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# Mesh Current Method

The mesh current method is deduced from the Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL) and superposition theorem. The following formulas are used to solve circuit.

where Loop i resistance is the sum of resistances of all branches which contain in the given loop. Loop i to Loop j resistance. If the directions of loops are opposite then resistance is negative. Otherwise, it's positive. The value equals the sum of branches resistances of all branches, which contains in both loops. Loop i EMF Number of loop equations equal number of KVL equations. Loop Number = Branch Number (Nodes Number 1) Current sources Number If the circuit contain current sources it is necessary to create additional loops. Branch with current source can be contained in one loop. Sample: Circuit Solution By Mesh Current Step 1. Construct circuit using AKNM Circuit Magic

Electrical scheme Initial variables R1=10Ohm; R2=20Ohm; R3=25Ohm; R4=10Ohm; R5=10Ohm; E1=10V; E2=15V; J1=10A; Solution I11R11+I22R12+I33R13=E11 I11R21+I22R22+I33R23=E22 (Loop 1 Resistance) R11=R2+R5+R1=40 (Loop 1 to loop 2 Resistance is the sum of branch 1 and branch2 resistances. The resistance is positive due non-opposite Loop1 Loop3 directions)

R12=R2+R5=30 R13=R2=20 R21=R2+R5=30 R22=R2+R5+R3+R4=65 R23=R2+R4=30 E11= -E2-I33R31=-215 E22= E1-I33R32=-290 40I11+30I22=-215 30I11+65I22=-290 I11=-3,102941 I22=-3,029412 I33=10 I1= I11+I22+I33=3,8676471 I2= I11+I22=-6,1323529 I3=-I11=3,1029412 I4= J1=10 I5= I22=-3,0294118 I6=-I22-I33=-6,9705882

## Node Voltage Method

The node voltage method is deduced from the Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) and Ohms laws The following formulas are used to solve circuit.

where Node i conductivity is the sum of conductivities of all branches which connected with Node i. Node i to node j conductivity is the negative sum of conductivities of all branches which connect Node i with Node j. .Node i - current

Sample: Circuit Solution By Node Voltage Step 1. Construct following circuit using circuit editor. Step 2. Run solution by node voltage method. Step 3. Correct following solution.

Electrical scheme Initial variables R1=10 ohms; R2=20 ohms; R3=25 ohms; R4=10 ohms; R5=10 ohms; E1=10V; E2=15V; J1=10A; Solution V1G11+V2G12+V3G13=I11 V1G21+V2G22+V3G23=I22

V1G31+V2G32+V3G33=I33 Node 1 conductivity G11=1/R2+1/R1+1/R4=0,25 Node 1 to Node 2 conductivity G12=-1/R2=-0,05 G13=-1/R1=-0,1 G22=1/R2+1/R5=0,15 G23=-1/R5=-0,1 G33=1/R5+1/R1+1/R3=0,24 I11=-E2/R1=-1,5 I22=-J1=-10 I33=E2/R1-E1/R3=1,1 Linear equations 0,25V1-0,05V2-0,1V3=-1,5 -0,05V1+0,15V2-0,1V3=-10 -0,1V1-0,1V2+0,24V3=1,1 V1=-69,706 V2=-147,06 V3=-85,735 V4=0 Branch currents calculation using Ohms Law I1=(V1-V2)/R2=3,86765

## I2=(V2-V3)/R5=-6,13235 I3=(V1-V3+E2)/R1=3,10294 I4=J1=10 I5=(V3-V4+E1)/R3=-3,02941 I6=(V1-V4)/R4=-6,97059

Superposition theorem In a network with multiple voltage sources, the current in any branch is the sum of the currents which would flow in that branch due to each voltage source acting alone with all other voltage sources replaced by their internal impedances. The goal of folowing text is to check superposition theorem. Step 1. Construct following circuit using Circuit Magic then run Node Voltage Analysis. (popular circuits analysis technique). You can alsocalculate currents using other techniques

Electrical scheme Inital variables R2=10Ohms; R1=10Ohms; R3=10Ohms; E1=3V; E3=4V; Solution V1G11=I11 G11=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3=0,3 I11=-E1/R1-E3/R3=-0,7 0,3V1=-0,7 V1=-2,3333 V2=0

I1=(V1-V2+E1)/R1=0,0666667 I2=(V1-V2)/R2=-0,233333 I3=(V1-V2+E3)/R3=0,166667 These values are used to check currents determined from superposition theorem Step 2. Remove a voltage source from the third branch then run Node Voltage Analysis.

Electrical scheme Inital variables R2=10Ohms; R1=10Ohms; R3=10Ohms; E1=3V; Solution V1G11=I11 G11=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3=0,3 I11=-E1/R1=-0,3 0,3V1=-0,3 V1=-1 V2=0 I1(1)=(V1-V2+E1)/R1=0,2 I2(1)=(V1-V2)/R2=-0,1 I3(1)=(V1-V2)/R3=-0,1 These values are used to determine current from superposition theorem. Step 3. Remove a voltage source from the first branch then run Node Voltage Analysis.

Electrical scheme Inital variables R2=10Ohms; R1=10Ohms; R3=10Ohms; E3=4V; Solution V1G11=I11 G11=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3=0,3 I11=-E3/R3=-0,4 0,3V1=-0,4 V1=-1,3333 V2=0 I1(2)=(V1-V2)/R1=-0,133333 I2(2)=(V1-V2)/R2=-0,133333 I3(2)=(V1-V2+E3)/R3=0,266667 Superposition theorem checking I1=I1(1)+I1(2)=0,2-0,133333=0,0666666 I2=I2(1)+I2(2)=-0,1-0,133333=-0,233333 I3=I3(1)+I3(2)==-0,1+0,266667=0,166667

## Norton & Thevenin equivalent

Thvenin's Theorem Any voltage network which may be viewed from two terminals can be replaced by a voltagesource equivalent circuit comprising a single voltage source E and a single series resistance R.. The voltage V is the open-circuit voltage between the two terminals and the resistance Z is the

resistance of the network viewed from the terminals with all voltage sources removed from circuit.
Sample

All circuits are equivalent. Resistors R1,R2, R3 and voltage source are transformed into Requ Eequ,

see parallel, series simplifications. To determine Eequ we shall break off branch connecting node 1 and node 2

Norton's Theorem Any current network which may be viewed from two terminals can be replaced by a currentsource equivalent circuit comprising a single current source I and a single shunt conductance G. The current I is the short-circuit current between the two terminals and the conductance G is the conductance of the network viewed from the terminals with all branches containing current sources are broken off.