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Scott Fitzgerald (pe care l putei asculta citind Shakespeare i Keats aici) este cunoscut n special pentru romanul sau, Marele Gatsby, precum i pentru proza sa scurt. Cu toate acestea, este considerat c ar fi avut un handicap la citit, cel mai probabil dislexie. La 12 ani a fost dat afar din coal pentru c nu putea s i duc pn la capt temele i nu tia deloc s scrie corect.

Francezul Gustave Flaubert este unul din numele de marc ale literaturii universale. Primul su roman, Doamna Bovary, este i azi considerat de referin. Flaubert a fost recunoscut pentru perfecionismul su i nu s-a sfiit niciodat s vorbeasc despre dislexia de care a suferit.

Am handicapul de a m fi nscut cu un limbaj special la care numai eu am acces. Scenaristul i romancierul John Irving este autorul unor bestseller-uri precum Lumea vzut de Garp i The Cider House Rules. Dislexia sa, ns, l-a fcut oarecum un outsider.

Dislexia nu era un diagnostic disponibil la sfritul anilor 50 ortografierea proast era considerat de terapeutul lingvist, care mi-a studiat cazul misterios, o problem psihic. Cnd terapia lingvistic a fost evaluat ca neavnd nicio influen vizibil asupra mea, am fost preluat de psihiatrul colii.

Cnd i dac Hans Christian Andersen, autorul basmelor copilriei noastre (despre care am mai povestit aici), a suferit de dislexie este o tem disputat de biografii si. Fr niciun dubiu, ns, acesta a ntmpinat probleme de scris i citit n limba danez, amnunt pe care studiile moderne l catalogheaz drept dislexie. George Bernard ShawEste considerat c Shaw ar fi suferit de ADHD. Dei este cofondator al colii de Economie din Londra, nu a fost un iubitor al educaiei formale, spunnd la un moment dat c colile sunt un fel de nchisori n care copiii sunt inui pentru a nu-i deranja prinii.

Jules Verne, cel care a inaugurat genul SF (mai multe despre subiect putei citi aici) a fost un elev problem la vremea sa, plngndu-se de incapacitate de concentrare. Dei a trit ntr-o epoc n care nu a putut fi diagnosticat, specialitii de azi spun c scriitorul ar fi suferit de o form de ADHD.

Although as many as one in 10 people have dyslexia, it's one of the most commonly misdiagnosed learning issues for school-age children. At least, according to Drs. Brock and Fernette Eide, physicians and co-authors of the book The Mislabeled Child. That's because ADHD often acts as a red herring, throwing evaluators off the scent. "If you talk to most parents or teachers, ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is the first thing on people's minds when a student's falling behind in class or is struggling in school," says Dr. Brock Eide. "But what they should be doing is thinking about dyslexia. The dyslexic child is often a mislabeled child." Children with unrecognized dyslexia are often seen as inattentive, careless, or slow, but, the Eides say, often nothing could be farther from the truth. "Dyslexics are overrepresented in creative and inventive fields like art and architecture or computers and engineering, " according to Dr. Fernette Eide. "As young people, their gifts and talents may be overlooked because society only sees their weakest link." Although dyslexia is one of the most common specific learning disabilities, it's not always identified in school. Many parents and professionals are more aware of attention deficit disorder checklists than ones for dyslexia. That's exactly why parents need to be on the lookout, says Dr. Fernette Eide. "Parents need to be alert to the possibility of dyslexia, because they may be the only one who recognizes their child's pattern of difficulties, so they can help get them the proper assessments, accommodations, and remediations they need." That's all well and good. But what exactly should you look for? The authors say the following traits are red flags for possible dyslexia:

Reading is slow and effortful (especially reading aloud) Tendency to make wild guesses with new words Trouble appreciating rhymes. For example, they may not "get" Dr. Seuss May skip over small words (like a, an, the) while reading Mixes up order of letters Avoids reading aloud Listening comprehension much better than reading comprehension Letter reversals, unusual spelling errors (may look like wild guesses) May avoid writing by hand "Careless" errors in math or with reading test instructions Does much better with oral testing

If your child shows these signs, the Eides urge, don't just assume they're being lazy. There may be something else at work. ADHD might be a big buzz word in the media, but dyslexia is far more common. And the earlier it's diagnosed, the sooner help can arrive.

The ABC's of Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability that affects reading and writing skills by causing children and adults to experience difficulty in associating written symbols (like letters and words) with their sounds. Dyslexia is a brain-based disorder, and can occur even in very bright people. It is unclear what causes the frustrating problem, but it appears that the brains of people with dyslexia process language-based information (especially written information) in a less efficient way. Dyslexia is hereditary (it runs in families). It is estimated that up to 20% of people in the US have difficulty reading, and the majority of these individuals have Dyslexia. At this time, there is no cure for Dyslexia, but there are many ways to help your child manage the problem and succeed. Diagnosing Dyslexia. There is a normal range of ages during which most children become ready to read. Most preschoolers being to recognize letters and numbers, and hey gradually remember the sounds associated with each letter. By age 6-7, most children are ready to sound out words and begin reading simple books. Some signs of Dyslexia in young children include difficulty with handwriting, trouble learning letters and numbers, trouble with rhyming, difficulty reading and writing ones name, struggling with speech, or trouble remembering words. Dyslexia is generally diagnosed when a child is in elementary school, but in some cases it becomes more apparent later on when reading comprehension and grammar are more important to the curriculum. Older children may read and spell below their grade level, have difficulty with math (especially word problems), or struggle with reading and writing. Chances are your childs teacher will notice signs of Dyslexia before you do. The disorder is diagnosed through an evaluation by a reading or educational specialist or school psychologist usually employed by the school system. Treating young children. If you notice that your preschooler is having difficulty learning how to talk, tell your pediatrician as soon as possible. We know that language-related problems (such as learning, communicating verbally, and learning to sound out letters and words) can have less severe consequences if treatment is begun early. Children who have early language problems also may have more difficulty in learning how to read and write. There are early intervention programs and school-based evaluations that are available even to very young children with possible delays. There are speech-language therapists and reading specialists who work in schools with children who suffer from Dyslexia. They will break things down into smaller steps for your child, work with him in a smaller and quieter environment, read material to him, or use instructional aids such as books with big print or specially lined paper. Out-of-school tutoring can also help your child master symbols-to-sounds associations more easily. Treating older children. As your child enters higher grades, there is more and more emphasis on reading and written communication at school, and some homework assignments may be challenging. She may become more self-conscious as her struggle with Dyslexia continues and as she becomes more aware that she struggles more than her peers. Sometimes, children with Dyslexia experience low self-esteem and assume they are not as smart as others because of their academic troubles. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that children with Dyslexia are entitled to special education assistance in public schools, usually from a reading specialist or special education tutor. For more information on the special education process, see OneToughJobs fact sheet on Special Education. Even with extra help and support, your child may continue to struggle with academic work. is important that you remain in communication with

her regular and special education teachers and help to find strategies that work for her. These can include using books on tape or a tape recorder, allowing some assignments to be modified slightly, not penalizing her for spelling mistakes, having her type written work with a word processing program that has a spell checker, helping her take notes (or obtaining a copy of class notes from a teacher or classmate), clarifying written instructions, and providing help with organizing and writing papers and long-term projects. Also, children with Dyslexia are at slightly higher risk for other learning or emotional difficulties. If you feel that extra services and support for her Dyslexia have not helped your child, ask to get her tested for other problems that could be affecting her, as these have their own diagnosis and treatment. How you can help your child. Although your child may not enjoy reading because it presents a struggle, reading is important for both younger and older children because it helps in developing their creativity, listening skills, and ability to understand things. You can continue to read to your child, even when he is older. You can also encourage him to read something fun, like a magazine. Also, It is important that you support and encourage your child in other areas and activities that she enjoys and excels in to build her self-confidence and to foster participation in non-academic activities that may one day lead to a lifelong interest and career. While academic work may remain a challenge, bright children with dyslexia often go onto college. Be sure to inquire about academic supports available if you are looking at colleges.

AD/HD is a disorder of brain function. Most cases of AD/HD are genetic, but some result from brain injury. The National Institute of Mental Health has estimated that approximately 3% to 5% of school-aged children have AD/HD. People with AD/HD have difficulty regulating their behavior. There are different types of AD/HD - the predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive, and combined types. Individuals with the inattentive type of AD/HD have difficulty:

Paying attention to details Sustaining attention Listening to instructions Organizing themselves.

Children with the inattentive type avoid putting the attention and effort into their school work that is required. They have difficulty keeping track of assignments and homework papers. Organizational difficulties become increasingly apparent when the child must assume responsibility for school work and other aspects of their life-management. Individuals with the hyperactive/impulsive type of AD/HD:

Are very active - children are constantly moving and fidgeting; teenagers and adults may have only a sense of internal restlessness. Have difficulty taking turns in games and conversations. Often act without thinking or anticipating the consequences of their actions.

Some have difficulty controlling temper outbursts. Children with this type are usually diagnosed at a younger age than the inattentive type.

AD/HD often occurs in combination with learning disabilities - reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic and language problems, as well as social and emotional problems. Different approaches to treatment are required, depending on what other problems are in the picture. It is very important that a thorough evaluation and diagnosis be made by a trained professional. AD/HD cannot be "cured" but can be controlled with medication, which is the primary treatment. Parent training is very helpful because it teaches parents how to help their children. Older teenagers and adults may benefit from counseling. School is often very difficult for children with AD/HD, and teachers play a crucial part in helping the AD/HD child perform successfully in school. Ways to Help a Child with AD/HD

Provide structure and a consistent schedule - help the child learn routines around daily activities such as getting dressed and going to bed. Use a picture calendar/schedule for the young child. Make sure that the child gets enough sleep. Work out "clean up" routines and organize and label areas used for toy storage and clothing. Make picture labels for a young child and word labels for a child who can read. Provide consistent, low-key reminders, prompts and cues when needed. AD/HD children need to be taught and monitored on the use of organizational strategies-color-coded folders for different subjects, labeling, the use of checklists and to-do lists, setting goals and breaking projects into small, manageable chunks. Be consistent about rewards and consequences, so that your child knows what to expect. Be generous with praise when your child performs well, but avoid being overly critical when things are not going well. On a daily basis, supervise the school-age child in reviewing homework assignments, organizing the backpack and filing papers (but don't do it for him or her). Older children and adults benefit from all these organizational pointers. Teachers can help a lot by stressing organizational routines and staying in close communication with parents so that the parent knows what is going on in school. Teachers can allow hyperactive children to have movement breaks.

Most dyslexics will exhibit about 10 of the following traits and behaviors. These characteristics can vary from day-to-day or minute-to-minute. The most consistent thing about dyslexics is their inconsistency.


Appears bright, highly intelligent, and articulate but unable to read, write, or spell at grade level. Labelled lazy, dumb, careless, immature, "not trying hard enough," or "behavior problem." Isn't "behind enough" or "bad enough" to be helped in the school setting. High in IQ, yet may not test well academically; tests well orally, but not written. Feels dumb; has poor selfesteem; hides or covers up weaknesses with ingenious compensatory strategies; easily frustrated and emotional about school reading or testing. Talented in art, drama, music, sports, mechanics, story-telling, sales, business, designing, building, or engineering. Seems to "Zone out" or daydream often; gets lost easily or loses track of time. Difficulty sustaining attention; seems "hyper" or "daydreamer." Learns best through hands-on experience, demonstrations, experimentation, observation, and visual aids.

Dyslexic children and adults can become avid and enthusiastic readers when given learning tools that fit their creative learning style.

Learn more. Find help.

Math and Time Management

Vision, Reading, and Spelling

Complains of dizziness, headaches or stomach aches while reading. Confused by letters, numbers, words, sequences, or verbal explanations. Reading or writing shows repetitions, additions, transpositions, omissions, substitutions, and reversals in letters, numbers and/or words.

Has difficulty telling time, managing time, learning sequenced information or tasks, or being on time. Computing math shows dependence on finger counting and other tricks; knows answers, but can't do it on paper. Can count, but has difficulty counting objects and dealing with money. Can do arithmetic, but fails word problems; cannot grasp algebra or higher math.

Complains of feeling or seeing non-existent movement while reading, writing, or copying. Seems to have difficulty with vision, yet eye exams don't reveal a problem. Extremely keen sighted and observant, or lacks depth perception and peripheral vision. Reads and rereads with little comprehension. Spells phonetically and inconsistently.

Memory and Cognition

Excellent long-term memory for experiences, locations, and faces. Poor memory for sequences, facts and information that has not been experienced. Thinks primarily with images and feeling, not sounds or words (little internal dialogue).

Hearing and Speech

Behavior, Health, Development and Personality

Has extended hearing; hears things not said or apparent to others; easily distracted by sounds. Difficulty putting thoughts into words; speaks in halting phrases; leaves sentences incomplete; stutters under stress; mispronounces long words, or transposes phrases, words, and syllables when speaking.

Writing and Motor Skills

Trouble with writing or copying; pencil grip is unusual; handwriting varies or is illegible. Clumsy, uncoordinated, poor at ball or team sports; difficulties with fine and/or gross motor skills and tasks; prone to motionsickness. Can be ambidextrous, and often confuses left/right, over/under.

Extremely disorderly or compulsively orderly. Can be class clown, troublemaker, or too quiet. Had unusually early or late developmental stages (talking, crawling, walking, tying shoes). Prone to ear infections; sensitive to foods, additives, and chemical products. Can be an extra deep or light sleeper; bedwetting beyond appropriate age. Unusually high or low tolerance for pain. Strong sense of justice; emotionally sensitive; strives for perfection. Mistakes and symptoms increase dramatically with confusion, time pressure, emotional stress, or poor health.

More Information:

Common Traits of Adult Dyslexia Symptoms and Diagnosis. Davis Dyslexia Correction Explained. FAQs: Testing for Dyslexia

Free Online Assessment.

The Davis Dyslexia Correction program helps people with these characteristics every day. The disabling aspects of Dyslexia are correctable and can be overcome.
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ADHD and Dyslexia

Some ADHD Type Behaviors May be Caused by Common Learning Disorder

Nov 1, 2009 Zoe Langley

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Dyslexia is Easily Misdiagnosed as ADHD - ianthes Typical ADHD symptoms such as inattention and poor reading skills, may actually be signs of dyslexia, a widespread and very treatable learning disorder.

A child or adult having difficulty reading or learning to read, following simple verbal instructions, or paying attention, may seem to have ADHD, but in fact dyslexia, a learning disorder involving reading difficulties might be the problem. When these type symptoms arise, a thorough evaluation for dyslexia before considering a label of ADHD might reduce the chances of misdiagnosis. If recognized early, dyslexia can often be overcome with proper therapy and does not require drugs for treatment.

What is Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a language processing and learning disorder. It may be inborn or may be acquired, though the cause is not always clear. The person with dyslexia usually has normal or aboveaverage intelligence. How the brain handles written and spoken language is the main problem. Dyslexia, the most common of children's learning disorders, affects as many as 1 in 10 adults and children in the United States. In The New Brain: How The Modern Age is Rewiring Your Mind, Richard Restak, MD, notes studies indicating dyslexia, like other reading disorders, may be developmental and can often be overcome with proper treatment. Restak writes, "In short, remedial programs can successfully reverse dyslexia as long as the programs target the underlying problem-the dyslexic's difficulty in grasping the correspondence between letters and phonemes (individual sounds of speech, such as syllables)."

Signs and Symptoms of Dyslexia

The following are just some of the signs of dyslexia that should not be mistaken for ADD or ADHD:

Slow reader Difficulty learning and pronouncing new words or with rhyming sounds Sequencing - may have difficulty with sequencing tasks, such as saying the letters of the alphabet in order Auditory processing -difficulty clearly understanding what is being said and following more than one instruction at a time Language - cannot follow rapid speech. Difficulty with spelling Inattentive - it may seem like someone with dyslexia is not paying attention because her or his speed of processing language is slower, especially with spoken language.

Speed of learning is a major factor in dyslexia.

Differences Between ADHD and Dyslexia

Children with ADHD symptoms have difficulty focusing and paying attention in all situations. Those with dyslexia may do more poorly at school or work, where there is less control over the environment than at home. In a home, the pace of activity can be changed to meet an individual's needs.

Popular topics

Symptoms of Dyslexia in Preschool, Kindergarten and Grade One Recognizing Dyslexia in Young Children What is Dyslexia?

Difficulty with auditory processing can lead to sensory overload causing confusion, frustration and some of the behaviors which might be mistaken for ADHD. Writing in The Misdiagnosis of Dyslexia, Fernette and Brock Eide state, "Children with unrecognized dyslexia are often misdiagnosed with ADD or ADHD because if they are underperforming, but have normal or above-average intelligence, ADD or ADHD may be the only other practical alternative on a teacher's, parent's, or physician's list of possibilities." The Eides, both physicians practicing in Edmonds, Washington, are the authors of The Mislabeled Child, a book on learning disorders and how to treat them. As Restak writes in The New Brain, with proper training the way the brain works can indeed be changed. According to the CDC, 5% to 8% of all children in the United States are labeled as having ADHD. The number of children and adults with dyslexia who are labeled as ADHD is not known.

Working Memory (LTM) in ADHD and Dyslexia

Short term memory is the ability to hold information in memory for short periods of time such as remembering a phone number long enough to dial it. Working memory involves being able to hold information in memory long enough to do something with it, to add a group of numbers, put words together to make a clear sentence. Poor working memory is common in those with ADHD and dyslexia. Treatment designed to improve working memory may help those with either disorder. Pamela Hook, PhD, president of the Massachusetts Branch of the International Dyslexia Association (MABIDA) and associate professor of the Communication Sciences and Disorders Program at the MGH Institute of Health Professions in Boston, advises people to act quickly when symptoms suggesting dyslexia arise. In a recent article in Medical News Today, Hook says, "Early and appropriate intervention is critical and will greatly increase your child's academic success and self-esteem. However, for older individuals with dyslexia it is never too late to learn to read, process, and express information more efficiently." When symptoms develop that look like ADHD, think dyslexia too.

Characteristics of Dyslexia The word dyslexia comes from Greek and means difficulty with words. Around 10% of the population have some form of dyslexia related issues. Dyslexia could be thought of as a different learning ability rather than a disability. Dyslexic people, of all ages, can learn efficiently and effectively, but often need a different approach.

Dyslexia is a puzzling mix of distinctive strengths and talents as well as clusters of difficulties. Dyslexics can be exceptionally creative and produce excellent ideas. Difficulties vary in degree from person to person. Lack of understanding and appropriate support can lead to low self esteem and depression. Generally, dyslexia can be said to be a processing problem. This means that a dyslexic brain processes information differently from a non-dyslexic brain. The ability to read and write can be significantly affected by this processing difference. However, this processing difference can effect far more than just reading and writing. Dyslexic problems can be grouped into five broad areas: 1. Mixing up similar linked items, eg: letters such as "b" and "d"; words such as "was" and "saw"; directions such as "left" and "right"; or anything that can be roughly paired together. 2. Problems with linear sequences. Anything which runs in a linear sequence can cause problems, eg: the alphabet; times tables; sentences; lists of instructions; etc. 3. Problems with short term memory. Dyslexics often have severe short term memory problems and struggle to retain information without significant reinforcement. 4. Coordination problems. Dyslexics can sometimes suffer from physical issues such as clumsiness, problems with word pronunication etc. On its own this is known as dyspraxia. 5. Reading and writing problems. The above four areas all combine to cause problems with literacy. However, because we live in such a literate society this can cause such a major impact that it can be considered a fifth area of difficulty. Some common characteristics that can indicate dyslexia include:

Skill levels lower than individual's intellect. Inconsistent IQ tests. Language processing difficulties Poor oral reading skills. Poor reading comprehension. Inconsistent listening comprehension. Literal interpretation of language. Auditory perceptual differences Difficulty remembering directions. Poor spelling skills Visual perception differences Poor copying, handwriting. Poor eye-hand co-ordination. Attention/concentration deficits Organisational problems Time management problems

No single dyslexic will have all of these difficulties but will often have a number of them. One of the problems of characterising dyslexia is that the experience of each dyslexic is different and

two people can have completely different indicators of dyslexia. Thus, assistance that helps one dyslexic, may not help another.

Misdiagnosed Attention Deficit Disorder ADHD

Nearly 1 million children in the US are potentially misdiagnosed with ADHD simply because they are the youngest and most immature in their kindergarten class. This is according to Todd Elders research at Michigan State University as reported in Science Daily. Think about this for a minute. Almost 1 million children are potentially misdiagnosed with ADHD. And what happens when a child is misdiagnosed? More often than not that child is prescribed to take behavior-modifying stimulants such as Ritalin and they dont need them!

Diagnosing ADHD or Misdiagnosing ADHD

There are two important criteria to look at in the diagnosis and misdiagnosis of ADHD. The first is the most obvious criteria. Look at the behaviors a child is having, doing, exhibiting. For example, can they sit still for a lesson or while you read to them? The second criteria is critical! What is the age of the child doing the behavior, and do look at others of the same age. If a child cant seem to sit still but he is only 5 and the rest of the children are 6 or close to being 6, that is a big difference! It is much harder for a 5 year old to sit still than for a 6 year old to sit still. Teachers and medical practitioners need to remember this when evaluating whether a child has ADHD.

Additional Situations to Look at Regarding Diagnosis and Misdiagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder ADHD

1. Is the problem you are seeing situational (e.g. Only one parent sees it as a problem; at school

they dont seem to have the problems, when they are with dad they dont seem to have the problems, or when they are with mom they dont seem to have the problems.) 2. If only one parent is having problems with the child, it may be a problem with parenting skills (e.g. Yelling at the child such as You dont act like you want to be part of the family. or Get up right now or else and then not follow through with a consequence.). 3. If the teacher is the only one having a problem it may be a problem with the way the teacher is dealing with the child or it may be an inexperienced teacher. 4. Other times a child is misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder is when the actual problem occurs through a shutdown of either their auditory system or their vision system.

When the auditory or vision system becomes overloaded, it shuts down and needs a break. When either of these systems shuts down temporarily, the child often appears to be not paying attention. What is happening is either the vision system or the auditory system is resting. Unfortunately, often the child has trouble bringing themselves back to the activity at hand. A gentle reminder to come back to the activity is all that is needed in this instance, and it may need to be given each time they arent paying attention until the child learns to come back on their own.

Remember, a diagnosis of ADHD requires evidence of multiple symptoms of

inattention or hyperactivity, with these symptoms persisting for six or more months and in at least two settings before the age of seven. The settings include home and school.
Additionally, teachers cannot diagnose ADHD, but, their opinions are often used in decisions to send a child to be evaluated for attention deficit disorder. You know your child. Remember, the diagnosis requires evidence of multiple symptoms in at least two settings, so if the school is seeing symptoms and you dont see symptoms at home the problem might not be one of ADHD. That is NOT to say that you dont want to look into it. Obviously something is going on that is interfering with your childs learning and you do want to see what you can do to make learning easier for them. Many ADHD diagnoses may be driven by teachers perceptions of poor behavior among the youngest children in a kindergarten classroom, Todd Elder states. But these symptoms may merely reflect emotional or intellectual immaturity among the youngest students.

So, what happens educationally when your child has ADHD?

Educational Problems Caused by ADD/ADHD

Although attention deficit disorder (ADHD) is not a learning disability, ADD/ADHD obviously affects performance in a school setting, as well as affects other parts of their life. Kids and adults with ADD have neurological gaps that interfere with the cognitive processes of memory, concentration, and attention span. In other words, kids with attention deficit disorder have often missed out on instruction because they were distracted and attending to other things instead of the instruction that was being

given. Assignments, especially homework may be missed because they were distracted and attending to other things instead of the assignment that was being given. When kids arent paying attention in class, they often miss bits and pieces of skills, content, and the easy tricks to becoming efficient learners. Dr. Daniel Amen states that school problems can include: o Restlessness o Short attention span and distractibility o Impulsiveness o Procrastination o Trouble shifting attention o Forgetfulness o Writing disabilities o Reading disabilities o Visual processing problems o Auditory processing problems o Unusual study habits o Difficulties with timed situations such as timed tests.
ADHD and Learning Disabilities or Dyslexia

About 70% of kids with ADHD also have dyslexia, learning difficulties or learning disabilities. School age kids may have problems with reading, spelling, writing, penmanship, or arithmetic. The question then becomes one of, how do I help my ADHD kids to do well in school when they have such trouble attending to the instruction? How do I help them to improve their memory, mental energy, organizational skills, and expressive vocabulary so they can succeed in the school setting? There is a lot you can do to help your ADHD child in school. The key is to determine what specifically is interfering with their learning. Is it only the ADHD, or have they been misdiagnosed with ADHD? Are there other underlying causes interfering with their learning in addition to ADHD? For more information on the underlying causes of learning problems, you will want to check out our comprehensive behaviorally based learning assessment. It is critical to your childs success, whether they have attention deficit disorder or not or whether they have been misdiagnosed with ADHD or not, to find out what other underlying causes may be contributing to your childs educational struggles. Once you know exactly what is going on, there is so much you can do to help your child whether they have ADHD, have been misdiagnosed with ADHD or have a learning difficulty or learning disability.

Whilst it may be tempting to place a badge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on a child to explain both bad behaviour and a lack of educational progress at school, dyslexia is one of the first conditions that should be considered and ruled out before seeking tests to see if ADHD is the cause of behavioural and learning problems. Both conditions will require a specialist teaching approach, but in many cases ADHD can be rectified by taking a daily medication. For real sufferer's of ADHD, taking a daily medication such as Ritalin can seem like a 'magic fix' to parents and teachers alike. On the other hand, dyslexic children will always require a specialist teaching approach to help them, and ADHD medication will have little in the way of a positive effect. A dyslexic child misdiagnosed as an ADHD sufferer will still struggle at school and the effects of Ritalin could have precisely the opposite effect to that intended: Ritalin is designed to stimulate an under active part of the brain in an ADHD sufferer; in a 'normal' child it can have the effect of making the child appear more fearful and cautious than they should be as the prefrontal cortex area of the brain becomes over stimulated. Getting the right diagnosis for your child is the most important way to help them, so how are Dyslexia and ADHD similar and how do these conditions differ?
Dyslexia Traits As many as one in 10 people have dyslexia, and it is one of the most frequently misdiagnosed learning difficulties in school-age children. Before any serious consideration of ADHD is considered, tests should be made to exclude learning difficulties such as dyslexia. When this condition is unrecognised, children are often seen as inattentive, careless with their schoolwork or academically slow; however it should be noted that dyslexic children are often highly intelligent, creative and inventive.

When looking at behaviours and symptoms, the following traits are indicators to suggest possible dyslexia:

Where reading is slow Where asking a child to read aloud presents considerable difficulties Where a child makes wild guesses with new words rather than attempting to sound them out phonetically Where a child has trouble appreciating rhymes When small words are skipped whilst reading Where a child mixes up the order of letters, or makes unusual spelling mistakes When a child performs well in oral tests but poorly in written ones Where a child shows a much better understanding of a text that is read to them, than a text they read to themselves Handwriting is poor and littered with spelling mistakes Careless errors are made in schoolwork A child frequently appears to misunderstand written instructions

Similarities between ADHD and Dyslexia Like ADHD, dyslexia can cause a wide range of learning difficulties at school; this condition does not reflect the intelligence of a sufferer, as it can affect anyone of high or low intelligence. Because difficulties with reading can make a child feel as if they are 'stupid', suffers can have a low self esteem and will frequently resort to disruptive behaviour to avoid having to do scheduled schoolwork. Reading books will be 'lost' or forgotten in a bid to avoid having to read aloud. Any of these symptoms can easily be confused with the spectrum of learning difficulties and behaviours shown in ADHD. Differentiating between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Dyslexia A dyslexic is unlikely to show the symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsiveness that are common is some forms of ADHD. Dyslexic children will still have a healthy fear of danger and an awareness of the consequences of their actions; additionally, they will be less likely to blurt things out and will have no obvious problems waiting their turn, sitting still or paying attention, especially where activities do not involve a requirement to read any texts.

Whilst some problems with socialisation may occur if a dyslexic's feelings of self worth are very low, a dyslexic will still find it possible to form and maintain friendships. Additionally, true symptoms of hyperactivity are unlikely, and will certainly not be maintained across a home and a school environment. Differentiating between predominantly inattentive ADHD and dyslexia can be more difficult, as hyperactive and impulsive behaviours may be absent. Comparing behaviours in different environments such as home, school, and the playground will be revealing, and a behaviour diary kept at home and school can be very useful to help teachers and parents uncover when and where bad behaviours are shown. If the problems are not shown equally across all settings it will not be ADHD, and parents and teachers alike will need to look for other more traditional causes for the problems.

ADHD or Dyslexia?
Dyslexia is often misdiagnosed for ADHD. It is true that 1 out of every 10 people have dyslexia but this is one of the most commonly misdiagnosed disorders. The co-authors of the book The Mislabeled Child Drs. Brock and Fernette Eide believe that ADHD can make the people turn a deaf ear toward dyslexia. If you talk to most parents or teachers, ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is the first thing on peoples minds when a students falling behind in class or is struggling in school,

says Dr. Brock Eide. But what they should be doing is thinking about dyslexia. The dyslexic child is often a mislabeled child. Children with unrecognized dyslexia are often perceived as lacking concentration, lackadaisical, or slow, but, according to the Eides; this is just a half-truth . Dyslexics are overrepresented in creative and inventive fields like art and architecture or computers and engineering, according to Dr. Fernette Eide. As young people, their gifts and talents may be overlooked because society only sees their weakest link. Here are the list of famous people with dyslexia. Although dyslexia is one of the most ordinary learning disabilities, its not always identified in school. Many parents and professionals are more in the know about ADHD, ADD checklists rather than the ones for dyslexia. This is the reason why Dr. Fernette Eide says that the parents have to be more aware. Parents need to be alert to the possibility of dyslexia, because they may be the only one who recognizes their childs pattern of difficulties, so they can help get them the proper assessments, accommodations, and remediations they need.

Signs of Dyslexia in Children

Here are the signs to look for in children with dyslexia Reading is slow and requires effort on the part of the child, especially when it comes to reading loud Skipping small words like a an for the etc while reading Not able to distinguish between rhyming words Finds letters being mixed up or jumbled while reading

Reversal of letters, unusual spelling errors, extremely illegible handwriting. Letter reversals, unusual spelling errors (may look like wild guesses) Makes excuses when it comes to writing by hand Careless errors in Math and in reading tests Feels more comfortable with oral tests compared to the written ones. Find out more about the difference between ADHD and Dyslexia. According to the Eides, if the child shows such signs, it may not be just that the children are lazy, they may be having some problems. So it is better to get the children diagnosed for dyslexia; the sooner the better. Read more about how to teach dyslexic children.

There may be confusion between ADHD and Dyslexia when a child or adult may have the following problems: 1. 2. 3. Difficulty reading or learning to read Understanding simple verbal information or instruction Difficulty while paying attention

All of the three may seem like an ADHD case, but the person may be suffering from dyslexia, a learning disorder. To really understand if the person is suffering from dyslexia and not ADHD or the other way round, a proper evaluation has to be done. In fact, if recognized early, through therapy dyslexia can be treated without the need for taking drugs. It has been seen that ADHD symptoms like poor attention and poor reading skills are due to dyslexia, a treatable learning disorder that is quite common that we think.

What is Dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a learning disorder that may be innate or may be acquired, though the reason is not known. The person with dyslexia typically has standard or above-average intelligence. Dyslexia is actually a common childrens learning disorder in the USA, with 1 in every 10 people, adults and children having it.

Symptoms of Dyslexia:
Not to be confused with ADHD or ADD, here are the signs or symptoms of Dyslexia:

Slow reading and interpretation compared to other people Making spelling mistakes, not able to differentiate d from b Trouble learning and pronouncing new words or the ones with rhythmic sounds Difficulty with sequential tasks, may not be able to say letters of the alphabet in order. Auditory processing issue: Too much information can appear garbled and confusing, he person is not able to understand more than one information at a time. Cannot follow speech that is fast. His or her lack of understanding or getting what is being told to him/her may be misconstrued as being purposely inattentive, which is not the case.

.Differences Between ADHD and Dyslexia

Children who have ADHD are not able to focus in all situations while the ones with Dyslexia have poor academic grades and usually fail at school or work; where they are not able to exercise as much control as they do in their homes.

Fernette and Brock Eide who have written The Misdiagnosis of Dyslexia say Children with unrecognized dyslexia are often misdiagnosed with ADD or ADHD because if they are underperforming, but have normal or above-average intelligence, ADD or ADHD may be the only other practical alternative on a teachers, parents, or physicians list of possibilities. The Eides, both physicians practicing in Edmonds, Washington, have also written The Mislabeled Child, a book on learning disorders and the treatment methodology. The main reason why Dyslexia and ADHD can appear as one is because a child with Dyslexia has problems with auditory processing leading to sensory overload causing confusion, frustration and some of the behavioral patterns that are similar to the one who suffers from ADHD. Pamela Hook, PhD, president of the Massachusetts Branch of the International Dyslexia Association (MABIDA) professor of the Communication Sciences and Disorders Program at the MGH Institute of Health Professions in Boston, asks people to act promptly when there are Dyslexia symptoms and not confuse ADHD with Dyslexia.. In an article in Medical News Today, Hook says, Early and appropriate intervention is critical and will greatly increase your childs academic success and self-esteem. However, for older individuals with dyslexia it is never too late to learn to read, process, and express information more efficiently. There is something known as working memory which means the ability to retain information in the memory for a long period of time, like understanding something that has been told so that it remains in the memory for a long time. Poor working memory is something that is seen in both ADHD and Dyslexia. So it is important to treat poor working memory in both cases. So, please understand that if a child looks like having an ADHD, it may well be Dyslexia talente-