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A Complete Solution to Bachelor of Public Health

Promotional Document

PURBANCHAL UNIVERSITY 2068 (2011) Medical/ Bachelor of Public Health (B.P.H.)/ Third Year Time: 03:00hrs. Full Marks: 80/ Pass Marks: 40 BPH302: Applied Environmental Health, Occupational Health & Safety Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. The figures in the margin indicate full marks. Answer EIGHT questions. 1. What is biodiversity? Explain its importance and major challenges to preserving it. Answer: 8x10=8

Biodiversity is a total variety of life on earth. It encompasses the total number, variety and variability of life forms, levels, and combination existing within the living the living world. As such, biodiversity means the richness and variety of living beings from all sources including, inter-alia, terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. - Convention on biological Diversity Biodiversity is usually described at three different levels: a. Species diversity b. Genetic diversity c. Ecosystem diversity

Importance of biodiversity a. Bio-diversity supports food security, dietary health, livelihood sustainability Genetic diversity in food system provides the foundation of crop development and food security, and promotes resistance and resilience to environmental stresses including pests and diseases of crops and livestock. Diets based on a diversity of food species promote health, and can help to protect against disease by addressing the problems of micro-nutrient and vitamin deficiencies. Loss of agricultural biodiversity can therefore threaten health, livelihood sustainability and our future security of food and nutrition. b. Biodiversity provides important resources for medical research Studies of wildlife anatomy, physiology and

A Complete Solution to Bachelor of Public Health

Promotional Document

PURBANCHAL UNIVERSITY 2068 (2011)


Medical/Bachelor of Public Health (B.P.H.)/ Third Year

Time: 03:00 hrs. BPH303: Human Resource Development

Full Marks: 80/ Pass Marks: 40

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. The figures in the margin indicate full marks. Answer EIGHT questions. 1. Define Human Resource Management (HRM). Write important prerequisites for Human Resource Development (HRD) and state why HR planning is necessary in an effective & efficient organization. Answer: Human resource management involves all management decisions and action that affect the nature of the relationship between the organization and its employees its human resources. - Beer et al, 1984 Human Resource Management in the context of health refers to functions involved in planning, organizing and supporting the professional development of the health workforce within a health system, both at the strategic and policy levels. - Martineau, Martinez

Important prerequisites for Human Resource Development a. Leadership readiness for and commitment to change - The preparation of national HRH plan must be solidly based on clear and sustained directives by the relevant health, education and manpower authorities. - The degree of awareness among health & educational leaders in relation to the quantity, distribution, utilization, functional imbalance between different categories, and other health manpower issues should be assessed. - Without such awareness and necessary support, the whole process of planning will at a later stage most probably end in defective, partial, or perhaps no plan implementation. b. Enabling legislation - The human resource policy and development is based on the basis of law, rules & regulations of own countries and respective organization. - Unless the willingness of ....

A Complete Solution to Bachelor of Public Health

Promotional Document

PURBANCHAL UNIVERSITY 2068 (2011)


Medical/Bachelor of Public Health (B.P.H.)/ Third Year

Time: 03:00 hrs. BPH304: Health Services Management in Nepal

Full Marks: 80/ Pass Marks: 40

Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. All questions carry equal marks. Answer EIGHT questions. 1. What is public private partnership (PPP)? How is PPP functioning in health services in Nepal? 5+5 Answer: A Public Private Partnership (PPP) is a sustained collaboration between public, civil society, community, or private organizations or projects to achieve objectives related to access, quality, equity and effectiveness. - Pessoa, 2006 Public Private Partnership or PPP in the context of the health sector is an instrument for improving the health of the population. PPP is to be seen in the context of viewing the whole medical sector as a national asset with health promotion as goal of all health providers, private or public. The private and non-profit sectors are also very much accountable to overall health systems and services of the country. - Government of India, 2007

Functioning of PPP in Nepal

Forms of PPP Community Managed Service Contracts -

Examples Health Posts and Sub Health Posts Blood transfusion services with Nepal Red Cross Society Family planning services with FPAN Safe abortion services with Marie Stopes Clinics Eye services with Nepal Netra Jyoti Sangh Maternity Hospital Thapathali by Paropakar Sanstha Phaplu Hospital, Phaplu Himalayan Trust Am Pipal Hospital, Gorkha, UMN/local community Manipal Medical College, Pokhara..

Build, Own, Operate & Transfer (BOOT)

A Complete Solution to Bachelor of Public Health

Promotional Document

PURBANCHAL UNIVERSITY 2068 (2011) Medical/ Bachelor of Public Health (B.P.H.)/ Third Year Time: 03:00 hrs. Full Marks: 80/ Pass Marks: 40 BPH 305: Applied Health Education and Oral health Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. The figures in the margin indicate full marks. Answer EIGHT questions. 1. What do you understand by career opportunities? Discuss the career opportunities in Health Education in worldwide perspectives. Answer: A career opportunity is a position that enables us to cultivate skills that we need/want in order to achieve our professional goals.

Career opportunities in Health education in worldwide perspectives Health Educators are the individuals who plan, implement and evaluate health education and promotion programs. These individuals play a crucial role in many organizations in various settings to improve our nations health. The career opportunities of health education are: i. Health Care Settings These include hospitals (for-profit and public), medical care clinics, home health agencies, etc. Here, a health educator teaches employees how to be healthy. Patient education positions are far and few between because insurance companies do not cover the costs. Public Health Agencies These are official, tax funded, government agencies. They provide police protection, educational systems, as well as clean air and water. Public health departments provide health services and are organized by a city, country, state or federal government.

ii. -

iii. School Health Education It involves all strategies, activities and services offered by or in association with schools that are designed to promote.

A Complete Solution to Bachelor of Public Health

Promotional Document

PURBANCHAL UNIVERSITY 2068 (2011) Medical/ Bachelor of Public Health (B.P.H.)/ Third Year Time: 03:00hrs. Full Marks: 80/ Pass Marks: 40 BPH306: App FH/ RH and Mental Health Candidates are required to give their answers in their own words as far as practicable. The figures in the margin indicate full marks. Answer EIGHT questions. 8x10=80

1. What is responsible parenthood? Being a public health professional how will you educate the parents for responsible parenthood? Answer: Responsible parenthood refers to the will and ability of parents to respond to the needs and aspirations of the family and children. It is a shared responsibility between husband and wife to determine and achieve the desired number, spacing and timing of their children according to their own family life aspirations, taking into account psychological preparedness, health status, socio-cultural, and economic concerns. Responsible Parenting Handbook, 2007 2+8

Parent education for responsible parenthood is the approach of teaching and improving parenting skills. Parent education puts special attention to infants, toddlers and teenagers. It also provides intensive education to new parents, pregnant women and even those who want to adopt. Being a public health professional, following areas would be focused for educating parents for responsible parenthood. a. Tapping potentials - Parent education would be delivered to enable the parents to know their strengths as parents. - For instance, theyd be taught to tap their best skills to use in dealing with teenagers. b. Identification of resources - Resources do not only tackle finances but support group that can help parents with anything that they think may be a threat to their capability as a good parent. - Parent education would be given to find ways on how to keep their family..

A Complete Solution to Bachelor of Public Health

Promotional Document