...............

What are B-trees? Explain Table Scan and Index Scan. Describe FillFactor concept in indexes. What are Index statistics? Describe Fragmentation. Explain Nested Join, Hash Join, and Merge Join in SQL Query Plan. <<Previous Next>> Also read SQL Server Optimization Tips Answer - Restricting query result means return of required rows instead of all rows of the table. This helps in reducing network traffic......

What are the lock types? Answer - Shared Lock allows simultaneous access of record by multiple Select statements. Shared Lock blocks record from updating and will remain in queue waiting while record is accessed for reading...... CLR support for SQL Server 2005 Overview of integration of CLR with SQL Server. Advantages of CLR integration. Indexing XML data in SQL Server 2005 Explain the concepts of indexing XML data in SQL Server 2005. Provide basic syntax for creating index on XML data type column. What is content indexing/full text indexing? Explain the reason to index XML data type column. What are the guidelines to be adhered when creating a XML index?

Database Partitioning interview questions


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What is database partitioning?


Database partitioning involves dividing logical database into distinct independent units to improve its performance, manageability and availability. Explain how is partitioning an important part of database optimization. <<Previous Next>> Also read Describe in brief Databases and SQL Server Databases Architecture. Answer - A database is a structured collection of data. Database can be thought as simple data file...... Define Normalization and De- Normalization. Answer - It is the process of organizing data into related table. To normalize database, we divide database into tables..... Define transaction and transaction isolation levels. Answer - A transaction is a set of operations that works as a single unit. The ransactions can be categorized into explicit, autocommit, and implicit.... Define Truncate and Delete commands. Answer - Truncate command is used to remove all rows of the column.The removed records are not recorded in the transaction log......