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TABLE OF ENGLISH ALPHABETS

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1. Mftdam.~d:~

(@c5:J,lnoti:l») 3. Any

2, Away.::l~ (1:ST>6~K) eO": A '~' Ii" 6;,t)f50iSa:ld:bo 1. Ate $~e\;:x,oe. @lCO..,,1\ 5,oA~ riioi,,_-...1"'" @§_O"v!3~ 6!:iJ6,G5
....

.;)tJ (~eN") 4.. Enemy .;)~!n (,al6.:J~)


3. Add t::>E: (!:llli~)

(Prouonnciatlou)
~ ~,.i·"~El;;)"t::is,~ ~t:J<'\6tOl .;)6:>t.'j , ----c 1.7 Y

se (~~)
'Q\ (!S~ 'Q\,

oil~~;;)

e.J"""

6~l:Sw&
®Q.)Ji\!"

e..s6s@<s

@oeSo 60B. s.06<>'i:> @§.O"UJ~lmri:1 cSJoC60


W"e;-.o

e;6,)C'loB .a~UJ

e.;iVd.0Xl. ~ob:4Jd'

.~~

2. E 60": E
1. Fear

~!~;O!}
~iJ ;), ~

N"~ru :J~E~ eoo6~


(!!)r$,;) ;.!~C):o~oe Q _". 3. Ear

~o~.

@~O"el)

'006 @o6,soeJ

.;)SJ&i:5 ~Q"exJll"
-

e.iSJB(i)~G:J~m"OXl.
1;;J"d$) ~

aoA<iil ~
ti"~§ L;;J"i:Jtl~cb

.:5:rceJ'>~tlo ~

e..s !:l~... 1;;J"d$)~0 <?",s !:lif. <5JotJo~C"~!'L. ~ ~ - o.S:J"~~~~6 <6'& - o.S:J-obrn e..sB ~;:so XOSJ::J~~o. B~oC" a;"1(l~<6C"~.

''0;

""

,e,t:.lJ50.:52Jl:ieJo -

a..§"6-'f.6.~6 ;:Soa:lo1;5o eoc6.>.®o6:J<6v;5

~:g ;:SJ~6.
@Ol)(\)" ...

~dSJo (<pdSJo)

~~5

(;5g)

@~o d'.iJ.vVJ
~<4di;cv&
eJ~

6W':)6«l

OSJ~ ewKJoO§ ~~6«l ~6bo

eO":

E' eo' no eiSJ80iS2JCroo

3. Sea

~.cfcr<> @'>oO"v<6J SJc~ ~o8"eJ;fua:l~

@V"H c;.06<>'i:>

1. Key ~ (8"~~)

fu (;:Si>IDlPo)

e.;6.jBoiSco ~tiJ(\)eiY> e.ob)oEL ®cmfi .... ~060\1

2J"os.e

Or---------~12 ,,-I

. .(

--~S£

SI~~50)-O

0- iM~

~~ ao~§'ii5.0 -~:

-1-;-R4~

--------10

~C":

E '.;)'

li'"

G6J5oi:Sa:JC~O3. West ~~ (;;SC:;~6) 4. Let

eoo: 0 '2-.' 1. Roman

f1"

GtSJeoi:Sa)c$~o 2. Rose 4.. Load

L Met m!5 (~OJ~§"<fu) 2. Get

ESj,:,!5(ehS,Z)
(t1'~)

firE (OSIi~~'y eo (..")sl-O.::n)

n~

(;:So~E.'lo~)

mS (<!!l<fu~aoiSJ)

3. Road ESc,

~oo: E '~, 71" ei:SJ50iSe:lc$~o -

5. U - ~

®~ ®~C1I:OS ~~~
~,~
al flII

:J!?2~

ewoo~ eoe.

1. There 05 (®S3.c")
2. Where jCi (.,)!;l&c)

3.. Bear z35 (o1f:.l.)ri:la)ot5) 4, :Beg,LlIII IDXo (~tb) :J~~,

3. I -

SJ

&P~ &PlCO:O§ .~~

...-.'

6f:JrJ ~,~.
ewo: U
@'

e~e~~~.
;;loa (@lQ0J<'605JJ)

f1"

ai:S.)50.::lrot1t!Jo2. Sunday

~~Ot<l

t'loe.

1. Sum 1J:ill (~~;&o)

e:o:o <!P,
GOO; ] 'C!fi' n"

~,

[Q

@~O~~t»:::
<;fu:l~c13)

3. Summary ;:J;;.)jJe(~O"o~o) 4. Bun rJ;;) (5"~)


eO";

aiSJ50iSa)~~o2, First;;l~ 2. Sin~;:S


(~~;;'m)

1J'.", '71'"

(!j'tJ50iSroc;e"o -

1. Fi.rm.q)o~ (so~!J) eO': I 'a' 1. Pin


f1"

1, Put;;J)e5

(cllo~tJ)
o

2, Push .~~
4. Full

(&>clS.DtJ) (~oi~JTl")

e~J50iSe:lC~o

3. Bull zod (,;)6)


eO";

~e5

!l:5' (<6Jo8)

U 'cJ::i:JJ' l1"cllt;SJ50.::5roeie"o-

1. YOU ofuu (b~)


eO": J
'B:)t

2, Due 60S
4. ('lue~~ -

(~05.soSe)~;:S)

n" ~i;5J50iSrot:;~o -

3. Hue

~.)Ji

(tloX:»

(c6..Joi:S;:S)

1. Sign ~~ (;:Soe5So)

.2. Side

~o (@JS6;:S)

&0":

U 'o5.):ro.' f1"si\leoiSroeibo

1. FurY~eSB (ffiLK~) 3. Tune ~~ (~6oXn)

2. Universe o:ID>g)OS~ (@J~o.::so) 4. Use ofuueS" (;,!,>CJs)


-OQ"N"e);iJ Kt:og)oi:l"~. \OI~6

4. 0 -

e.. &P~ ®lco:o~ 1Oc::$:),:J~e~ eW00t; eoe. 8:0:0 &p,e,~,e..,e...~ (1D ~iS~e~~~.
n" eiSJBot:\a:Jt:;e;)Q • (!;lo~fJ)

~~..)e3 OSOS- <!!l6:l,:p

=e=

§"~J. e.P.e.l) ~
@&,O"e:l

~L~;&
o.'iJn~

@,:5).)e:l&Se):tJ;:S~6

ei:l"J6~& ~1:S:J..)tt1oe.y.cw.

@CJj;joe3

~Oi':

a '119'

eiJ~y:S~e)<6J
1. G e!l
ti;o> : al)§ (~§s;;S:o) f!ll§ (t5:r>~)

Q)pt.?~
<l!l~

a.s&C SI~~?

~!:il-~ aOS;;,~ 05t>~ @g_OOe)t<lt:l'JlSta&

1. Come s.ill (;;S6:lJ) 3. Command soSPOG (!!!l,)


GO";

2. Company !&o~~

eoeiCS!) X:>,go W"fl.

2. ConnDon.S";;):).;5 (a;§g)4ion")
-

@g_0"~ K,re.,i"I'" cll,jJeo,t:5c$o reOJriJdJo8,


11"

a:e'

fi"

e~5oi:S<pC:;~o

G 'X

et:t50iSroce"o

1, Took

OJ§ (fi~S";6J)

2. Book
4. Look

1.

qreall0~
'?;j'

(Fi"~J) Ca.i5:JJb)
n"

2. Game i15J
4. Goal ~6

(Il§b)

3. Good K:JC; (~o~J) 1. Wool ~1!5 (e~ 3. Tool ~6


(~!l~93)

3 .. GiveF\5

(K<S:lS~)

eO": 0 'ea' J1" t:l;iSJ50iSroCe"o 2. Fool

eO' : G
;We)
(8e)~~SJ6oS)

eiS.;l50iSrodbo 2. Genius ~r.ldSJ~ G&Q"~)


4. Genuine iiS::Jd.5>::5 (;:S5~;6)

1. Gem 3. Germ

2d~

(6~d.0)

4. Soon:JY>~ (ff,stYJ)

d3"J_ (@,lli)

O...--------~14 ,1I---~s.s~t1g5f5..,-O

•••

--

2. Th &!.l~;SQ tS. 1;)

Ii" IT-'

etSJeotSco

~6JfU~oQ.

1. Initial ah~:to:b <= (&'e.m'S) 3. Promotion


@S~~.!')

2. Patient t:,;;io~ (&f'I)

eCJ" : Th '6
3. Them a~
6;.Q" : Th

etSJ5otS2Jl::lbO 2. Then

f'.e 05t5.D)
S e§~6 tion ;jDj;6~{i) T eW"J6!7a 'is'

1. There i10 (@S.?C)

a~ (®oJl(:i:,)

eO": ~~~08.

~6OJJrJ'>

a.,~ Q'J60¢

(i>Jl>ea:msV
Ii'>

4. Mother ;fucS6 (t9~)


2. TDlnk 1$05 ($6'wo~)

'45'

etSJ5oi:5IDtSbo

1. Question

~.s~5 (l;{).a',i)
t

1. Thin

e,:5 (~i:Sm

GO": T 66.J9Y'~ ure ;jOJN" ~t3"

=e=

'S @~6:JoE).

4.. Thirst c$WJ


SQ" : Ch 1.

3. CJl @ifu<SEl t:5.s,;6 e.ull" e-Lb5oi:5t$o ~~'>ufuOe.

'"

(O"~o)

1. Culture Se:lJo (;6o;:JbJ~) 2. Nature ~60 (@)~~~) 3. Picture

'\:5'

11"

GiS,)5otSe:lCbO

~~o (D~oS:o)
(!I5g)~~)

Chain

E.'5

(1"fe.u<0J)

2. Chu:ch .:sOj (~;$

f'6E:)

4. Future ~$60

3. Chaild;;le5 (~.iJ.o.Ir) ~<:.


sO" ; Ch'S' i?Gt:SJ50iSIlJCbo

4. Charm W"O} (®Ocl~<S) e

8. Y - e..._si6-~e ~~
'~'l1"~, e!:l": Y 'IQ.'

~~
;;5~oQ.

<!!liS:lJ~ei:lJeo\SaJ~ilJoe. ~e e,.jJeoi;S;;o~~o~.

1. Chalk peace t:J"stKl


~.O" :

(.... )2. Ache (~s) ~1:J.)


os~oa. 2. Camelsas;;3.)o (a.o~) 4. Cock S"S (~oe') ';;3.);)t:lE<S ®~O"wot3 2. Cycle
';::S' e~6ro OS~oEl.

t}6J~

A D,U,K,T ;m,,6~t5 @~O"e.::Joej ,"S' e~dro

iT'

=o=
(~G)

's::l"l1"~

1. Can S"SrJ (S"'S<S.:l) 3. Cut se.'J (orI:Jb)


GO' : C 66JiiN§ E,L,Y

1. FeJouny~&;:J 2. Policy
ec::l": .i)ae.;~ 11"

G;ltS~Q)O"45oSJJ} Cl

Y 'ro'

GO"JtSt<l o:i~oe,.

1. Rice

2~ (ID~oSJJ)
eFJ.;)
(~ot'5.:Jb)

~ge r~§o)
~~ 'r)'

1. Tyre !!}o @6J)

3. Receive

4. Circle ;::S5J,.6(;(););:S-d) ~e,,~

2. Tyral1t~6~
8a ~I';lo""
e_,"n<>
~..,,~.O)

6. G - oS tl~tSt'CI

~ec:J"

~Gl"tSQOl1"

;;seJ:)~~oe.

~~:O§
IT-'

t;)~6 GE e<sJ.~~ '~' e~6E"a oS~oe.


2. Forget
4. Hunger

®go

=e=
ai"l1"

(~6e'§.sOSJJ)
S"~ oJ"o~eJClt:l"J6E'"ae.;~ e~6ro
;;)0&

e..se5§ ooC0i'Joo~iSt:Jg)
OS_UIP~O S"a)~

;3~~.W"D.

'Ci.06~ ;sy,~~~s
~go

®.:::DJ~,

etJ':)6f:<Jw

;3;;;o!iJ:;) ~5~

~eJe.;~ (fuw~r1"

;iJ<>e;S<S ~d:'5..""U.

ecr-o: G 'rI' 1. Go.ns eO":

G-iSJOo6aJdbo-

GW",Y:Sf:<Jifu aJ~

'Ci.ob,~ eJO"e:l<S:i eJwS;,e.,!iJ ~t6 &~w

;;>;!&Ji;$ a,S cJ~siGJ cJO"'~;:D t:J"0"


~c;t>.

(.i3~J)

<;)on6 (OSJ6wSJS~) oJooKo


«(!!ISO) '~'li" ewo6ro oS~oa.

a-::,~co ~er.o5. .6a e~6f:<Je.J;:5.) OS6i3J t:JSp ~~(:1;oSi::l:lJ~.

1!!lr::u;::S5oi:SCo;;5e.;;::i

'i9,O~~

3. Give f\5 (~)

6i3JoC" I§PcfuOS~r5J

~ ;;)[;Y'~sa:oN" DoS6 GE t6~t5~~ (c;)o~6~)


(~e.,)

L Cagesffi 3. Paget,a-

2. Sage '~a- (2J,J.)~ 4. Rage C§ffi ~6.JrI:J)

7. T - ~ ewolSt<>e ~~Sol1"

is.~eJ:) ~C!)~co ~Ci:lKJ~o~.


,~.i1"

sO": reS' 66,)i>J9~ IA., IE, ION ~1:5~;6~OS~

G~6C<1 ~~oE:J. 17

01----------4

ii' ._(1:"-. 16 ---~.ilS~·~~~~~_O


~m-.

~Ill-:

-----~O

ag:) ci3::.:l ~~?

;;Scjiltmv

~CJ<' ~v;mv ~~.

Asia, B-urma.
a:l ;;§~ ~~?
I

airo.Darsi, Eluru, Fort area, Gandhi Chowk


.:6~~v

vO" OS5!:i6(fu)e.l tJ~.

PARTS OF SPEECH
oJ6O'mru
~I;i)

axe'. bell, computer. desk. eraser, fan, grinder; hanger" ironbox :::J5JOoJa:lC8"0Xl. !3~0Xl~&'
®~

L;;J"tiSJa:lc,;S e){J'> oiu©otSa)~;S ~C"~IS~~ .!3otiJ.:; @;::B ~oOXl~W Pen


~i'S)

®~6~e>a
®.!ic5~v

~~ 'tISJ? ,X:J~<5JJv 1J6J. ,....,. ,...,


-

:»C'i~

anger, beauty, cruelty, honesty, joy, love, poverty, salvation


~Q"IS~ol1" ®~.6l!'e;l

p. e, n @;fu

~6J~

~~;;:o Nouns

f1"

o:iei'\Q~IS:l.

5"a:l~

ecS~

.otIDS

@gtm;:i:) S!~<SJ.0' Penci!@;;:)J


~6\c.. "~~ru" QJ 'c-J
@;SJ @6~(fu 0

.Q.ic5<fuJ p.e.n,c i.l


(Word) ~1S..)~~oEi.

6 @~6t..:oe.;
@o6s<J""< ~--::I ...

®;;»godSJ~

;3;;)J.:6.:5J,)<fu.
~e):6xe.> ~O" j~~o

s,oS,,;:s,e. S"a:l&.oo~ .-'" CJ.. eJ

;:)lS_s;:5;S;;m : ~~v, Definition:

't~~

·~O:J~;6Bal:.

Noun

;;:;SJ?:tJ @&_6cilJv ~e.)(mS OSv;S 'oS6t:m" @~6.;mru ;)Cn" ~;6.}'SJt> aS6;;mv


@;:)

A,l @;fuoo6

.osa @~gJcl.

A noun is the name of any person place or thing,

a;;5,:)r1~<506J<S (a=&.S, T = ~;fu)

2. PRONOUN (~C)S~~~):
John is just sixteen years old, John has no brothers or sisters. John's birthday is on June 4th. John's father is a fanner. J hn helps John' father in John's spare time.

.eaOOCe;3 ";;.)5"~6 OS6~ru"

iilrujtit:i?J;:fu.
~rn§

(!!Jon <P"i0.;:So6J o:oilJu6J


~ogM

4,90,000 <06;1).)0)So~.

jJfi' 3,00,000
a:l~

oS6oiuru

rio;;:,». <0605J.:Jo;fu - OJ"!5"~0& @O ~6$oiS:J g)~o;6.) g)<?z3oi:J'>lS.:J. £)e~ 'Parts of Speech' oS~oSJJG)) @;:)t,.1iJ.

';;:;~~Ei' <;:r>K;;,me.u~

(~iJ:> <06 ~ri.;me;())

aO"

(!!i1;)Ji0s ;;J5ip";;.)_& "Word Classes (<06~o 1. Noun 2. Pronoun 3. Adjective 4. Verb 5. Adverb 6. Pre-po-si-tion 7. Con-j unc-tion 8. In-ter-jec-tion.
(ij",'5)

~~s a~~;::SacS ~e)S& ~. ..

ZYOo:i.ifu

eo

g)~OIT" lp'ijcS;SJ<>..

~e.;,~I!,;6ifuc

i:J'>0' @<6'::::"'woIT"<totmon.

oSJ6"tl 6!3ot)" I§FdSJ.o[).

r:J"<6.:JoStS!5"Q.S:n
g);B;;':jE<lG':ro

(@"i5"~) ;so,:)r;Jl'<6.:J;;,m
(.,j cS~')
elCJ

John is just sixteen years old. He has no brothers or sisters. John's birthday is on June 4th. His father is a farmer. He helps hls father in spare time. ~ ParagraphcSoe)tl J-Ie" FJjs ~;fu
~tJ'DJ

J~M

a:liilruIT"cll.OScfu<>f\o,;J

(~~)
(di..",E;

§dSJ

tnc,;:$g).

John ~~ ;6~g<::JCSJwIT",
®~

~9J) L§d5F

g)~i0.e<l;fu) ~6c:m

John
NOll.!1

t,6:J !l zy'oJ,o zy'Kc:ill;:S~ ~Q6:Jci:lo(j? Noun


(!)c5:JWI1" ;;y.C:;(!)e:lJ ~6~eJ;::))

([?lsJ6~<4~) g)Q~~

'Pronouns'

!!;!)otJ'>1SJ.

(s:'5eao~5) <6,;m;::SJcfu;;ID
('Cl,otJo eao~~) ~~@S ~StJ"",gs~

Definition: A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.

3. ADJECTIVE
1. Mary IS
it

(:J~~tz~): 2. Mary is a clever girl. (@ID~;:) aJ"ID!:i')

(!?~ ~K~~
1. NOUN
a.;) ~i0s
(N"'~QJ'>iS!&~ ~~ ;6oa:lo~ot:);;J ~~?

~;StS~)
<60(!)O~otl<Sg).

girl

11. ool;i)

;;y>~s;;mv;S,:J K<6J);)o~;:S, oo~<S ~ ;66~

OJ"~So$:o6 clever

~<S:l ;;:Je);m

:J:aot~):

wCS;':'OIT" ~15JeJ~oe. 'f'l3Ei;;m ·;S,:J~G)~tJ!:iJ.

f!!l6;:Soi1<' Jo1il!:il

BIS,)8:lt;cSEl? a)"[)!5" cili:Jt3d-

<6.:J;fu~v!fu

Abdul, boy, child, daughter. electrician, father gardian, hero. .~~ ~~ ~~?
23o£il~o ~~

Ant. bat. cat, dog, elephant, fox

I. Lucy is an innocent girl. What kind of? innocent girl. 2. "laney has a green saree, What colour ? green saree. 3.. Rosy has three sisters. How many sisters ? three sisters . 4. I want that book. Which one'? that book.

_M.
'}Ii-. --~~

~118

Sl.~g5~-O

O-i0i~ Sl.oQ~ ----i~ §§5,.,

,~
19l,.-·

------___,C)

~ W"s~oTImo6J ~o:o?
@~

innocent

green, Nouns

three,

thaI

@;:).)

.;S.:!OQe.D;Je5 ;;mot)., (quality)

Def. : A erb is a word which expres es doing, being or having,

;J !)t;,~ ;;'H5$~~cw?

gilr, saree,

isters, book

;fu;ociJoc,

.>J"8

('\)~OS.::U

5. ADVERB (@dSJo =:J~05.~~): @-u;;,o ~;g~~ful @t6i'1" ~~? LsdSJr:JJ g)~~oO ~;;5J~e:,.
Rosy walks slowly. Rosy walks. How'! slowly.
s.t:5Jt!J

innocents», 6oi'\) (colour) green;6), <0orp~(number) three zo,


one) that;.6J oe))~i:SJt6J.~'

~e;i)6(Which

slowly

(j:Jtr>;:S;fu:)~) i5~t:5:J<5J.E).
S"~rS

®r:JJ c;)c:S~ walk


@;6.)

Rosy .;)e.o" ;:S6t.5J<:::J~e I§d.bCibJ~&GJ"OJ"~ @i6J oJ6~ g:)~eo1':l


adverb

~ ~oe~~~ ~~
.

oJe.§f)co~ Q
White dogs @~;:S ~s6-e)6'

(;:S~~l5J~J
aO"'g)~eotJ

g)t;l"'~o:m)

@<51l"

a;;5y.:5J~E).

slowly

(~O"<6ori")

a dog oQn'> e~.>J"!!5

white dog

six white dogs


.;:)~Ot:D~.

dog @;;Zo .;5y:.tl

@R:l. SJs6-eJ~

@~~oo. I shall bring your book tomorrow. I shall bring


y'OUJ

(n <.JJ~soSn<:lJ

ODJl 8~;:fu)

cS~ oS~o.,:;D;$J. s;:):)s white. Six @iSJ [j;g~E<loilJe.l) noun


6e.D;;J)tl!§) ;J<>CroE,;:SQ).

book, When? tomorrow.

oms&. o:se[i)fi~
Nouns ~

a.t:SJ~

®i6J oJc:S.;s.)) .;)~6 ~,:DJ~ (oS;!,) al6Jr\:i ;:J~dSJo) oeJJ~~;:Sd.e.

o:wo6Joc

;;J"eS~ oSBo~ c;.......


@~

e3O~tii

g)]~ot'J

aD"

[jOS50w

~;;J-.:l c...r

@;:Sno shall bring ®OSJ @ciS:lCftoSb".i"'.:5;;'m<fu~;i§:il.on Qc6..J&;:SJ.06J~ ~<5J ;;j6tm


1\:T"iiJ"~
~W"

tomorrow

;:;)t)OSJJeJSJ 'Adjectives' (g);S~E<lr;IDe.l)

(@d5J<> g);i§~~.;S.))) ~~eilo6.


diD~&GJ";;:)"~\"s adjective

~6S.:s;:so::oo ; Noune'iW"
de.u~ o.)c:S.>S.JJ;:SSJ[j~~ECloiJ:J) ( Definition:

Pronoun
@;::)

&.JJs2,. ('\)f.<l.>S.JJ<:XJ, 6oti<S:l,

rJo~~;;u

Adverb~cm

aD"

~6"S

adverb

dbJ~6

'tlil.

~;S~ow 5~eiloe.
iJ"e.."" ;5)ot:l a,"otiS)

An Adjective is a word used to tell the quality, colour or @St;Y>;:S~;:S o.)6oSn ~ a,[j ~!be5? oSiSJm

Soma is a good girl. (K1'j:J~ ~ QJ"s~o~

number of a Noun or a Pronoun.

girl ®:fu oS6.:::m ~ Parts of Speech? Noun


@;:5)

El:!Js, tiJ.:JociJ<6,l
oun Adjective

4. VER B (@@): a,f:J ;;:)"!;fstme~


@c:l:D @.;6~~[i)?

gcod eszo <56;fuJ ;;:, Part of Speech? Adjective. ';:o<:nO'So;:S? girl @;fu ~ ;;S~o~;:;1)<5do6:l<6, Very
~ 'S"a:Je5
r.J

o.)~ (action or work

~6~d~.:J

cSg::~~5? ~~~oE)?
:'?JO";SOfl"

good®i6J A dverb.

very @;:fu;;S60 ;;:, Part of speech

Carry, drink. eat s , play, read, walk. write

Wilson runs very slowly. (~)eJ.)<!5'iJ'>~

:;S6.:Jn~~~6)
;;S~~~

~ ~oe
1, I lit the lamp

Qj"t)~~e.lJ

oJe.s(J~~
G;3~ 6oS;:ID;fu ~Vf'lowB:::»
(;;3i6J ~~d.&,!§
(~e:l)eJ.)

~ ~sSoa slowly
I§J"~@:::»
;;56~

@i6J ;;56~

dg)~ ;S~~;:5d.6? runs ~. runs @<5J Slowly @t:i.J ag):O cS~~o6?


Very @~oS6~

oS60 ~ Part of Speech @~eilof:J. : 10\v1y ~<6:J adverb r.J. Adverb, ~6~i5;:S~:
g)~~E"ilo:m;:5.) t'l"~
S"a:l~

ve~b. S"~;S.verbj:J
®~

2.,1 wrote a letter yeasrerday, 3. The fan is on; the table. 4. He will be free tomorrow 5.1 have a nicewatch, 6. She had a necklace. 5J OJ"§,;6;o&:::> "'2J 0'SC5;:ID~ ~ebvr:JJ,
~iSJ§ ~

e16tmiSJ

~ Part of S peech @~.;:§:)Qa? Adverb, Very

to6 ~J)<:XJ e~e)

oS6;;:1)) ~ Part or Speech @G0elJoC)?


T1"~

(®t)6
(~;;x,

~oJl
&,~

I!I.;..,,~~

~oe..."'6)

'G3<fu <!,A t:S!:l&i!J Qj1>.5~ S[)l1dio~i6J) ~~R);:5) ~Df\Cl:5.xJoc;.Sj) O'S~v;:5) is .. will be@iSJ ctmoC:leJr6J oeJ.)~.,:;D<flclg:). oeJ.)~ oSc:S~tl~ ®iSJ oScl;:IDw

e..s ~dDi6J
to

rF~.

e..~ ~;;3;;':,_E"iloS.JJi6:J

e3tJ"> ~5"s

LSdJ.:ro

cSBot'il oScl~<5J

liktlYO g);g;;':,_ro;;m' @o6Joth

Definition

: jill adverb is a word which is used with a verb, an

lit .. wrote

adjective or another adverb to add something to its meaning,

have, had ~<fu ;;56~0l!§[)F\

6,

;;56omv~ciSJJo

l§dSJe3

PREPOSITION (:Jr;S!l~,1S ~~~): --c;:>


~ .;:y>~so& book. table eJ

@~8"Q)),

The book is on the table, (<0~~;:m De:D6 to6 clli6J.6)


;;s'¢~Kv ;:JOa:lo1;i;&[i)? table £:06

:0~t:S~;:ID '@dSJeil' (Verbs)

: oS<:XJor6J. ~~oiSJ.
@~

~[Jf\dIDol:SJ~<6:l

book ;:iIoc,

't1:SJ.

cllocibo,

;GoeJoQ";!.).J_W:;J)elJ~ o

;66;&51 otl.~a .i ....

;;5~~

~t§~;;m

O-~f)aob~§5O"'-~11

21.~r: ------......,0

&Dflot:)iS ~;fu<Q)ei1oB? The book is the table (~§l&~ [3:mw) 'P"'oSo;J1S..)~6Jo5. @oc;o;je>;;J Preposition n ~;;S03,,~f)o.:lCSa;to. 0500<6 (Bridge) oo6i1":J ~6ome>;fu and etc.
6l.El Jack, &,c:ro :

®;:S) o!§;;)...?~ ~~~~C'aO~

oo~

oJD"e>

;;))O,s ~oE:joO~;fu aw~b~


ooGJ ;;)0"c;>;5) ~w~.~

Subject ~;$ooB
(w)

~o:S~lio-$" Pronounsti

csa

@iSl1" "Preposition

e:;-"Ifi!!~' ~<PJfJoi$oe.
2. me
(!:o)

",:o\3~ot). (~~i;S.,)oSJ~): ';)SJ&CSlF~


'Iii oir>tJc;>;6,)

7. CONJUNCTION
@o~~oej Conjunction

~rnOJJbSJ

6oJO'iJoflot:5J

®o6:Jm. well as, or, so, therefore, neither .. nor. both ... .,;)o6,JoSe><6?
Sl,gj

3. mine 4. .my
5. 6.
7.

C@£i)
@)
@?@~) (~&) (@<f) (@oSe)
<J'>,

and, but, alog, went


@~

~6io!36

;;)O"c);::)) §U)oJKeJO"?

oo~

e.:,'§ Parts of Speech S


®;;}11" a..'§

aocs~

acS:J.

my self
we

~~. ~~d. :fuc:ill.


<fu.>. ~
;fu~;fu:,

S"e)~.

Parts of Speech S ooEl0:5

;;)0"C);ill

;;'ira~;fu

onjuncuon

us
our
Olin;

~;;5l)J> ~c:Se,);fu
03:xl8& ~;S, .toi6 ciliJSJ_
~g),

(;.Jomt:l,)dXJ<fu.:,) sru~eiJoc50:5C<.oSJt>e.:,. Be strong and wise. tQO~ adjecrives c Sw;;Jjb)


We ran fast but mis 'cd the train. caotil QJ>S"Se.Jtu 8ru;;J)b)
rF'~.

8. 9.

(@CSO,j)
(@;;Se~o.s~) (~)

;fut>e.
:fu~.

;6)<5E1. cfu;:Sg)

~6..:l~;:5o:.:u : &$ tSs@c:S ;;)c5~C);5) zy>rl;;tll)eJi'SJ ll";) ~w~ ::6t'iifu:JoS!3J Conjunction


sentence.

f"i"~. ®~

o:J'>s~O'l::J;:))
~b.:;.

~8S

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

ourselves

;fu;&J.

~;S;&. ~;:5:!.)~
!Do dIDt:;g.
~g).

you
your yours yourself yourselves

!J~, ~fu b, ~a.m~& ~


blJ,
~g).

Definition :./\ conj unction is a word which joins similar parts of a

(dfuCSo) (c.fu)oSoJ)

g:;_,.."iJ.

S. INTERJECTION (~.ss@~ 1&~e.JN"d~): Oh !What a beautiful building it is. (f..,-:,J~o6


~ ;;J"~Si:I:Jo6J

(dllioSD~& )
(eiilJ05o ~~!S)
(~)

~<B

~;;3.1 o!§c5Ja. eiiillc3,l

@ot'i~;S ~CS;S~~
5"(5).

15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

e..~..s (oh)

®<S:loS;:5t:\ c..,~ '<i'<g;fu 17'::J;;)tlom


@·~~S~;:D.

he
him his himself she her hers herself it
its

""

~tl, ~cfuJad
@66

eo 1?
tS:mp~;5)

-i~;;-m

~ 2?;J1'~J.. OU'l~6J~E)?
(®~~. @l;;b

(~.\W)
(~e) (~.lli~~) (~) (~o) (~o.J) ®O!§~. @6::JCfuJ!3g. @o!§j.,)_. @~g)CiliJ!3l-

OJ"sSo <S:lot 5.;}d_ &DF\o~;S Alas 1 She is dead

@go ~6:Jooooo? i5,'O~Q));se)

o:SJ"66J.

o:J'>i3h~OcSJ Ala! (@cfu>SJ i!9tSJ -i!f:565.:n ~ BO" g)i'J"tS~i6J.

~,;:r>~d a~;;SdiJ?
<\J"oSc;.'me.J;fu

20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 2ii 26. 27.

(!9ill
@~~.

: ~i6J~Jd' se.u(i;, ~!:'l~J!3 e1CP Ko~~~oS 6W;;J) .ta:,;;ID:cli6J 'I nterject ion' @~~6:l. ~6S';s;::Sim Definition: An interjection sudden feeling.

@illam~2"

"

is a sound or word which expresses some

(~o~1J)
(s,eJ') (dl~J) (s,e;j~e)j) ((j)

(!9;;b, ~~~
®EI, P"~

CJ":O. 0"~ciliJ86-

itself they

@5.

W"~

O-~sA)a~§§~-~

-~

'.!i--

._

.41

®g).

OJ"6J

234Jt.-----~<\O

28. 29.

them

(a~)

OJ"6,~, OJ"61O

15. 16. IT
;;:r>e'j;:3

can may might


must

(S~) (;&)

l'i~ifu,

Kv&., Kv~
;;)iSJJ~ .:6iSJJ~ 6n:i.)~ .zy,~~oiSJ

their

(aOJ.)o) (BOJ.)r5,,)
.ca;ill~e)S) ) (e~)

OY5,

o:F5ciliJS

a.

30.
31.

theirs
themselves

OY'6e" OJ"eS t'J

(~t))
(o))~)

OJ"B,
qQ,

.0J"6;;3,

@~,

18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

..,

32. this
33. 34. 35. ,36.
that

~
@

dare need

rer5) (!:;C;)
to

(6e3')

@a,
8,g), @g),

@05;()6~ru
;;)e)~;:SEl O::i)

these those
who

C5eS') Cefre)
(~) (wo6)
(~5J (.::::.."'O"~)
(~re)

t.Jti\ ~ OJ"iS;l,es

ought

(~6 t!.D)

used to

(dW>&Ci

@b;;J'>~o'i~ cs~oj G)XJ;S verbs (lscilimftfu

.;)OS~ .. .;)OS6J
~C),

.:;::i"~S~ "JC<lod O
@4i,gdSJ;So jdJJo~.

@5.:6:P!P~L~

r:JSp

37.
38. 39. 40.

what which whom whose


UJ"'S,;;;oO"~GOe

~~e., ~, ~& @Q
~
.;:).;Se CfuJ!::l1

~El,

Conjugation (~d5Jto ~CSS ~~§): verb Cib:lS.1conjugation 1. base ~CSo 2. apst indefinite 610.;:60, 3. past participle Eg : Clean - Cleaned - cleaned. Base 6Jt.;;bo;:5)ot,Pa:st indefinite.
ale Verbs

~~bSJ

';).:6c.lO, .;).:66:::1 ~;;s<":J . .,);SeamBd.-.,);;:jO,

1:S.""'~t);5J LOJ"~c).).

5KJoS ;:5~d5J!3

@.Q.))~ (Auxiliary

Verbs) L;;J;;mtp ~l6

past participlefuooJoeD

!:l6j1 ~Q";6<fuJ;:5)

.:6~o~K~~. l.

SifuS

be

lZ"l6~1'F &9Qsi'..lol:5oe.,
cl;o?il,
@r)),
@0J.)60~

..,

ao~

6szmwfi"

g)lP211oCSiSJ)ifu. @.D: ~

I) Regular Verbs 2) Irregular Verbs l. Regular Eg ; look ms Verbs: Base 6Jo~<SJJ;:SSJ nee) d"~ \55..)<6 past Indefinite,

be am is
was

em
(o:5T>5J )
(ea~ (0:.<2) (;;')0)
~oeg)J.

2.
3.

cllN'd~
e<6d_G), Gi:JC',CJ C>.
aoelO, eoc;6.)

past participle tl.F;:6.;me;:J

!:l6.)e.;:S~OlJa Verbs ~ "Regular Verbs"


@

@0t!J'>6J.

looked ms~

looked msC; G "(e) dOli:) ;36..)(;$0

4. 5. 6.
7.

were bave
bas

eoe~. t<;oco.6J;:Sd.~.
. sDf\diD~Ei , §[Jf\ctmoc;5J cl;~g). e"'d_6J. ad.ilJ a~6"a~oEi,

(~~)
(oJ£;§)
(.;;J-GCi) (@o) (~) (~&) (eE)

S[)f'lomN'd.~,

sCJndfu;:;r-;;;.,6J , sDf'I diD <6Jp.


S[)f,d.ilJ~tiJ sDf'ldllioeS::O

2. Irregular

Verbs: Base tS,,-,,;:6~;S~

OOSO" S":'£oC"

~;s""'8d. ElES:lv& past Indefinite, past parricipletl.FoJom


"Irregular Eg: Verbs" @)ot:F·OJ. Eat 6ae3'

~6"i~ Verbs

8, 9. 10. II. 12. 13.


'4.

had are do does


did

e~<SJJ.

ate ~e5

eaten

eating

GatSon
e} 1) Base 2) Past J) past participle Present Partici pIe ~oJoe)66~
@~:

;3al:o;fu ;37.:0;W
.:6a~
~;fu

Types of Verbs: Conjugation

6JoiJoO) oSJ5dfu 4}Presellt Indefi nite SingularS)


spelling

shall will

(:-46)
(:Jv) ~'11l "'1.".

~t;;"c:SJ .<l;)~ Verbs ~3 tSszme.DfIC' :JlP<60t.:l;;:)tiJJc:SJ. verb 2) 4 part verb 3) 5 part verb.

1) 31 part

~ 24 ~ ~
<,

~s.\}

aoQ!i §55..,--,()

~o~a~i!S~w:
~~im~~
~;6;);o;:)S:.

Verbs

&~ ;)!l6, osomrn;fu

o:)goLlJb~
@g)

verbs
OJ

Cfuls&
Base

burst
eJ~

burst

burst

bursting

S"~J..;:So~~ @.!!o;:ll,~;:S:, t.!lo~~f\o.:so.)..:5,)JI6J.

A,B;C

ro&iS
cast

(.)

rol:S'§

8)o~on
Q

K:J~11" "A". ::.lPast Indefinite 6Y>;6<:l:D;:S~ iU~11" "e"::J e::S<fu>noaeD.

"B" ~. Past

~~~I'O
cast

l§De§~
cast

~ge3"h
'casting
S"e')~on

Participle <S!:b 1'IJ~11" A,B,C~;::'n

;:So~Ej®g_6c6.D~~ c:5;:;SCiIJof\oi'J rregular I

Verbs c:So~;:SJ..5 cost

~2
cost
S"~ t)

6sc6.D~;fu ~~eO"o'ill.

'"

6:1~.s~~6cldilS;:D
cut

SOS:g
ISJ~

6:1~.s~
costing S"~on OJ ~e6rU..:lJ cutting

cost

No. 1.

tlso:ill

Base
cut

Past

[last Particip Ie
cut

S"~ 'OJ ~51:SX:l


CUI

AAA
ABC ABB

56
~e')

cuts6

!§e3"

2.
3. 4. 5.

write 2_eS" sell

wrotefh!J sold fOGo

written 5&jIJ sold ?foe')


run 6~

!:ie5
SSd5:0, @X:l.;6tl:>~. forecast

!3e)
~~;6)

~~ofi ~~
forecast forecasting ~oS"~on st;:JsoB~

ABA AAB

run6i5
beal

ran OOSi5
beatme3"

"

"

tJej

beaten
6;p~~

tJiij~
~,,)~oi=;&

forecast

l.AAA 6s;:m: 'aoe$) Verbs oto~ Conjugation (j~ 3 11"::J, Pronounication beset ef 11"::J e...~ .o~oC!" e.oeJ'"cm. beset beset

!iJ6oS"S~
~;:JJioa~j'

!iJ6oS"S~
~i6e')ot5~J;:D forecasted
IPSOS"e') ~C;

~osas~
rFrJe')oB~..) forecasted

besetting

ar~6
..:lJt.:o;:IDb)ei1o .., Q bet:

anJeJ
iSJt.:ooiD &3<i> e.> .., bel, betted aleS, ro~C;, oSoaoS"~;:D bid

[l~6
.:hl!.IloiD~ e.> e.> bet, betted

eJ~e'3ofi
t;).

~o5"S~l5
03"8";;S6~oa!J.).:;p1l a~

;;:p~oSOt~oB~'p hit

o:l"eJ'>;) tS~oa~.)<6J

hit

hit

hitting

~eJ
betting

ibue50n ..,
burting ~50fi t:l 11"oi>Q)t&J6,..~

e36
oSOQOS"ctm bid

~eJ, ii;1~C;,
;6oao~~

aeon e»
~oaoS"~, bidding ID~on ;;3e)o~li)OOo'

aJ"lil. hurt

§"~,

B"S:l,

hUlt

hurt

bid
tJl5 ;;3c:_)o~e. bidden

~~O
Q

~o
t.l

tJc,
~e:Joi:)t.6

IDfl
~e,)o~G::;:D bade ~E

fi"oi>;;J -t&J-6rl knit knit, knitted ;oe), let


~~C;

11"dSJ~c knit, knitted ::JeJ. ;o~C;


@~

knittting
~~ofi
@~~

:JtJ
~~, let
~2S"~~ a;
-,...Jl

@Q;:D

broadcast L&i"ES"~ ..,


L:;SW"oo

@w>~oi::SJ ....

@le?~oB;:D broadcast
@.. i"'C;~~ eo) @JQ<>60 ;3~;6J
!

'"

rgS":iJoiJ

broadcast
~C;S"~

...

let aeS

letting aelon OJ
@;6,);fuu~

broadcasting

a~
Cll);fu;fuaoiSJ

a~

~l5~~on
Q'

Balli

@li:)Q60

Brv

lelLl!'oo ~.~

Qr-------d!

~~l
26 j:-' --~s;5ao~g50Ol__o

outbid

outbid

outbid

outbiding

rhru • st
... ~

thrust

fhlllSt: ~
~fu

thrusting

~eSe:J~
6JGe5 r1"~tSJJ;10~ oJ.>dJ
put

,ffJe3"IDe;

~eSe:JC;
6JGe§ n" ~.::DJ
l;ioS:i
put

~e5'tJE.or{ sJ6~ 11"~i:5JJ


06!bo»6~ putting ~elon eo ~tb@.y:> quitting §~~or; <S.T>i'SJ~ reading

eteSn" ~;j)J
l;itss> ~ar:lJ put ~~

'"

I@~ C)

@@
·eJ

L6~ofi L~~
undetb~ding

l¢cilli, S»66;l
underbid
l!:\lo~oIDC;,

.l?7vi'SJ underbid

iiJ..a

underbid

~e3'

;;J)tS quit

~e:g.
quit:

~e:lo86~&<6!b ~~ upset
@)'~~ej

@o~oIDC; t,e:>o& 6t3JJ,tJru


~a<:'p

@o~oaJc.;

$ot$O'lleoo
'W

;ii~od ~fu6-;;SS:i~P..loQ~!&:l~oSfu

~o.:iJ quit

~a
upset
l!§l~~~

~Gil..::i:r> upsetting @K>@e3.oF)"


':0 ~P..l~O~P..lX>~

f.Se5
~<fu. read
.

§Se3
~&D~·e.:u 'to
;;Sy.>;;J;;iI

§.seS
.s,.,fJ

upset

®~~e5
6~@,olSJe:>c:msrS:l

read

read

6e:>@o6Jvr\'
2. ABC t5~0S;;.;i
i:'J..)~ofi&~~

6e:>@OcD,2.
Conjugation
eotJ"cm ~. 5

be
t:lcS:l~
rid

"Be;
.::lo;:iJtS;J rid

oc.;
t:l8~ rid

be.on
.:5~@~ riding

ao6J6 Verbsam~6-

&':J ~~
being

~-~e:>J"

be i:l

Prollunciation&rf>:;) was

~~Or1"

part verbs .

been

BCi
';:'e,~lO~,

Be;
~~Joiil ,D~t::J.oCl;fu set

elK
set @oiJ5DJ shut

ec:;on ~c:;~~,
setting

W"&
®CIDSrSJ ate

tJ~
@cm

£OllOR
@~~

~XJ. e.o~
eat

set
~e.)

eaten ~B,!5
~;o

eating

~eS
®c5J0J;6J shut

~e'lon
t.l

~6
fji'SJ forbid

[;)e5
e;;:'ii'SJ forbade

Ga~or; 30~
forbidding

(!!l;;:))6:J,) ®i§.~o,;:b shu!

®oiJ6:>J~ shutting

forbidden

oS.eS
~o:ID, ;llJo@§,,<fu

7S.a
~~;fu

~elon
G)

~oB)~
6"6i'SJ, <6~(6) forgive

~o~C;
so6;;J<fu

qso!la~
soCS:O forgiven
;;,)of\~~

o')o$)~or;
5"6o~

~~ slitting

forgave

forgiving c;l6{\~ofi
............

slit

slit

~6 bruJ. sSd5JJ split


~e)

~eS'
baJ;fu split
U;je.) ~05:JJ. LfD9~(fr)~<SJ spread
~.)E:

gear;
bVJ
split
~ej.

<lSoF\~
~fuoi::D

<lSOA~
~llioarSJ gave

bwj&-re splitting

give
f1~

given

slli;:S"o, ~ giving 1"0:;)0.11


~~,

115
8,;:JJifu

FI~:5 a'i)
lain

~t5011
l?'~v<Q)8Ju spreading

lP~~r6.@~eJ
spread

Le:J@E
spread
1i:'J'C; .L{I<)

a6rJ
lie

lay
.ej :66Jol:$J

lying

~JC;
oSotiJ, ~~~

~cor;
(;,)6-t5Jeiro

:e
~fJ,V"~,

E15
!&~~c:;

E_cmon
S2V"/.:i)~

<5 Di3;:SJ

~;:soo.:n
~.

(;,)L\ctmol'il

jrJ.
---J.(,

28

)11-7

--;~~

aoP::l §'<io.,-O

O-~~S5~

__

~r.l~. 9 LIT
..~.

-.1,.<.

----..,'1)1,0.

see
~

saw

seen

seeing
~)(~JJOr;

~ ~<:l<fu befell

~i5
~i'J befallen

throw

threw

iSJ"IiSJ
befalll ID~6 [:Jo~!loi5J,. blow Se.ur))

~~ befalling ID~[lon ;:SoQg)~ blowing

iF
~;:se;;3dfu,
withdraw

b,)~.s

~
g);:j5j~;:i)

I?~
~§~5

thrown

throwing

l¢crnoll
tJ;:j5~~

:-JrS5~~

[)~6
r:5o<';lcOot3oSJ blew

&l~a:5
;:Soa5~o[) blown

withdrew
~§~."

withdrawn

withdrawing

g:)o(r;;<>
(,j~;:So;j.>eotSJ§"'.r:D bite
~e)

tJo~crnon
r!iJo~

~~;::Jo;joeod:l§"i3;;JJ bit

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<6rt.lvfi"~. choose ~2f cleave

(gfs
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spoken

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106.)55 <fut.~e.
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;66~.

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strive

qS6ff5 e...cbifu
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e:35
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~~~~ wake ;;35


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~5

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tJ

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(K&)g£~
c..

take ,tjs b~S";:l:J begin !IF\;!5 @"~o~oi5:1 drink ~og

taken
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IDI'\:Oo1'i

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showed

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i:r
6,y>~,

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swum

oe.u.:J

~~~
swam

iSJo~~
swimming

swim

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~~
~6:J 3. AB8l:S~~ 6J<o~OJ .e,;~ ~~ofi. behold

~~
6aalSJ

"/J;..;~
,~El

~JS!)}J.°n
~O:>~

Verbs db:J.~(,.. Conjugation

&~ past. past participle


s,g)

l6"r<b
ring Bon @J"KJ. @J"1'\0i:SJ sing

l6"n~
rang

~n
rung

pronuciation :0 sl:lf\ eoeJt>Ol). beheld beheld


m.J"e)
c.

4 part verbs, beholding IDQ5'b-j;Von


to

lJ"on
@l'in;6.) sang <701\

600
~f\
sung

1:)"&6
t:SY>i5:I

lJ~e)

l;m..K:>~
srngmg

"

C.

tSJo~1SJ stood

~~
stood ~c
1!.)

stand ~oc CJ
~eJG:l1i>

t:SJo~ stooding rfuE.on D . ~m.)6~ telling l3~on ;3;;)y6Jo

~or;

::Jon

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~c;
.Q

;;,,~
spring ~..)on 6:J~s,. e~:Jo~

~~~ sprang

~~
sprung

~e.l!Qa;S:J told

tell

~e.l<oe told

&;.l)on
6J~stfu
J, 34 .~

EDan
6~~

l36
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&~

''B~.);:s';'

'"

&~
B~

'"

816,;,-:0

(}-~~85lk

";5 )

'0

@~
§~.

bread

bred @C;
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bred

breading ttJt.oo hold held held


~e) c
e:>

LID':: ;&~
fled ~c ~e~o:D read

holding ~l}ofi
c.

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~~~
fleeing ~aoo ~e~~~
\

tP~
OS~!?~
Co)

~6 c.
;;)~§"'~<fu
Co)

nee

fled ~c ~e~db<fu read

OStm§"~ paid ~cmc a~orl

OS~!iloe.xro t.l paying 1l<md) 3~~ saying 1JeoooFi BoJjl~ bleeding Q.cor.

~Bee~
read
t:S6:J~"

pay
.~

paid ~<mc a~oaio

readr&

5';;
;;)50.:iJ make iktiJ /:5.)jcrm,
lI

00
~e~io made ~c ~ti,S:",6Ja~;fu relaid eo<mc ~;:S~~~60 ~~i6,) had

0'::

Man
~~~iiJo

~Vot:D .... 6/:5.),). §e.:g

.:Se::>
made
;;be; ~CI:S:l"6Jj~ relaid eaQl)C ~;:S:t;S;Joo6o

~s

making,
;;b§oFi. ~ciSJ"l:S:l~~ _. relaying 8e3Ql)ofi ~;:S:@~60

say ~
aOSjll ®;:SJ bleed

said

said

~c
£J@Jio bled

~c
a~:lJ.
bled

~6.:)6.:iJ relay

me ....

~C
t5~o s<o<6J

ruc
r-r

58
~;:S~~~60 ~.dfu have

6~0s</:5.) 6~o t::l.::5JJJ sell

6~osoe

6~o SOC:l.:5.Y>
selling ~~on: ®~a~ feeding ~t.on

~~
had Qj6c
§Dl\~o~

~~
having Qj6·:ion 1§l)l\dSDobJo inlaying ~aeooofi 6";;)00

sold

sold

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~~
®;fuai6,) fed

f:.P6
c;;

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1J"00~O~@l.

j60
·~Vl\c:l.fuoa;i) inlaid

ea::lJJ fed

inlaid

a!iaE:
:::>!Sj15~

O"OSe:;o gainsaid

a~<Sl

a.Za:C
O"o>Co j~ gainsaid 71o:D.'5~C; a6;()6-eo~ heard ;j66
c

~c

~_E:
~~oB;i)

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SJS~oD
led

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~!:toi1:J4"'"
leading be.on ~~,::Sjo~iiJo speeding :J.)e.on
~OJ.)

gainsay 710l),!5~ G6;()6-eoi$) hear

gainsaying

i'\eoo.!5~G G6;()6-eo;:!~ heard

nOlJZbon
G6~6-e~ bearing !l"dSJ8ofi

led

6Ci
l~;;)~:'
speed ~jE: ~r1ol'i"'i¥~ knell

aa
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ac;

W~i53<>~
sped
~.)C;

~dSJo
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;j6o c
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sped

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. ~Kon" knelt !J6db;:i)

.tJ~
laid e3Ql)E:

::><S:I~
laying e3<mon
~c.ful~

;$Korr'

~XQI'1"~~.:iJ.>

knelt

kneeling fJVon
;fuo~e~~

8
~c.ful.

fJ6
;;'l"..,,~e~

eo1:SJ

;$~<6J

j~

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l_J

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o-~~~

371 1_,

Ilio

C:lld

lent

lent aoe.)

lending

grind

ground lEfo~

ground ![l"oE

grinding

~OQ

006
eJ6:lviS:>J
~~Jk),)~

ao~ori

~o~
0:l9). :l~6J

~oeofi
I:S.Jws)~ finding

@:tJ~J'
meet
~ej

®~.J~b
met iBJej' !&D~ dealt

1!,9~.J~~ !bel on
dealing

1:S.J~;:fu
found

6J~ found
~QE

met ;fue)"
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meeting

find
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~ ;fuf)";fu,

~oc
.:5Y>tfJ

~oQon
l:ii5J~ r:DilY> bending

~llct5.u. ~Kf'u
deal

SDctilliSY>

!§is:lfV;:;J <6J
bent

13;;$:JR"!O bent
aOe)

dealt

bend
aQ~
-"

lie
~6.sZJoo~, dwell
@~~

arE"
<;)

aiD
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;::Ji:5.s~oarSJ

'"

aDon
~6·~~ ~ dwelling

aoe.)
OSot5~ meant

aoeon
iiSo.:;b~ meaning

OSoiSJ. OSoK:l mean

t>otJ meant

a,6
~t.~o~
lose

'"

a~e) aJC)
lost
e,,"'~

dwelt

a:,)0 6
r

a"von
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tol!5
liv&.
Q

;;boe)

:fuoe3'
i$v[)

fu:Oon
6rn~~ dreaming

:JoS~oaiS:l

g)Q$:'..:low lost
O"@
<J

:OiiS:'J~ loosing

®g~tS.t:l

~e:)Qt3rSJ

ed.£oiSJ
dream dreamt [f:~ ,c
!&vr);;,l;fu

W"'.g
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0)

OJ"e\lon
<.)

dream!

@SR"'('.)J S"ia ~

..,

[)Ii R"bJ§,,~

~R"i!JJ~o~

creep

crept

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Is:i)
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'"

L~!5J
SvK~
[eave

©~
Left

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svK::J'

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@~
to-

@~dr;

left

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bound
G3"oo

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binding

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.;;.)joj,J

a~
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a~
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D:Don
.o~~ili""""

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~oE

bound il"oc

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;o6Jo/il~ winding

smelt
~le)
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m"o6

;oO,.)oOoBifu
wound
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:Jtfl

smelling

04l0D

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OJ"tG;5 ~,jJ

~J6 e.::

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iiJoD
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~'~r:s
taught

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wound

teach

taught
eJD~

~oc;

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ri"Dbc:fuJ .:5:Jo bereaving

woiJam, ~6:>
bereave eJ05$ ;S~gS6t:SJ hum

rt"D!ln
bereft

~5 eQo.:iJ
light

eJo~ &Qo~;fu

~-woFl
dQ~
lighting

t1¢ow
lit ()ej
~Vf\ Shot

bereft 2Ja~ <Sfj.;;J63iSJ


burnt

lit

tia~
;Sv(gS60

tJ8g)6Fl
;S~;;J6iil~
e.::

Ee)
;50)1);"

DeS
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;;3V1'\~

~e5or;

~el:lru~
shooting ~e5on
o

burnt !pooeJ
~oCl

burning

shoot

shot

m5J.
<:l:loitiJ ,
S"c:J. S"~J

eo6oej

OJed_o/)
~o6&Jo

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s

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lU5.:s;,..:'J§"bJ
eJ

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iJ:.6
lU5,:D.:tlS"~

lU5.:il'>:tlg"~

;8."

~~~--Q

Q-.-~~~~

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.....

bring @ari

brought.

brought
~e)

bringing laJof'lori

shine ~~ @JS"<So.$, ~6afu cling ~aFi @o~dfuod.J abide

shone

shone

showing ~OJJar; @5"~~ clinging ~of\on: ®oeldU:JO~ abiding .;)~eon


~~c:lfuJO~

L~er
@oJril rent ODeS'
bWJ

S1~
@5"~ai5ril clung ~ari @oesd:ixJocoSJ abode

Q&~
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d~
rend.

at:tl
rent oaes OoD slept ~~
~<.).

a~.
rending

clung
~on: ®oe3dSJ.JOQ abode

oac Do.,ji, sleep ~~ :J©ot:$) sweep


~.,)~

ooeoFi t':)o.;s,~ sleeping

wai3;$). slept ~:J (!"I.e;. :JLe,o~<6,) swept ~:JOJ

~~on
~la~
sweeping ~~on

.;)@c
~~fD~©JO~ spin

.~d-c,
!§~IDe
<.)

..;ec
d.il:lOQ;;5J :!§:e:oroE.d:IDoe
e)

~©ot':) swept ~~

spun
~.)~ OSCS;fU hung ;;JaoF) @a>ctlJ stung
~on

spun
;(J.)~

spinning :tl..):Jon 056ruiiT> hanging ~oF'.ori @eJ"6~ stinging ~af\Qfi


§"oE.~

'"

~6J' spend ~.)oc

.I:);fu)J

~~J;fu
spent ~Joe)

~eJ
spent ~Jo6 ~6:lJ~~ ~' spoilt
~OJJ~
t.)

~J5
o.1CJS:l hang ,~ofi @0'1i:l strike

'. spending
~JOQOr; !PtiJJ~~~ spoiling b>;.)OJJDon
t.l

~~J~

oSM hung
;:;J<>ofi

~6,)J~~~'

~6JX) ~~,:)~~;fu spoilt ~.)OJJ~ i3o/'i"e3r:lJ ..., sat

l~eJ"e
stung
;(Jon
OJ

spoil
~~e)

at;Fi" e.:o
<.)


S"o~fi'ru93 swing ~son

i5~l)"e3 sat fJoS6

i501"'ftil~ sitting :tJ£lon ~6"j;;5J.::iY> heaving fJ.,g)on

S"oeas swung
tJ.,)on

ru~;:S;
<.)

S"OQ& liJe3 .., swung


~~o,Fi

·!:beD~ c.:;

sit

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w inn ing

~JeJ
!i,~~;S"

iJos6
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~.~

~5"J::J

t'aaK:J,
sling ~on

~~.,

~oS.J

~r,~
slung ~oFi e.,t,~ g);:Jo;iJ won
;5~.

~F\

heave

hove ~~

slung ;6on "" z...e~ ~;:S5 won


~,!5

~soo ~~ati; ..._ ~, ~


dig

s-s

~s~;:S; dug ~ri

~s!!
dug

~sootSJo ._ ~
digging t.f\on Cl

e.a~ g);:S6J, 6J~S


win

en
~~ hamstring oJ5.m~ofl
ilioS"eXJ

en
l6~
hamstrung ~.futf5Qr;
;fuv~e.lJ

g)~ i'kuifu shrink

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l6;:S..)~
hamstrung
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t?~.st5lr>
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4. ABA 6~0iD: Verbs


?,.~

am~6- Conjugation &~ present,


become

past participle
~-< '~"""'!3.J<. Q(Qjje.JoJu

~J~on. pronuciatir
became
~,fu

11:0 ~[)F\ GOeJocm. ~~ 4 pan verbs.

become

becoming
t!!& g:i:lOr1 @XJ~ coming
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a.oA~ CSJ"~Cb":Os ("¥"1.........,...,


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1')1::-

Parts of Speech

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come

=s=
came ~~
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CS~ running

ran
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beat

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:~oC'DVerbs c:fr:o!:&6Conjugation
8.!)

&';J

present,

past 1SY>~0)

f7<£"" 05J<>t1!'6bo ,..,


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o;::J:;!tOJ"'v.

~5"'Sru

(j~ itDoSo ;;;s~tt-

~~ ~..)~on~ !:&Vf:. Goe,y,OJ).

4 part verbs. beaten beating

beat a5eS"
§"~

b~
2J"6,
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weSi'",~
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1. Good morning Mother 2. Good morning Father 3. Good morning Brother 4. Good morning Grand pa

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5. Good morning Grand ma 6. Good morning Aunty 7. Good morning Uncle 7. Good morning Sister <~<s.xiS",~

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Sorry

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No mention Ex-cuse me Allow Me

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morning ill fJ6JO) Afternoon Good Night@C\l"[).

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What is the time?

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Please Kindly Thanks Welcome

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What is the time please?

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3. Thanks»
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Allow me

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Thanks

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;;JoC$~;5)i1>6011" Thank you

ao6~&first you

S'>ro~ After you - i5:l~ ~~

MallY Many thanks to you


Thank you vel')' much -

i;3osJ

bJ c;l5l:J

~O.lt's my Pleasure- ~~ ~ ~~o ::~lil B;;J..).S:loC" O"~[) ~e.:.SJ :)0)05 :Oib C"bJ'>D_ e30" tl9 .;;.'):0 oci5J.ov @;;'i ;:Jo6tY'~tO& It's
Pleasure
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4. Welcome - ~8~~ : ;)B~dil~tO<S:lri"~,


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Welcome
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1.

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6.

No mentiau

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4.

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aoe;$)~'

Thanks

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Thank God!

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By God's grace! May GQd bless you 1

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1i"C;~~

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7... Excuse me - ~gJ~.s& !lJ : .~. ~~tu


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Excuse .me

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7. Well done 1
8, 9, 10, 11. Done wonderfully ! Ofeourse ! Same to

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me @:O D~.) ~tOo ;:Jil5J)671"

you!

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Excellent!

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12. OhGod!

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13.

How sad!

37.

Congratulations. ! What nonsense!

-sOl0"~a<5.Zj

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:JD5.d.Do ! 14. How joyful1


1

- :sao ~cW~e5 t -

38.
39,

- W"e.) r:l"~.J~.J! - :'1:D.W"ru~ ! '


- :fo" i§J"zjs

W"O"

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What a shame!
How tragic r What a surprise! WonderfulI! How Disgusting! What a pity r

!)~d.Do!

15.. What a great victory

- ~~

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!BfS'

40.
41-

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tJo~cS

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16. 17. My goodness!

42. 1 • - 9,f::Jrf, :J;fu - .;:i;J<>6J" ! ~d5Jo<Sso !

- ;Soc&5~~ !
- ;3i"

Hello, listen 1
Row disgraceful! ! How absurd! How dare you' !

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- ;;Ji" ;;ji'"

43. 44,
45,

c,~K~or;! ..,

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18. How terrible J 19. 20.


21.

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What an idea t

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22. 23. 24.

How sweet!
How.lovely! Oh dear!

- ~ ~~'i5 !
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! !

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25. Hurry up!


26. How dare you say thatl

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27.
28.

Quiet, Please! Please keep quiet! Really. Yes. it is! Is it 1 Thanks ! Thank you .1
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29.
30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

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Thank God

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Very well That's enough Why not? Not a bit


Toomuc~ Yes,

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35.. Hurrah I have won!

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36. For your good health - qS!5 dfuo.S5 K:i1Z - ~

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;"5

_.@:

&o61l§5t1ft}---<li 49

j}--------O

7. 8. 9.

No, not at all N ever mind Nothing special

~ :S,

N"e) .;;)e)

@6-

S"~

8"6:>
3~'0~6K8 - OJ -(1

-~oSo~oE

q')tl;;J"B?:5:J
~;fuoe:! -- -

Regualr Verbs (;S;::,.,v;J!f

L§ o:fJ~)-

I) e fJP~rJ~~

S"OJ
10. 1.1. 12. Welcome Rest assured Nothing more

r!Poc1~Q;beS" LBdSJUJ: .~. L~o~ L§d$e;!J;) Past, Tense, past Participle ~;>w:;l:!J(;s;SarS;5J ' d' !J ;;3u:J@. Present
Par.ticiple ~;SO !)tiJdQ:Sa:6~ e :OlreJ!k)() ;ngiSo:Jlt
Past Tense
Achieved

- ~6sfu

~;?jt.'\Kf)o g)iI",S~o ~oi:SOQ

...

-a~.;;)~~2
- i6i$on ~5

S.No. Base
1.

(~.o:lo)

Past ParU~i'plePreseDtParticpl.e Achieved


e¢!5E
~Qoi:)

..

-Cl,Oa - 'B~
-

;;'JoKefuw

Achieve
tl,9¢.i)

Achieving

13. Yes, by all means


14. 15. See you tomorrow O.K.

- .;;)5. ~ fSe.1 fb~,j - ~,i15oJJs;'Otl"

@O55.
;?jt.~o(J<fu

@l?:Jon
~eo&~

-.~ ~

tl)~56

iSJat:Y>o.
c

~~o\:b 2.
~otJV'!

- a..s..
- .,')tJi$ofi .,J~?

;:.JEln" ~o5
Cl,oSi~CIJJ;;y> g)Jo~o

Admired

Admired

Admired @~~o5
;;:t!<:S;!J§"~

Admiring
@c;,'h6on ..__
;;:t!i5JJ!:bb~
I

16. Anything else? 17. 18. 19. 20. .21. 22. 23. 24. 25. As you like As youplease. H's fine Just coming

- ~a
el@

dSJJ

~s
,~-

®E@o fu~J~<SJ
Advise

C!!)E;@o5
;;:Di;DJ5"i3<6>

- ~~amt~
- ~.~ ~.!J
Q

<6:o&G':l_a

Advised
@~~E;
~e.J~Cl,~J~

Advised ._"" <JelofoaDj Bathed


rrPeE;
~;6o.)y>e.

Advising

Q).)oOtl
s,5Ff'OS<illN"';:5) ~ ..~.c{ ii3i?;?jt. , 'J ....

@.E..')c2
;;;)~~:;l,iilj

@a,,§fl

@e.:;.sofl
Bathing
rot>30n

s~or;

Ta - Ta
Good morning Good by Bye, bye No the least !le.'lr:J
~('F

-t\J<>-tJ!>

4..

Batb
rot>o

Bathed
!:i"oC;

- fUE~Ehon
- I\)E;

;6~11,~¢6dUo :l~~ <00, ;;3Y,)6oGl.


S"ot:lQfuOf)~G".
@ClJJiV"

~)c5~c:iJ 5. Believe fjf):;J,

- ;@. ~ - ;j 6

"""

~;:S<fuoa<5J Believed

~r5~CJ~
Believing

es ..,

.Believed

e'Jb5C;
~;;:t!J.fSj

robSIi
;5.ibJ Breathed

!lVg)on r5~Jebu
Breathing

6;;$J:Ooi5oQ .. ~

~~o~e1S"':O

<Jo~gi>J"'~!1:l)S"~.

(S;;mJ
6. Breath

!J~:o <So<Qy>g i>J"'S"swrr>~ ;;5~oSoJGMod' <::OO~C;oS.:iJJ' ~1>J"'S"~~&g) l@id5J~ 6[r~ o:>~o dlSJ... @~oS60 ~at§ ,sg a~. S_9<il ;fu~o ~eoo !!!lgo
~;:J;isS;;j<>[)J ~obJoe.

Breathed

@li
~[::)oiSJ,

@g~
~~o;jtSJ

!pea;
~~oi:l;s)

@OOrl
~r:;JOi$e$.:r>

~~oSoej
.

QJ1>S"~ofSj
.

~:Od,~SJJ.<Srr> ~6{)$Jo£3 @oe} ;illoOo5.riF\;:J £)euo<illot.'li.

7,

Challenge

Challenged

.Challenged ynao;;S"c;

Challenging

~;;Dd5Jo&;:J;ie.:D~n"

~eJotlt:>"~§
M

zyoe3ore
~~!!XI~d:SlJ

i;l"a 0 i!G
;::J~!!XIa~fSj

t;l"vo;2on
Chaging

8.

Chage

Chaged
~cSE;

Chaged

~Ii

~ffi5

:Q~of\ ;;.'3o~CJ8.Ju

01""'""------"""""41

'L~

;~~I-. --~~~.§5~--o

9.
I

Close

Clsoed

Closed

Closing ~23oF) G'ID>~ Cursing !&a,pn eje:niSJa .., Deciding ~~E.on ._


1!J6Q)J~ ~ ~

19.

Fine

Fined
~~C;
e!Bt.......;J";5~~

Fined

Fining

~rE ~dfu
10. Curse ~o..) ~e:n, ~cJo,;5) Q 11. Decide ,E,~B n60XloiSJ ta 12.
,

~reG
,;'mo~~

g;rEG ,., ~~
Cursed ~oJE;

~ .l5
ele~i'l"

12~E;
eJe~;;J" Hated
~-"e3e

~~on
~fu eJa~;;;l"~~ Hating ~t:lon

Cursed

20.

Hate

Hated

. liEbE;
a5;;;o ..,
Decided

~t5
a.s~oiil 21. Hope
~fij
s~~. iiuo~

;"'DE:
a~~o~::&l
<.)

tie ill
Decided

a.s~on

a.s~~
lloping ;;:;-#~on 6e:Jo,;:i)~ Imnritatting ~ollie:3e5on @ifu!ie.~ Enquiring ';;l.q~Saon
.i)iJ"5~

Hoped

Hoped
:j#[jCi e1le:Jot) Immitated Clollie:35e !!!lifu~aon
Enquired

e~QE
::n:SO))o~<fu

e;£e:~c
~60))ol:.l r;; Deleted

~f:J~
6e)o~;6J· Immirated
\;l,~e:3e3C;

Delete

Deleted

Deleting

22.

Immirate

t.D6
8'e:Jf\o,:5:} 13. Disclose

eD5E:
O"e)f\oil<fu Disclosed ~~reQ
e:J:;06&o ;j~~
"

eDce.)
&'e:Jf'.oD disclosed

cDe30fi
0"e:>F1~

~De5
@;6JsBoi.5:l
23.

®;fuSBoB~ Enquired Clo~.s2 ~iJ"BoB;6) Liked

~f'kif
ro!;oMo tjdSJ.:>
CJ

'.

Disclosing e.~23oF)

Enquire a.o:E:.so

E.~reQ
~~66o n Devided

ti~

~~6~o o Deviding

"""

a.osS5 ~ Liked

ti<fut>
-"

g)O"Bo..:5:l 24. Like

~iJ"BoD

14.

Devide

Devided

Liking Q130n a.tioS~a,.. Loving e:Jg)on LPgnf~ Moving c6.1Jog:)on


~61!Xli$)o

c~8 ._
.:Ji';l<:'Jo,::o,

e.~ac;
£i6ru ~45e!!loar:lJ Discouraged ~;:SJ,-a~Q ~26SoS0~;fu Embrassed

e.~c:C;
g:)ijl'e:Jo~;fu Discouraged

8ec:.ol1
~ijl'aS~ Discourising c<6&d:::lon @2.°SoS&~ Embrassing ~o@~on
§"~

~f3
Cl~;;Sl$:l

2se
9.~oSc;6) Loved

ESC;

a;;s'OSt.
Q

15.

Discourage

25.

Love e:JZ [!>rDot:$)

Loved e:J!5Ci ~.llion Moved


~!§Q

t,;:J&ol!
e!l.26SoS6~
1

8~!pree !!!l26SoS6D
Embras ed

e)!5C5'
~gnoil<6:J Moved G'ID>ZC;

16.

Ernbrasse ';:'o@~ S"f\l)o.).)


§"~

26.

Move

';:'o@~e
S"I\Do·.:5J§"iil;:iJ

';:'o@~E:
go t'lDot6J

o:w-!:i
27. Pollute

S"f\l)~ Erasing Cld$oF) .'fJ E.~~:fu'o


-~

~Cie.l;l. S6eJJJ, s6arfu, Polluted SJ>e;uSB~ ....


~vrS;;)6;:};;5)

!&6[) Polluted SJ>e.lJ"SBEi


~V<6;;)6D

17.

~;are
~e.~~dfu
18. Escape

Erdse

Erased ::..o;!C;

Erased
9.'Brec

Polluting

""'~stS
~[)~;;)6~

O-W"Se3 or;
~V<ScJ6J~ Preparing @'t6ofi .-:5 :;,.,6:;j~ o

rut. ~;;§~<S:l
Escaped
::J1J&f:,fl,

~e.~~:'v
Escaped ';:'~&fij5

Escaping

28.

Prepare ~~o .-:5o:;,.,6;.;;1diD

Prepared

Prepared @:I~5C; 6 dSJ"t$)jfJ

;)1.J&f:J ~e<i7>~

~1.J)~oFi .,.
-

~'~oe;
6ctiJol1:Jti@ifu

o):>5SJS6.b ;;D

Q---------ii,

_;t~
52

o):>5&Y>cm

iPe~&'"'

b--,·~~ao~g!i~_O

.til

29 ..

Refine

Refined

Refined B~Ze:

Refining
B~~ofi' i0e;3;;).p
Q --"

.
30.

Er~,!5
i0~~dJl) Release BfJeK g)~6e)tk:iSJ.)

El~ZC:
~ElaFJ;i)
0

Regual, Verbs (;S~;;')!i ~d$e;Q)-1I) ed tJ ~~SV~ ./ia LCo~ L§o;!~e;~

L~a:»e»:

~~~~
Released

Released

Realising

Past Tense, Past Participle (JJP~OJ .!Jtb~~c~~ 'ed' rJ Present Participle ~a:so :Jlb~;sa~~ ing

El[)l::la
~~6()

5f.)~E:

a~ifu

eO::!!ol1
g)LiJ6e.;. Saving 1Jg)on S"~~~ Serving ;;5B,::pfi

~a:JV.

<Olil6eJ~~ Saved

a~

S..No. 1.

Base (ISJ-;;So) Abandon @eJ"o~Z e:§S2!loiiJ

Past Tense

Past Participle

Present

Partlcple

31.

Save

Saved.

Abandoned
®el"o~~E;

Abandoned @aJ"o~Ze
~ScSo[)

Abandoning

tJS
S"~lil,. 32. Served

~~e:
S"~afSJ Served

~,f;c
S"~t, Served

'@aJ"o6~on
~ScSoiSJ~ Absorbing

6SeSol5iSJ Absorbed

2.

Absorb

Absorbed @~5a1C; ~qJS"~


Accomplished

;:So.')
OSeotil c; 33. Solve

rSo~c
oSeo;:!;i)
c.

;:So~c
oJ

@at~
!:J e).)J§,,;5)
3. Accomplish

@at~C;
~qJ§,,~i6J Accomplished @S"o8J~e ,.., ~Ooi3<fu Allowed @OSe ®;;i)oSJol3oi3<6J Borrowed
~~Q

®atea1on
~e).)J~o t.lJ'>

oSe.oD
Co

<6e.~ w

-"'

Solved ~e5~f!, 16e~El oarS:! Used ~ti3e:


GoSCfuot'io;5:fu

Solved

Solving ~[).sofi Q)B~e~ Using

Accomp lishing @S"O#.~on

~oS
16e~eoiSJ 34. Use

fjof5::,c.
16B~eol:l Used

@5"O~~
~t;loiiJ

@S"o~5.e i'JoOoeJ Allowed @de @~oSJaoeJ Borrowed

~Oo~~
Allowing @6'OJ.)on @<6Joili)~ Borrowing ~ffc:mon @o),JbrSJSJobY> Boiling a:!"on[)ol1

4.

Allow

diU"ffi
e;;)c.:n_",f'lo..:sj 35. Vacate

cifuooo
dl16cfuof\ow Vacated
:i3~!3c

dS.:Do~ori
tl!<6dl:Jl1f\~ Vacating ~eofi
4l"~~~

@&'
@;i)oSJ30iiJ 5. Borrrow

Vacated

~se.)
~.f;~c6D
36. Wave
~!) t'diIo:\) • .c!;;oi'\)

~s[jCS ~l"tJ ;3~J;fu


Waved

aJ"c?
®16,Jb~§"<5:l 6. BaH

~tf~~ Waved j!)E;

@~brSJ~<5:l Boiled
e:J"0J.)6 c

eRfc f @o).J bc::cS" ~


Boiled eJ"OJ.)ed e<'!~ Blessed i{~c 5g)o.:5J6Ja Chekced t:lsc

Waving jg)oFl t;o;;JJ~ Writhing Bi)on :tJo~6Joo


-

;;3.5c
e""~i6J Writhed

aJ"cm6

~~
Writhed Boe: 8Joe.

.
7.

e~S:J.~M.o
Bless

5Je.~si6J Blessed
~f,)C;

el::5J~e:SY>
Blessing ~:b.Jon

37.

Writhe

eJ3
;:Se).)~, ~o1iJ.

56"c
!loa~

~~
eg)o.:lJ
8.

eg)oD Checked
;:'SQ ;:G5tiJo~<SJ

6g)~
Checking t:l§on
~5~~

Check

i:ls Q------___:j.j
I

._
~.

<65tiJoiil

~e~~
.A}}_
- 55 iJ

54

)--~foaoO:.lgJ~-O

o-

~:a~

"'~

a~£_ §§Ji_-!ll" _ r..r.

......,

-._11;"

--'-lI'l
'"\....I

9.

Call
sot!)

Called

Called

Calling

19.

Fail
~cme;)

Failed
~Q).lO

Failed
~6JJ~

failing
~WJVon

9"0' c
~f)t:l;:n

S"llofi
Churned' .::J5d_Q
·nID~

"

.~::,.,) Finished
~10~~
~f\oD

~~&o Finishing
~;:J~pn .

1:0:

Chrurr

Chruned

Chming

20.

Finish ~10~
g$.).)l"1oiSJ

Finished

.j6J..
DwSJ 11. Climb

t:5Oj0
t:)lls<5J Climbed

.sBJ.d,)
::Jel)~fu.>

~~~Q
a:i.Df'1o;3c5:J Gathered

...ml\~.....
(1'>06on

'

Climbed
~oe)C;
;,)§J,

Climbing
~8)or;

21.

Gather

Gathered

Gathering

~oID'
.;J!&J(,~

~owc;
.,')~&~ Confessed
!&~~Q
eio:i.:ra,Gl.J~;$

(1'>05
i1:l:b~6 22. Greet

rl"000 ru~~aifu
Greeted

(1'>OO~
{'i)::Ulhue Greeted

.;)~&~
Confessing

KJ.tb~~~ Oreeting

, 12,

Confess

Confessed !£:3.)~C:; a:.;),Je..o:J",'O§") g Covered

~J~
8~e...;).?§"<S:: 13, Cover

S;;3J~ofi
e)OS.Ja..;;).J!:bo~ Covering
!&cS5of)

l[\t5
e!J!);Soe.ot:5J

t[\e3~
®

l8e3c
@~~o~oD

l6~on
®~;Sot'l·~,

();;So c:,OQ[{P

Covered

23.

Help ~~

Helped
~v.)Q

Helped

Helping
~[J..)ori

s:Soc
~~, 14, C"t:5J,
~a,;:5J

~~e
Informed

~D Developed
'a;;Sf)~Q;

Develop

Developed

Developing
a~f)~on

24.

lnfonn aN"..)5J

Jnfonned

Informing
s.N",.)6~p1)

a:Sf)aJ
®l)ci$\eacIDJ . EJQ

E~v~e
Discovered e,;S2,.D5§
~~r~e3(fu
eJ

@(J~J'S a~;fu ®IDo,S,a.3~ ·ell;!


Discovered Discovering E.<6J,oS50n 24 ..

aN"JoJ5
oVd5J~~i&! Jumped
elO~C
I

a~oJe;
6[)d5Jel~ 1tu_l1ped
elO~~

~mctUe.kti))
Jump

6()ciS:J~;fuv

15.

Dsicover

Ju.mping elO~ofl
Joining
es<'OXl:"Jon

a~(,.cSo
~:"J@~

a;:s;;s5 [I,i

0;

s~~t3~ Diverted

s~r~~e»o
Diverting
~

6Ja§

16.

Divert §c;S~ tDrJ;)otiJ

Diverted

25.

Join
23"OJJ£l

Joined
a!"Q).l~

Joined
e;oQ).l~

a<6Bofi
t)

c;

c;

~iiJ0;3;:5J

cS:JfQoD
Expanded

oilf),,)ot;$)~

~dJ. j6.:>J
26. Listen llrs5 ::li&! 27. Look Listened Listened
[)elZ~

i:56J~
Listening Vrs:"Jon
::lo~

17.

Expand ..J~~o~ ~~Boii1

Expandecd

Expanding

.,')~.;y,oac;
!l~50~;:5J Expressed ,;)§J~~C;

oJsJ~oaC;
!)~eot:)

oJsJiJoaton
!:l~eo6:>~ Expressing

[)e3:5Ei ~;:a~
Looked

:J~

18.

Express
.;)~~~

Expressed

Looked WSQ

Looking
OJ-§ol1

.,J.s.J~~C;
c;S~i6tSD

.,Js.J~~ofi
c;S~;;J61~

W8

wSB

~~';)6~

.>lS05t5;3;fu

28.

Mix
g)JsJ ~Ul~, ~!l~
I

Mixed ::os.JG
~ll~~

Mixed :x,sJ~
~V~ Opened

Mixing
'" !liUl~tiJu Opening
g)J§)Or;

Regualr Verbs (;:S~~!J L§~w - Ill) lJeSfJ ~(j L~(J$:)exJ lila L~o!'J Ve,.bs.!6 d~O~(JfS!.rJO

f/;98($0

:»oo:~t3.~(j

;s'lf?!it5

29.

Open

Opened

Past Tense, Past Participle Present Participle d".~w

e..~~
a~;:$). '!5tSo~otiJ

e..~~a
@co~o~~

e..~~E:
e!ll5o(lo~

e..~i:::Jor;
~oo~~

:;l5Jdr~.
S.No.

Base (~;SO)

Pilst Tense Admitted IYle.Jo[lc

Past Par-Uclp'le

Present Particple

30.

Present
~e:!oeJ

Presented
~e:!ol3c o:J6E20ab~

Presented lJ.le:10~e
oJoe:lCOl)

Presenting
~e:!oe.'5oFi ;;::. ...e:l6~~ Pressing ~~ori

1.

Admil
1Yle.J_e5' ~~-8o.,,-s,.

Admitted

Admitting
®eJt3ori

oS£e:10fU 31.
Press
~fj

ao~

egeJDc
j5

~6:J~ Begging
rul'\ofi ~n ®eot;SjiiJo
0

Pressed

Pressed

2.

Beg ~r;
@5o;:D
0

Begged
aFic ®5oi:liS:> Q

Begged
~fiC: @50~
0

~@C
;s"S&~ Selected

~:SE:
!5"§J,.

~!h"J,. 32. Select @e:ls


c

,'5"!&J&tl:ro Selecting
@e:l ori 3.

Selected

Cancel

Cancelled
S"i5joC:

Cancelled

Cancelling
S"'~JVoFi

@e3se
OJ

~asC:
OJ

5"~t5

S"~&
6~a~ Digped

O)o.,,-s, §''is:> 33.

O)ot:S,,§"~;6J

..Jo.,,-s,§"~

..Jo~t:&Jo~

6~acxm
4.

6l':l:la~<6:> o Digged efi~


l§i;;3S~

66J;3;:S"v
Q .

......I:'

Soak fOE-§
N";fu.<J"~~am

Soaked FJ6sE:
N"~~@~

Soaked ~§G N"<:S~~ Talked

Soaking
~§oFi

Dig t!11
~~

Digging
eF\ofi n @~s~

eRc
~~o')

N"oS~~-" Talking
CJ"§ori
o)y.>~~~

34.

TlIl'k

Talked

5.

Dip

Diped

Diped

Diping
~or; <.'IDot;Sj~
I

tJ"s
~~~ 35.

eJ'>sc
~~~~

~er.e,
Washed
OJ"~C:

tJ"sc

e~
<.'ID(1;)t:S",I!!)~ 6.

ea)C
oSllo~t:SJ

e~c;
<.'IDow Expelled ..Js..J~~ ;;3tfJn"~ Ful1i11ed

Wash
c;yi~

Washed ,;:y>~8
sc.r.;6J

Washing
,;:y>~oFi
r;l:.:ili"\:)~J'O

Expel!
O)s,J~e5'

ExpeUed

Expelling ..Js.J~lloFi ~'!fJIY'~iS:r> Fulfilling ~e5~fJ.on


~6~I$:)J~

..JsS~o
~c;

~~/'U

~e.f\

~*JFi"~
7.

~tfJFi"Ee1~
FulliLled

Fulfil

~~o
~6;;5~ 8. Knit

~o~e)E:
~6~aJrSl Knitted I:)tlc @~iS:>

~~6C
~o;B5J Knitted

Knitting
~e.Sof)
c @~iSy>

l o-~.~.g$~ __
@~.

:::J6

~e:3Ci

ime,~cful

@V

r"'

..al
,r
59 1-

bJlli-' ------0

9.

Plan

Planned

Planned
I.

"planning

~~
Gb>dS;.o~;OO.J. 10.
Rob
O'>.~
I

~:5G n-ei1>o:Wo;;)~J.<5J Robbed


O"~
I

~:5C; eQ)odSJo~~ Robbed


C"~Q

~~or;
e~dho;;);:s,J.670 Robbing oollof\
ag)

ADVERBS
(~dSJv
Verb .;S.S:J ~S&;;3 7i"~.
~ot:5Jtb~ :>~~t;~el)

6CJ1'

®3 ;J.,fu~o&l1"~ ~oE. Verb

.~:5e~ _, ti

&t:S:J:S";fu Slip

& ':Ȥ,,;3;fu
Slipped ~XjQ ~or5J

&i:SJ§,,~ Slipped -~5Q 2f>B

& is;,s:'0bY>
Slipping ~~ofi

~SS ;;)e~~~
1.

;:;)~se~QD.

11.

Absolutely Accidentally Accurately Actually Affectionately Alertly

(~~~~il)
(dSl"~QOb~)

tr'~I1". ~60~.aoll" ®SiJ.>J~11"1 et<6J~fJ

~~
a3"ti:J, ~""6g:)tiJi:S:l 12.
I

2. 1.

5PJfJ

a3"6J~
Transferring ~~<;JBoR rotlb
@~e(;""

(dlY>!:ilSBeSb) !llt:lJ~OI1", ~B~


(<fuo~Jc6~) . OJ'>~;SOIl". :.)eeo(1'>
~oSJuS, ~;6):W6..)~oll" @~oSJ~OIl"

4.
5. 6. 7. 8.

Transfer

Transferred
~~q)OQ

Transferred tSJ"~qjoE; roe, [)@(fuii Worshipped c6B.PE l:\9ooeoD

(,;)~:i~eSb)
(®eJ~b) (@a"O&) {~C;b)

l!-J"R;Jq)o
rot:JtJeti'tJ 13.
I

.:Dti:J~n", i:SJ~,
aC:JIl",

.eJt:JV(l~)(J3J~ Worshipped

Around
Badly Beatutifully Before Behind Below Best Better Clearly .C~ertaiIlly Comfortably Completely Cordially Charmingly D a ngerousl y Definitely Delicately

~~.1t;>s&v, .:D~ teJs6,v


eetq)ll", .lli~6-{)
1!!19001i:", K?K~1i" o.'W<fu~,

Worship c6B~5 ~ooQoilJ

Worshipping
c6~~0f)
@O"e~

~~'£5lZ
~O"eoij~

9.
10.
11.

(!m"Se3~~)
([)~o) (al?,ot';) (ale) (ro~)
£.l

;;))0660f1',

;;'boeS6. ~<iJs!fu,

~~t:l.

~<':S,so

14.

~6
~o~lil Purify ~B~
.~t)ac:lfu
Q

;6y.6c

;6y.8c

~60l)0r;
~o~~~

~S:l6-;SIi", S"6~f1" ~S:lJc6 cr

~o~a~
Purified ~B~Q
-ite~~rSJ Q-

~o~e.
Purified

t2. 13, J4, 15.


16,

@ol:5, 6KJ<6, @tilrU~,


t:>~~071", @~07i"'.

15.

Purifying
~5~Ol)of)
.t{)e,ji6Jo .-0
Q

n:'~ri"

16.

Reply B1!, ~&~6g))<:u,)

Replied B~Q).)Q ~ibe'iej6~a..);5.: Satisfied ~es~~G


8J~ i30arSJ

=s=
Replied

~Se~Q

(rob5)

';&~;5, c6Jot:le_i'S,

~t:SJ=~

~dilob)
(<6a~b) ,._, (!§'o<;J6z5"D)
o

&Q 11" ,:06 os:>oi!'6i1"

Repling

:o-t,)ctiJOII", ,1J)~~r6Bfl"
~!¥e);;S,nri" • ;;i)~Ori",
~~Ii",
~a;rn1'>

Bajema ,...,

e~QDon
@l8JJ~S6~~ Satisfying

17. 18,

~ibS~6~t:l,) Satisfied
~e'}~~Q

(~o~eb)

;.Jo~g.:6:Dr1"!;;m ~cl6o~

~O11"

17.

Satisfy

[9.
20.

(S"ecfub) c,.,

~JtS d5JZY6,Sso11".
tillGQ.'))~~601i"j

~~~~
~~~ t:lolil.

iN.5~~QDon 8eB :aotSJ~


Supplying ;()~a::oon <66;;Sty>a~
I

(~eJ.on@)
(Co&6~b)

@oOol'1"

~e1~ Boe
Supplied
e0~OJJC;

-1.
22. 23.

@b>ctUS-6.ol1", leS~cS~6o".,.
!pi.()~;;IDTl", ~o;'iJ:O;:S5l1", ;0J~OTl"

18.

'Supply r6~cm r61;Sq)0" jcrm

Supplied
;()~QDC;

re4J~t5b)
~D~~b)

Q.'))J1iJ~Il". :i3J9,11", .;§DSrI".


OJ" 2:P"!fu1i"

;:S6<;J0"

j@;;i)

<66<;)C'" ~ j

.L'Ii;_

24. 25.
26. 23.

Deliciously Directly Downwards Eagerly Easily

(ctJ~o5JK)b) (co!tiln ~c (a:':5;;S~J) (tSaKoD) (eaeeD) (';)6'S.s0e5ID)


(..J@:5~dSJ~) (.;)!looe![) )

6,)l:lst$on". ;36,)"." 19~,

6~f'i" teJti~o".,

48. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

Inconveniently Indefinitely Indeperalently Involuntarily Intentionally Judiciously Joyfully Luckily Leisurely Mentally Menawhile

(a:s~f.:l.s:O®o~) @~WSo"",

ZI.~o8fl"

(~a:;,~e.)b)
(aoG'.1loEotlb)
(a,!5~uoe"eV)

1S~.)~On" •

.w~6i:1so a~oO"

@oe.ll, ,Br'O~S1,. tJ.i6~ag


e!!~)ti1i".

'" ~~.!?, ~~~OS

~.,)<:5,yi'"

;::J.S.)O~~Ol"l'>

@l;;S~~on",

;JVo;lJ$.>oc;;a 9"OJD<:>g)

24.
25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

;:$)<:><\5011", ;:$)ID~/1". ~~ot1.", ~.tl:J~e,Tl"

(Clobo~~;stn
(~~~d5:J~l1)
(e3"cfu~~)

G.),':~~6.)§ori". :J;;3sofl",otJ!lfl"
;:So~~OI1",

Eloquently Essentially Evidently Exactly Excellently Excessively Experimentally Fluently Faithfully Foolishly Forever Fortunately Frequently Funda men tally Generally Gently Happily Helplessly Honourably Immediately Immensely Improperly Inclusively

OJDrY"€3
Q

iJ',

~l'Ji:l"o'iJ6rS0F 0 'I8<6OSS0l1", \!!lO;6).)~Ofl"

53, 54.

'/Jod-~o{f

~::i;;)6o"', ;().)ilon",

(e;sb) (D~ob) (;;lJoe.:>~)

f!!ltS~~<6'5"~ iY<6S"~011", :JtB"o~n" ~~Mona

.o~tSOT1", 6~O~On"
~c§g)c;$o.1xJl1"
®9lii'on", ~ruUlrl",

55.
56. 57. 58. 59.

(oJ't~[»

;()8rr;, ~~tion".

(oJ~.Ja~e5b)
(.;)sJ~.sV)

lP~Jo~OIi". @~O11",

l~i1On"

(fu:5~e5)
(.lli~~~)
(~6D) (~fJD)

~di(l", ~~SQ, tSsrJi"

~o~Q

f!!lt$;6oli"

Miserably
Neatly Nicely Nearly Notoriously Obediently Occasionally Officially Privately Pain ll,a lly Particularly Perhaps Permanently Pleasantly Purely Quietly Radically Rapidly

;;Jo.)tS(j$j::lO"'1S~on"'. q>.100i1" iil~on",

(.,)§.J;;S8;fuo~~) ~c:fut>rl"6J~on"

(~dXJO~V)

Q"O"tion", :J~r5oo'.

@;56tiol1". ;6;l)J~e6

.,

tiKort"

60.
61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67.
68.

;;J"'re>!~m",

60'0s01l". r5e'h

33.
34. 35.

~cm6~e)
(~l)~b)

C:Ja1J5V)
(;:s"et5d'i:J~b)

tSl'i611" n

@~ti~OI1"! e~:J6lt1~CSI1" -oo.a.s6ofl". ,;)g~"i3 § @tS~~;S'O"~

IP~QG'm'li",

(~5';);;So)
(~~~e.)b)

(e, ~e.dS:Joejll) .K)Qd5Jtki" 'Se36~~i1"

'"

~~~oe;:s

36.
37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.

(@l~~;Stl.)

@~c~6
.@/;.S"o

q~s,:p6b) (~oc~oe.:>~)
(e:l;S6fJ)

t5tl:l.:l:J1l",

~tJ,) ~t>J

(~~~dS:J~) (@:B6D)
~o.u,!5~fJ)

-:?r;piJ

@'>1;5::b~oll", :mwJjOTl" iYQ"tlt<lO/1", ;fu<>oml:))fl"


~~l1".

6o::..",o:ss01i",:::'S"oe)Ofi"', r5_soe)Orl"
eJ"071"

,.s"~J!3~ .Qru;5~r1"

(elIo5tJ)
(~~D) r..J"~a~b)

'6"o6:mll",

~.)t'i:J~fi'"

n"• G:)~~SeJ6b) l;;5,ge')!30 .,::);5 00(1'"

jo&~on".

'/J:iWOrF, ~i506oli''

69. 70.
71.

(~o~~J)
(~o~~ol!Sb)

m;j'Q-oo,

so!We.u

Q!&::&o~oC". ~r5J~dSJOfl",

-nuot,\;!}Oi1", Rl5or\"'
u.; '"

g)CI"Q"OOIl" (;;JS;6~8lJf4) ~6~oli", :lJCOS6fl", qll;5of'l"

r~reoe5D)
(~ob) @~e5b)

:fuZ';;:)-"6orr>. ~o~ i1" ~:)1:SJcuon", ~5~~o1i" ;;)c:'n.?t)ti" , s6cuSJol;>"


;:J~e)Oti",

72. 73. 74. 75.

(9..lliJ.~ab6ID) ;,'3o~~, .)~ptiJ


(9.~J~,Jb) rXi3?fJfl", i.?l~aoi:!::mfl"
. !!!l~;;:):,on", @;ful:lii'QSl:J1l" !3e.J:102lS"g)

(lJ"estl' (lJ"~Qtl)

~<P"oSol1"
6~5~orl"

(:s.o®,,;;5~) (9.0~:'v~tl) ..,


~!

;;jKof1",

62)

~fl)~gS~-O

0- ~~ gS5,;, ~~

~~}

76.

Rarely Really Recently Respectfully Sharply Slowly Smoothly Softly Strangely Sufficiently

(OoV)
(8cSS:l~)

@OJI:SJl1"
;:)a>01"i"~~oSo1"i" •. ®;Q;.;;JO .

77.
78.

~ ADJECTIVES
(~~~t'Ol~t;Xl )

(6f;)o~t»
(B~8~~)

~tSoSa,
~toon",
iiJ"lSli",

cfuOS~
056:l;;S[2J~6o
l.

79. 80. 81;.


82.

(.i1:>OjO)
(?t,b)
(<5J<>~V) (~~f)
(~oatl)

Accused perscn Acting Chairman Adopted ChiJd Bandy legged. man Blear eyed boy Boorish person Bossom friend Brisk walker .Casual workers Contemporary boy Dependable person Delicious dinner Distinguished

(®~e!t;
(f!!lco158

~~).!5);:;j60

~:»a)o;6
26J~
~;;)~

<S~

;:;)6J;fufl",

i5J~rI" ~;.1,fl" ;D~rI"

:'Jt:l"iSol'i".
;fuoSd.rI",

2. 3. 4.
5.

(dS...'gofi ~6J.'5) ~6"?V!:S

;;3;fuJE>l1",

cfuJ6:>~f1d.
;D~n",

~V6~

j;6.)§J~fl2
O"~S"~

83.
84 .. 85. 86.

;,i)e'>6J~Ii", g)o~1i",

..:s~no

(~o6

anE;

~~,!5")

(~dSJo !DQ a_,-..dSJ) S:o~ SVf\;5 e?wGJ


(mJb5~ oS6J;!5) illlt)bJ oS~

~t:)~o"" ;:68;:;)6

6.

(;;S~~cfuotjb) (e3~~t4) (!3ooS6eb) (a~)

~D;6o~, ~O~~Sor1"

I.
8. 9.

(eC!:lill tYo~)

@§_g)Jle.uc", :'J~~iS ~~e.u~


;;3:'J;;:p1il.cf'~ SJnbeu eJ"e.n1iJ

Technically
Temporarily
Thence

(L[)~2rOJ".~o) i5J6J~11" CSe,jOJ"GJ.


(S'>~t)6 oS66-.0J) f~0J"5 E

87.
88.

6"6"3-D!Son"

@iStlixloL'.,
@o6JoSe.:J;:j ;;So~gOI1",

®;:;)Je3 ;S,o~,

10.

(S"o~ooS66 aJ-"cfu)2tJs0X'e.J (Cb~cfu~ ~~I))

lL
®OeJ1>. ~~01"i"

C~~06iill8 ;;StlJ;!5) iSoS:W':S~oS~ 6JDSI:S~~g)o6:l eJ"ciS5)

89. 90.

Totally
Twice Ultimately Unanimously Understandingly Undoubtedly Unfortunately Universally Usually
Violently

(esOtlf)
@.s~)
(®V;&e$'t))
(.) .:

12.

ao~~iS:I" ...., ao~ae§VJ


ae3o~,
ifJ

13. 14. 15. Hi. 17. 18. 19.


20.

lawyer (t.,~o~~C;

~~g<J"Sr:;ti)OJOCl
is:J~;fu)
~

91. 92.
93 .. 94. 95. 96. 97,

Claco6w

Distent relative

(oiJoeS" eael~) <.J (.;)~~d5Jo6


(t;I,&s,Sat5

6.Jntl~

(~iJO:J<6J~il)
(@o~oeoP,) e]
.......

~s(t\~omrl"
g);::iStOl& ,iiU)g)n" ""'-'..

Down -Trodden people (C>~

~""'a,!5~t0e)
~!;lo)

@~Klfi"S6-e:>~ ~~m ;;S~OJ"~

Efficient Worker loquent Experienced peaker teacher

;SISti) ;6ofu~;-6oi!$~<S .iJ"~e5Ke.J oS~

(@:5~tJ~b)

:'J;:6.Joa~-,,01"i"

(1!!l~~4lS;:S6tl) 6J6(;5J~;S'<l"~
(dfuo:'JoS6.J~) (~oS~) ~6.sl?s~1"i" ~t;l"6t01oIT' • i>S.:;o~VJ11"

(,;}S..J~eHj$J~JC eBt:5o) @;::Di;J;;5oKe.; e.iJo~cifu~ (~5~~E;

Far ighted Fellow Floating population Handsome Lady Identical twins Inactiveparticipant Independent Meritorious student

~&) ~156,JtiKe.i ;;5~


.;:)o~a~5)
;00.i:l"tla'liSo

98.
99.

(;;Scfuoaoe$"[)) oogcs~Ofi'>. ®@SOfi'>

(~e3Qn

Warmly

(OJ"oJ_fJ)
(d5J;6o~)
Q

~CiciS:l~6.!)i;ofV'.

~66afi'>.

21. 22. 23. 24.


25.

(;j6oE;;0,fu at,) @lo6@CS dIDo)~

ii:li{)l1"
100. Yes te rday :'Jr6J.

(a5di....."s~ .;J.5@~oe5) (58"\~"'o


.tJ

'eo

e3:'J i.P1:3~c:J
"'"'""

can didate(a,oc,

6.;O~oeS

~o~t3ti)

;0S~OL~S@~S~

GillSes!;5eiilf:)

r:'.l.i·"D~00"' 1;:.],9GJ .« eJ .J) \!'

Kd

g)O""f iJ,~

26.

aughty bov

0- ~s:;

~~

.~6,., --i'

J~

~ ~'----------t.

65

27.
28. 29. 30. 31. H2. 33. 34.

'Outgoing Permanent

president
Employer

(e::e5'FfOJJori @.l~ao~5) Q)i:Sil g:)6<fus ~~;6cl s~~~ (o:l5!!l~oeJ .JQ~c:l:SJo)

,REPOSITIONS
(~~~~;;.StS~e.»
~o~ ~jozy>~~& !):O~ l'il50~ 1. Prepositions

'll)':e~~t;e:f~f'1
o:m~6"l.lS [)~
R";;).)

)
l:>:i~ql

Pregnant women

(~ild0e5 fi,<fu5) K6;;)o8rS,,~·~

Pretty Child Plain spoken man Royal Family Skew eyed girl Skilled worker Snubnosed man Troublesome' Boy Underfed child
Wooden beaded

(iYJe5 rt.~ ®oc5~;6ro~,


r~O)):;) rosJs~~S;!3) (O"c:l:SJc ~:P[)) SJbJO<l);;)))
(;:'JJ"J,!V~

~l¥; 0"0"

9;"160

:i~~oe,

!§t:D~

~[)J6ol'i" cS.Yo~~~;:5J;o~

:;);;SC)orl'"Eli').);.) g}c6.')6~;;Se. ... i:S~tSd',

O"~SJb:lo~;;m,
&''''[}s

About (@e1"e5) : 1U500. ~oS::;o~


6ej

iil~;

@ot)eJ'>,

:no

That book about computers is very interesting

l'i"U) ~~13~

ms

.;)Jf'6 $oo.F'~(\.)Oj ~§

~6
~~

aObO~On;

(fuz,.rDC iJ{$(J5)~~~~o (;),l6

rle.> <S~0J"6
iS~~fuJ, Xv t6:J~~ Zle --W
aJ-"e.D~

!&O~$bO.) (JBoD<6 ~~!§.~o

~<J§!§6oi1'" cll~d.e.

35. 36.
37. 38. 39. 40..

;SiSCi ~~.~)

It was about six 0' clock when she left.

~eS ;;Ss @e3"~


~;;b

~!§b a,~s
£:x.t'S,
OIl

(tp:>roJe)~!JS e?cfu) arrno8 ~iie?e.ul&J -"B.) e:

~~~=<S~6

~Z ~ ~;;.')y>m ~6J

a~

rlob~

(@o~o~C; 9~)
a.:...,w

306 <JBI1".~~~ ("1 eo

2.

Above (@aJtj):.

1J.rJ'>,

@QK~oD.

~<6d.~;::)o&

White livered person ~eS[);;SoCi ~6j~) ~ogOJ"~


boy (GaZ

There is a crow
00. 3.

the branch above you


(5 ~§

~~a; aJ"cfu);fuo6onBrle.>
~<6JJ

~s .;) I.?

!!,!I~

l2J"oG @is dill 6<5de., W"~;;S

Abdominal pains

(.J~gn;::)e)

~OlJ~J) ~(5L5 iloa;loe;l !5"~0)

~<6J~

§"';;D,i~z.s

4L
4.2. 43. 44.
45., 46.

venemous snake Alphabetical order Atomic power Boueless chiken Bookish knowledge Burning problem
Casuallabourars

(,5;.S<ilfjilJ_s) g)t:t.~5~· (@O"Jille313o


(~~[)Js

According to {@S"~ofi bl): e ~sodo,

@go)

@fJ..6 ~;fuo

~;iio)

@too~~

Do this problem according to the way you have been shown ~ Q@ l~e}fu®5"'6cr; t:o cS. ~ d:lli ;;:foS tJ,~ ~~.

(tfI.!5al5©s@)
(a:1I5,}on ®"?1..fu) (soet';;)6 e3a)6~)

JtDJ!;:l:w· 8:0 ~r!,;:.Sy.o<Jo


_,.;o

ts SJ
4.

,j.:rol:;SGJ~,j

g)Qot)" ~.

~ifu;;sS~ t3dilloS.:o.

(;ruggj_ N"ac.) ~i6s g)~;6o es iii'


(!!)e:l~c.

Across

(@l?~):

@CC:);071"" tUoW" Q
Q ~~

S~~;::)d ~o5:J~~

The; little boy ran across the street 6

47.

f1'~;;yoeS,r>be.l.)

IDe e) 2J"cfu

0"5 00l?KJ

es D;6d.aJ"'Ib)~

48.
4950. 51.

Chtldish behaviour Fragile article


. Interim report

(2~ai [)~;)d'iJo) DOSJ.~J$;;e.>@~~;.S


(l¥[}eJ ~~~O) ~ti':l~<6 oS~~
(ao&J5!l:J

~e§~~O11"
~~C; aJi¥j

~5n~6.

5. After (e,9~o): 6~6. ~r:\J!3, ~oroa Today bus after bus passed by without. stopping

e~g)

6"'&'&vli ~~eJ!&
~iJ"OCe.lJ

b,}C
6,

a)@

@:go

e)~.

!l@"'e:) ~i::Jor;
;'5f}~~65.Y>=. ~6J~OIT',

Orthodox customs Rude benavious


Surrounding

(@B!wosJ

!&~!l:JJ) ~ol§5O"cfuS

~ 5"~ 8)5 B~t) Against


(@;Q~~):

$a)SJoW"

52.
53. 54. 55,

(6JoCi a')~g)cfub)

&tSJ~;S

@J~'S~;;S
~~e.D

Q)vB13Eioll".

;J6JciJli"

villages Values

(<6O"oc.ofi g:,e3e:!:tl) ~o;66

Traditional

(@G;S,;SO~e.l.;T.>Sfj) ';;So\&W"diJ :::lrn;,5w


(ff;::S~

Don'g Jean against thewall t:06 b£i ~niG@ cS ~V


II:-

Zonal meeting
··i-' -------!

!:beJol'l) <::oo;ie:l

~0lJ

66.''''''', -rr

_J:;.

'"

;;J;5,pE~r.5:D
-lit

j:~ ..

~: iM.;5~~od~§'il0OJ--o

67.

---h

7.

c$ i'!!IO~,~
e3".~S :;3~, :b" 8.

Along (@o<'ori): ~ob. ST>~.l\"loW" There are many treees along the road to the town,

15.

~~ @eJ"on tS fin e.n. 6


WO·I;)"

B"~

Between (Ele~~) ; ~1;5S He divided the money between Rajuand me. g_,,,,E.~co lS .;fug)[J~;:l5 O"~ @oC; lli. ,@6t:5J 6e:;q;jtJJ
O"re",

1:l"6;SOb

BbJ

1"1""1

Glc<J-',Q.D. --,C;i...
-

Among (@fu>ori);

&,<SJC,i~,. you

;5d)<SJ

e.~c EJ!5. ':§ § @<fuoori dS:o


!be oSJl;5S ~ 9. At (@6): ~~ ~~ W. .:J

Divide this cake among

16. By (~) ; tSgo, lfS!:'i&;:$, ~6, o:sO" The cake was cut by my sisiter with a knife 15"§s ~J seJ ID m ~;::Sog)8 .;) iJ~

i'J'>SJ;;;ol;SS Q'Sopo6

tis~ ~o.:bg6o':'.

tis;' ~~;:6oi3~~&~eS
-- t;J __..

Q_a..,_

(J

9.-

;3®e:l'Q.o5.

tS~1:l. ~~ She threw a stone at the fierce dog

osg,

17.

During (6:r>~eor;) : @O~ Sentries guarded the camp during the nigh!:

Rt.!5 ~65'
""

~OL6fj 1"1""2:0S5"eS0~ ~Seofi C


O"[?

1:$~e)

l:l ~®o.J r;>"n


~~O"QX)
<r ~

sGciJOli" t,\)<S, ~~,

g)\!.:;BoB ..

18.

,:So:o®~oC'iJ ~O~el) S"S0~~ :S"~{J"S"'6"6:J. For (;;)5) : §"6!&J, 2. :o:ngo, sS<6o. @rSJ~e;ori"
~C; rot3 ~ eJ"{)!,{;:Sj£cfuoge;:so @Bl:loE.!lS"g)

Before
G:l

(ID~Q) , .J1ilb, o;iJ'CSS;,5,n

The girl cried for help but no use

1 wal ked before her


oiY>SC
&!l~

tS ri"f
@

~o ~e't

~re

;;5;6::.
11.

;!J~o Q.Y>o ~o6Cl .saO".'fu.

~~O):jorioalS,).

19.

From (!;')!'b) : ;fuoa. 6S~~,a~! S"1:S~;:):u;:S Our school is one kilometre distance from the Railway Station.

Behind (8T~oG) ; ii3rSJs The child is hiding behind the tree.


CS

@;tlo 1:00(/3 ~:! a.~se1.toe;,o e.~~ t_;)5:l CS £e5~~;;)_.'5 <SJlI~&0)2a:s 1?~~;fuow e.,!:'i §eJitDtJo 6:;0608' 616d_El.
20.

Qe.1~re l..",c;,oRaJ~oEi
"I.:....Ci _ ~

c5

I~ ~

es 12.

Z)~

i.l9;l ii3~~ O"l\J~o~

6lrSd_Q,

Below

C!l&) : @o6, @ti)rU;:S'~~2,CS


bJ ~e.)
"

~ @o ;;J"'e) ~&.~c
e._,,,,,,sJon&
13.
;:St:iJ.:;:ill

You are not allowed to bit below the waist in boxing

t~£i) : ;iJoa, ;6e);S, j~. She is in the kitchen h ~E! 9.£i lS ga£i ~;,:n ;;Sotl Ka&G~dEJ.
In

5"6~;;S:o;S

£1& 6

~tuJ~eJ ~~·aJ"SjoF\
I _

21.

@o6 S"eaC"M

hJtiJ

~;6:;i:ill@06aJ~l5J.

Beside (ID~c) :. lfS§'JFS, ,~10joD

inside (1SI;!5f:!E;) :. O~eJ .. 'iJ"~;6 She was waiting inside the cinema ~ <>J<'12~OJJlBon ~£iEl;;tS ~Kl;6,,"". (l,9~ ~g)~ (':;''''"6') jn ,:i,..,,~

e~e)

Go(;J;6J

I saw a boy standing beside me G:l ~.J aJ"'cfu iJooE.of\ [l~G !b ~


:~.

2.2. huo ('a~b:!) :


.GJ)~ (:5
~g)\e)to r.."J

Og)s.

n", j0

Put the pencil. into the box


'@octJo
~'6";6:;i

;;:3;6.)
14.

;;J'"

@S~(l.;6 i!,S aJ"m6

i:)~G:l~

~~e e.!JbJ
('y

1:$8J"5J
:t)

Besides (£)~cJ) ; oS.?BcIill, e,!)CS;;Sori", &aJ"bJ Besides his relatives he invited his friends also.

23..

Off

(@~)

ci"!3Ji& ~1!;)J;:):u ; 6Jo6on"',;fuoE; tl


~K;

ll~5.J
€9~~

~""aoae5~,) :to ~~SE3C;:to§ @ocb


roo~~~W~~1T-'

Keep off the grass

illl~ ~..,G"

A~ ~.~
~o;:,~:OoW"6.
Co

@61'S) 6<6 ~d.:::r.~v!iJ

Kc;~ &>6011"

6.0¢;DQ

A,_.·--------.!:~

I"~ .u..
68
,J.V-~ -~~~

'ao6~ G§5o)-,()

24.

of(~~):

;iloe.

A week consists of seven days ;,;,!JS !:i:O")~J ~~ ~;;]5


<iJ"oog;)~ .::::~ e>a:!'w 25. On «(9~~) : !bc:S, @<5. roBoD. c:Je.J;\) @~6 The cap is rS S"S5~c2
l!!l6~
011

a~

"'PARTS OF SENTENCE
(~8..J
'P";:;J.eOJ"s.so
~~E<i~

&!I~

~o~~..J)

~~O~~

Sentence)

@;fu ~O"JEO>O ;;Jo;(:r'gzy>0:5o SVflCiiui6d_e.,s


zy>X~WI1'"

his head
~E;

fSJ15~§

(Unit) OY'sS;;S,n~ @JQ"~


1. Subject (s§) : a,s oS~ ~~~

~~e3o':s~~<SJ.

eiE:)tot5

26.

Over (a.;jo) ~O" !'beoD He hit the ball over the boundary

d~ 6<6d._Ei. : EflV. furSIT',

@K). L Subject (!:i:9) 2. Predicate


~Q"6G)o""

l~~<5J rUBoD ~;;5.J ~""'K;;m)


;;:y>g;):;) O" ~
o.i;otDoEi.
(0".::::;>
;::l"

i5tfuJ O<'~;o l!:i~' @oe.J<'6J.


oJl!§so ,~<ill§"~i.&:J)
S"~;S
O"w

61

zy>l'1o W"s~o

lQ)..6o'l508'

~ ~tS t5
f!!l66 27.

eJ"o e.,~5 rS ifoi.&5

Example : 1. Raju bas taken my book

IDOU:;)

i3"o,::;5 !b6Jii" ff>eJb6


c.l

K)OS6rn Raju has taken my book. Who has taken? Raju :


(!!);il oS6;;-msubject @~eiJoe.

Sine (~15J) : rSJo~ She has been reading since 5'0 dock

Example: 2.Vimalais a beautiful girl (:JQS)~ @ocS~;:S


g);;56E"il: Vimala is a beautiful girl. Who is beautiful @~~oEl. ~ OJ"SS~<Sol$)
g:)c5Je; @;:;))

eJ"DS)
S'~~

~ oJSc§f:J15
28.

Mon :;,~ ~Z
;:;OOQ t:l6~~

e.,~s
e~Ei

girl ?Vimala c:J~ot:la:le,05.

[g!;;:n 6:Jl$) rloe:Je.J


To (tD) : !1i, t:i:l

oSc5o:5.D Subject

s~ (Subject):$:)
en
c.iSJ.y.>?

~~fr~

~~G ; OJ"ssoe:OVerb
(~a, ~")~):O soO

(has taken, is) <S§> @l't_owrSe3<J"aDl1'"

Is she realted to you


6I§
~;fu

o:5.Doc5J Who (~0:5~ • .JoS1:5J) c:Jt:5.t1<SEl. '1:5.9.' Subject ~<S~,


~ 0-.

aD" What

~ 5e3e3E

@~)eiJOQ.

fJ!5.lcoo;$<;$)

1!!l~6JoO<'?

@~eJ:&l OW<0 OJ"s.so:5.DeJo6J '!:l~'<iI ~6&!ion"


......

&oSwf'low;S~e§

29.

Under (IlOIOt:(O) ; ~o6, ®6tUi-5,& The dog is under the table cS

!:l"6;il e.;:$,,~n"~ 1.

~~oiJCV.

c:7'n *c2
:
@e

e;Joi.&o &

6 13mf5
"'-

(1) Thank you


(Q"o~S)

~iill6

@orS SJs) chi6·,e.


with

',fu§_) Sei~~e§rn

ao.

'vVilb (~~)

d', C:So~, ;36


a knife. ~8 ~ ~~
,_"

2.

(You) Don't do anything in anger (~~ 6

She cut the bread ~ ~e3" c5


@~

~t:J eon a.5 cruuorio)


OJ"e5 tm
6J) ~~

~'tJo{} ~

;;JfJ·

t5CfuJt~.

3.

(You) Tell me what to do


(Dt) .gn

O"e3;:l)~BW g;~Jo5 ~

o~e
'" .;;l.

0;;;)..).)

31.

Within (~B.'5) :

6'r;n,

&;;JE:)

4.

(You) Don't get angry

You must pay me back the money withiu one yer .. diD .~~ "f:;.g):;

(cloe3 i'I~
5.

<fu>otf\) s":ho,:S:;)6J

a."'~st5

:illtJ~8-.:.~·a.,~ 61~O
t:)~oW"[).

(You) corue in. Get it

~~ a.,S ;6oc:56Jtio &~TY' t;~;:;o oM ""'~

1§.5J 8.<'5, i'I~ :a15)

&~§ tSoc.
._-----ii'

O--------.....J,:~:;~

,f;J.

'L~~--

i0iO)~ a!.oa~§§tl~--{.

o-

~&~.~.I':

"',\I

71

j}

h-------'-;~O

6.. (You) Go out, Get out.

2. Objective "Objective rfuO"p)tSt5J ;W>.t:loiSJ :MoSll;fujeJ;;5

Complement

: Object

;0

;6~o.:DaG:l" g)::5Bot:D 'i::'i605:lJ(~);fu D":O Complement e..s

(~ @~e3, ,,6 ~~e)) 1Dd5J~~~~~


C!!lal~ot$)
'a! @;:)

Complement"

@0e.J'>1D:

Object ·~edilJ

'Please

(tScfui3~J)

@;fu

::5s_§§

iJol:$:);fu.

lP'gi\J"~6.s!:i

.i?~S~W7i"

<fu->1:U€J'>OJJ.

Eg : They appointed

Ganguly

as Captain Ganguly iDecful


6iJ:O g:);;5e~;:sd.

Command (S~o~)
Close the door eiw~ ;tmQ)JS Make brinjal curry
.;50S<®

<tai

Request (eSS~);;§8sGUl
Please close the door . Please make brinjal curry

g);60E9 : ea I::1'S~o&;o Object@Ol);:5 Complement

(Captain)
1: a..~

e.."§ oSeS§g ;6oroo4;owrSg).


NOUIl

KqS)~s -

T?;o dO"

t)"~§

rS<fu<>;:Se~5 71"~ Objective

~t'i

;;SoCiI please tell him ro wait Please bring Mary to the Party with
you

Tell him to wait jiJ umo~o5J;o Zl~ Bring Mary to the party with you
;&e:o

C()mplement71" eoSwfloi5roGl.;;S, Eg: they made her queen.


@d$;;);:X. Passive

O";o§ Objective Case ~"',,)i,5a;fu,

Ko"lJ;os - 2: Active Voice t{j ~~. Facititive Verb (~c:So;;'.?q:gs c:SM~~ Voice

&~g O'l:J'>eJ;s~Q
.--to

Objective

Complement;,')oe.;,~

i.JoM ~& @~~O"


f.l

Passive Verb;S~

Subjective Complement

no 0:iJ06.:><fu,

Wake me up at 4 tomorrow morning ~;(J:)d. Cl<>'li etSc.iOo II. Predicate: 4 KOeJb~ Predicate
~~
@~

Please wake me up at 4 tomorrow morning


<;5t$Q.'S:o stated or declared @<S,)

They made him king

He was made King by them


(;J"~

®go I'\e)

c§;&C; !Jn~
Object (~6J): Example:

§op;;

-+ ~

~lK gop;; .@ a!:O

@d5J

a:oos& qSD~:Od@<S:lOg)oaa
his sister (re".!5 "~;;] B~;o"

'sCi

@)~~aEt

"Preoedicuts" ®t5J eJ"tI5~ oStSoSJJ ;(J:)ol! ~1:SJ6;:StJ, aot$J Verb 5:05>2JOOJ Complementzzr: ~5Jq;o. Complement@;:Sn';;5g))?
0":0:0 "Complement"

~Q";()~;SQ.

Johnkicked

~~d.;:b)

Object eoc05tilJ<fu,

o:mot:n Complernentrcooo

~.;50E<l : ~~

UJ"ssoC k icked

(6~d;6)) @;fu;65 a..~ ;,j~.~a

~;o ahJS&

~U8"~ Sentence c:ibJ!3&Gl"W"~

@;fu$.tloEl~a

@;;]7i" e'5rSJd~ ;!3;:Sd_5 iStlJ ? @6~ £lQexl (his sister) ~ Object.Aim or Targer : Subject cfu)S& Object 71" ~e::o~;;StQJrSJ.
(O"~

~g

(Complete);3uiu

!;'i~~

his sister @~;:StJ ~~~.::})oB?


~W"

@oe.)"tSJ, Verb ~O".s~ 71":0

at)"

QJ"~e'P t:);;5o",,;O eo

aim cfuJ!:iG.Target (e)f~oS.:l));:D Example:

Complement O)~oel. Example: He is a Doctor. They made him Chairman .. Kinds of Complements: Complements 006 6!51S:Dex: ~~: I. Subjective Complement 2. Objective Complement J. Subjective
(eJ) ;:.D"Subjective

Raju wrote a letter yesterday

:o~ otlo

19i"~~)

.tl;5l$rn.: ~. <0"S~o& O"e:t'CihlS& oJ~ ~c;,o6co~o5. oJao:m letter ~ Obert


<YEW ii"

@;;]fl"

lW"dSJC;o

letter 6:I'>~o&
@6iJ ~~~;:S

ams6- 'D&S<fill

lelter;o lOJ"dU1&o ~co~

Complement:
Complement';

Subject iJ;;S~oiSJ

~O"

~cSeo~

~e::oiS;6i:bJ<fu. Ve·rb;;Sru
~ot$)

Object (so~);6J }'3;6J?)";:s;' o:i~u : W"s,;)Oe~


(.;);)~;o, ,JiSBm

Whom.

Example : TIle cow is a Doble animal

e31:l"

What (a)jlO.;a~;o)

iJ ~oEl l?S~ow;;]

eoOJ"lilln" ~i:bJ~5

Ko:o;o~ : Subjective Complement


iJ Nominative Case rJj i:3oS.);;5a;(J:).
Eg: I. SmiUJ is a good boy

i]'>

e~Ci3Jnf\ot5e)6;;S

Noun or Pronoun

Object (~O~)@~llio·a.
OF~Jic6Jo6)

Subject,

Verb,

Object

'D&GJ-ObJ

a~6

05J<>e.;,ru §.Jac:ro

2. It is I who spoke to you,

eOC;;;St,5)J;5;J. C!!l05J?ben ~ ;;.Up~oe5::J

~~oe5;o

tUBoD

g)51.50D BoJ'y;(J:). S;fu~ ~


@)g)

oo~~ e,J"l'\oSllw7i"

g).;5ilo~<St:DJ.

O,____-------·;2

~l

~;----iM.)s~

ao6~~~-O

._

I, Subject

word

3. Verb word 5. Object word

2. Enlargement of subject 4. Enlargement of Extenuon of Verb


6. Enlargement all his lessons of Object well at horne.

5. Object Word:

Transitive

Verb
@oJl~OQ.

whom e)c:ro what O t<:.oO @~0[);S Learns what? lessons ..s;SJs lessons

~0J"<illT1"oSi:S:ljrSEi 'Object Word'


@;6J o.)cS.;m Object Word. of Object:

Example: 1. Subject
@Q"c6~;;:SQ. e:s'

A good boy learn'

word

: Subject

;:SocS) <>Sex> cJlJ'>elJ;:Sd.cJ.;)e3~

r$o6J

a..!3&i3
;,i,..,,~

6. Enlargment

Object Word rSs, ~o6J


of Object'
@;::))

'What kind of ®<6J

loJt;Y'<6@<6<SW"'~d. 'Subject word' @otJa6J. Subject ;:Sot)) e...~


@fu<6J. 5a'
NOll.I1 Phrase

eon

@~o~;:S

'Enlargement'

alc:Y'Eron" ;6iSJJrSJ. What. kind

o.)cSom~~e:!Jc

of lessons? all his.~oilS 'all his rSo6:l 'boy'


I(!!)~a

ii.'iJ"eJe;J lessons @)<fu Object Word:J


ۤ;;)J:::><65fi" ;;:;OS"'S;:)J.
a"l§

A good boy;

subject word. Subject:

Enlarge

i3~N'd..Ql).
Formntton :

word ~ !3~FY';:5) ;;:S~@:Verb &' Who 130" What: ~ eoO @-®.lot.l<6 Subject word ;;5~06. Who learns? boy
:a..s adjective eJa'

Sentence

@od~o:s.OS ;;S,r>~W"e.)O~

~5J0t:l"& eDdSYoO. DJ"~S;o~~£?~§ !3f:J;6o e..s


;;:)"1SS~~l<l~6S~ii.'iJ"~d.~60~~0.He iiJ"S&oSl:l. fuS D~

Subject,

Verb

@o5t660

2. Enlargment

of subject

n"~.

6ei'Jii.'iJ"rS;et6o
word

(1";{)

$a

ooe5&
;:So'~~

purchased

(®a6 S"iOtiJ)

Subject word o Enlarge (g)~6o[)) B~ao.)J;;5tiJJ;fu Enlargmeut

- ae
rSSJ omo6:J

of subjectD

s<6JR"ril

~l;Som:
~o[)

Subject

@q;;:).lB,_) <iJ"SSoSl:leJ .:m06J that, where, how, why, which,w


although,

'What

kind of (;;; 6s~;::))

®<6:l c::"..eJe;J

@-3.l0w;:) alc;)"cmn" oSt:SJJ;;)6

hen. while, before, after, as though


@;:So~g
@E}

ifoSoe3 ~6~eJ~

eo.orS @:D go>rS.l~Ol)~)

Enlargment

of subject e:!J~ifuoEl.
all his lesson well at home

@~~;3J

cl auses

t'i"

;;::.y,t5J;:5).1 f he pure hased (~6~


enlarge;3~J

A good boylearns

@;:5o~g @q;~t5J
STEP
Subject ~

clause.
g)

boy = Subject word What kind of boy ? A good boy. A good Subject;:)

-J : 8.~dJ Subject

OY'sS <65;;S,r>E:'J"~dS"o~o
elOl"<OO1"I"

= Enlargment

of subject

~o~O"o. 'enlargement
;;)W"'eJ;::))

'what kind of'

e!' l_05"'d_oiSr1"

OS~.);SEI

Enlarge jdill;::)g).

of the' ubject' @~6:l0e,.

~;SJs . sa

5l'9rS alc;)"cm ;;St:SJJ;6~

f$ru

l , Artci]e ; The sun rises in the East. 2. Poissessive Adjective: Edward's bicycle was stolen yesterday J. Reflexive Pronoun: The students hemselves arranged the tour,

Subject .fuJoCiJ eOi:!"D. What kind of brother? My elder. verb D enlarge ;3~ c;)"l3so.)5~W"~ where
(.;)s(,.C:;) how (,J~)
,

My elder brother purchased.

4. Past Parti : The wounded soldier was carried to the hospital. 5. Adjecti.ve Phrase; The girl in green skirt is my daughter.
3. Verb Word:
;;JoQ"6CilOrv'

STEJ)·-2: a~~

;to50~ ~ol5:JO"o ..

L§d5:J.&
eorl

when
0.

(';)~dJ)

stil

:rr-e:.I'D8

a,sO"~:O

.r::i~ -

~gn jQS.-:o-i5JNd~,

~~

~d$;;p;6)?

l;;:S-3~orlrSruOJ"<ill{1";;)iS:>J;66Enlargement

ofthe Verb @~~oe.

(What
;;S~oEl. 4.

does/did/will

the subject do '1)

@~

@~oorS

'verb word' e3OJ"enT'F 'verb word'

My
tJlJ'>~E<)O

elder brother purchased

it last month.
eJ~

What does the boy do?

learns. !3t6J!3learns

@~ruoo.
why how
;fuoe"e,u

STEP ~3: a~~

Subject. Verb

aJ"bJ Object ~ SJ"W'> ~o.;:)

;;Y>~

Enargement

of Extent ion of Verb : @dSl& when. where,

~q;o.
it last month.
Sy.>c;c Enlargement

I!!lI6J oS..,-ot'.)o,c; a..§0"~;:) :::lW"cm~


;;$i;S),_)o.)). Learns

eo[)

Lo.)·~oC;:S lkciJeful<;... .,.,fD Dot?


at

My eleder brother purchased STEP -3 : a~Cl ObJect;o


kind

how? well, Where

horne

~o.))s.

well, at horne

a~.o. Object
Object

~ 'What'

@;fu;6g:, 'I§cili;::)) X)50[)

w~ <5J-"eJf)J'.
," .,'-0
74

or&'

~~0.).[);:S alOJ"lillll"

o.:.\:SnrSElEnlargement
a beautiful house.

@~moe.

My elder

brother purchased

house last month.

What kind of house

'?

a beautiful

O,__-----------..

b'----- ~o'l5£ aOQ~ §'5~-O

0- ~~ aoQ~,§56,;)----"l

;5~~f----------O

.,\}

~
.

EXERCISE:
!!ll dfu;;Sl3J6
('il.

tll\:J;;S

OJ"~i)trne;~ ao6~&§ i:SJv~.tm

~;6d. &t;)t/'

z..S: .e)~;;S~
e...~~~
~;5d_

~!3~.

oS,,;:So~~~;$~CJ
{P"~~

;:;ir>?:,e:.\J~~e:.\J

::Ji6d_J.fu?:,rY'
;;.ID;;5.1

~<too~ ~ooJt.6J..
K~d5J'>C"~d. W~6:l.

01£) t$!1l)goe)
~~~~e.D :

rrofJ

aCjD L~dfI;,~~~

~~o:iv~;S"c$.;)~f1~o.

wfJ t)o~g !J:J:'J 4 es~;;S;oeJJr?

~ ;3~

9:;~
~;:s§

e5iSo

e...~ ®o6~;:S rft:.


~O"

:;~~oi$t:$o
IPSbN"g!§
6~c.'5mw.

OSJ~clSJ<>go

C9.) G)o~~.

ee6fJo~. 1. Assertive e30" Declaratory

entences (@)~~.:sBoo

e.,!fBtJ5

~o~.J~'
ag)

~e;c&tD e...~;6 a,S~cl5JoS"e;o EXERCISE:


sentences.

a..s O~

R"@~ ~l§[)R"<5clI§'"aw

ii-"";J(fu.

ag) d$,O"g g)~crb.tm<6J t'iJB~ 6e,)J~~Qj).

006

Break up the following sentences into Six parts of

a) Positive (..iJoile5~) b) Negat i ~f'le!'l~) ve

~110~ 1P";;S;;S;p~~JO .;:J"~~e.D.

a) Positive Sentences:
Express trains stop at this station

I. Subject word. 2. Enlargement of subject word 3, Verb word. 4. Enlargement of ext enti all of verb word. 5. Object. word 6. Enlargement of object word 1. My brother has lost his umbrellas in a shop 2. The postman delivered your letter just today. 3. Nervirol is an efficacious tonic. 4. Thank you 5. T shall bring my calculator tomorrow 6. My father gave me seventy rupees for my books 7. I took my breakfast in the morning 8. I hope that she will receive the letter tomorrow 9. Yesterday J: sold all my lands to my brother. 10. 1saw him yesterday in the exhibition.

(.,)sJIJl~~5J ~.~ ,;;~ e~ ~o:S.~) ;;sJ~% E~ ~ ~QS.;fud' !!lll\:Jeocm.


b) Neg;ltive Sentences; Express trains do not stop at this station

(;;sJ~~
a)

.;Js.)lJl~

:e~J~ ~~~&
~J

I.!3S\ c.'i:J iV

;;:r>~'

~5 ")6
!".'l

e~ 1JQS..!J)
Co)

@lK~,

Interrogative

Sentences (aot;)O"Ra~ 7Jom.)~) 1P'8d0J"~.tme.D ~~e};fu 6S'cfuJ,) 2 ..Who type

6eX>~i6:J. ag} oot$.) 6l§tfuJe,)J. l.Yes - no type (@)~~-.S"6 1.


(~&' ~
(!!I~

Does she go to school everyday?

Ff'

bJ ~~~ .;)!)e ~?) ~6e)§ .!::'l$:.)


;;'3fi'J6JOr:J1'?

@l'1of'<?¢'

2.

When does he come?


(;l;!5

~r! .~

@)ei~ .:J~~;;S~6? 3. Imperative


2>,g) @l~aO""

Sentences cll~

g;M 6t;J"

(a,ooJoaz ~oil3~~) l~gN" O$>6,sl& c:N~S.tmOl: ~g;5 m:r@e OJ"§stmw, OJ"~S:.5xlo,:)o6

eo cS~oE'l _.
a).

Subject ~;;soe
,

"tJ<i'D (You)" .(!!);fu~b


e983

cll;;S(fu<>F\oi:S!3'i;¥cm<5;fu @go
.

Command

(~;fuooQ)

Get out of the class b). Request (e~~)

"'"
;:5:)oe ;;'3f}J~'

06 ~eS' ~~ e ~~) ~rJ:>

IP"g;s

Please give me ten rupees

Ot----------;\i

.. !!

76 ~~. -.~Sc!S -

a~.~~--o

0- ~

~~~g§l5.,·--t

_Bp:Jr"(""'-;

77

"I!f-_

----~---O

(~.!

F\;:;

.i:o e.5~ 6J tJ~) CldiJ;3Rl <.J c5


(c.~Ei)

t5J0~dS:J

eo

~;,.).sOQ.

3.

c).

Desire

~M 4. 5. 6.
7.

(~:E

Keep this for me e~ ;(l5 g)J)

l5:o;;;:; ~ ~o

€!:!o~

Let us hope for the' best

(e3e.)" !!!leS" ;;:'~:E ;(l6' Cl ID~) f\"o:)jrY" e:t;olSrfruooo.


4. Exclamatory

Eatall these biscuits (~ej' f!!jej6<! IDr:iJ.~) ~


Make me some tea.

lJ;:S6iJ.1:~0;6),

Sentences ~W"6GID,

(~s",)....,~l\JB ~oB;YJ;;))

f$~O"c5g!:l

;:uto~~<6.netl @etloJl

@~S6~oiu,

~d5.JOS::J :iliJtSe>lU ~l;,S@;S '~$'>@~oiue);:..l) Sentences @0e.,.""6J.

G3.;s ~ ~.5J e3) N"SJ ~o3o ~~d'5.T>6:,jOJ.)


Put them in the Auto (~ej a& -aZ t5 1':3&) W"C5:O
Sit in the back of the car (~ej 9.5 6 8.

<JO!:i~;5J.)e>;fu Exclamatory 1. (<JOe.) oJ ~eS~6'

f!!j~t!i '€!:!o.:lJ
s.,.,Q'iJ

W hat a bea utiful ho us e it is


;jO":;3 ~~'

~§) ,1

eJ"s

@~

6 suo) S"OJ ;i305JS ~~


well ;;:16) f;)
~O"w

~e ';::'06
2.

®o6~<6

t1)~~

Learn your lessons

How lovely your flowers are! (<GO" eJ£it) o:ill;.')o

Ce3oJ..~C:So 9.. Buy it today

a;6~

eJ"n"

"S1Snf1'

~oS5J @Dn

(&:lcfu ae.) tbJa) 8;'J::')

eo ~~

S"<6:l~

fJ l'$'w
3. Alas!
(@O"~
®~

.;JOel-

.:$sJ)"I"e<6J~' ce)

1 O. I J. 12.

Buy something @ ;6£l:J@on (f!!j1ijJ.

Illy 1~

mother is dead

c;lo ~.."o') @;fu


~:S~
!&~)

for her

gS;6o
f!!j~

~e

a..!3~ 8";6.).

tDClo ~a

Ask her when she can come

! ~ @OSJJrY"CJi5;!J~aiJt>CJ.

;;:''''0 ~.'5

oJ~-i)~ !Y"Y;coc:} @fuifu e!)C'i:J1'O

~~~CSS ~~~~~ (ORDERS)


61"\);") g";'JJ Orders

Get dressed quickly (ne.) L~~cs.sstJ) ei;:cl/"i'>


Give them nne each
(F)~

=s= e;5eoiSJ
z5";;JoJ'Vr:i <il,~.!)~

1'.

Request
EG:

",<5.~rocjg). .b;'J~o6:J Plea e (5s~~:p j6~w @~~oo. Dont (~oe3• .;S~


POlIty

(~e.tlCiSJBlb)
~~

GoD

a!5:1 a.~ eatS) ~M e..S"J,13?lj


9,!J~E cS ~~) shin
Oil

O:)cS;;.'illw 35..)r:i

14, 15.

Go inside the bouse

;")S&<3!§ ®go ;,S~05.) Bring him to the

(rt'

aoet~;;:I~~om
that hook

Hang your

u§lon ~~
'''""' @.:3,tJ",

en t5 i?~) ""-,,-,, s: ....,,,,_ ""'v~t> ~""''''''O''.


@e::5;'J~ ~6§ e.

(.;JS~on CiS.::.::l;;:)o

<.lg ~~

cSe.) ~J"s)

ea §"s,?,om;:S~ ~ ~tB;fu 6hDoiiD ..

[6.
17.

Keep this away from here. (~~ E'l~ ®;i§ (9'lfu ~dil6)

Please bring him to the party

OI,~J.1$;fuoc. 8:o~ 6Y>60n" Goi:lJ.

c5c6t3~
@e:9~;;)

~r6J!:bD".

Don't bring him to the party

(~~ {;)1<~ jo
([)~5
e.x; ;;r~.

Leave the plates where they are.

~O)

o.1~?l_, ;,jy;m~~;:S:,®~&~ <6t5u;.jCiSl;J~


:Jf5J

iJoM e.>
a.i5

18. 1I).

Listen to what [ say


IlJ ~)

~;ill§J0"Q)d,).

;5;:S:,·ai:,jo

I.

Arrive. one hour early


(..)o£) ~

@<6o

0.16 ~

riot,} oS:..:lotb~

<36;),

Pour the milk carefully

(~6 :to.

2.

Give the tree a shake


((',£I

t5

le3

,;)!;,s) ~

~9:lrSJ

CJ .i:b6?7 -gD<\2l~) ~OJ Read the next sentence


6 ~~

e:1"l0~n"

~dillom

~<>.ll

(Be
;l)-50l9~

~ot3~)

e30"::,6

0?!3,s0 £JtD~

6~~ 01-------------'1 ;;-~~!-----

~o?!~§5q.,-O

O-~SSaoQ~§lioN---;179j!----------O

.J~

.,
1t,J""TJ~0~

10.

Don't be too curious but mind your own business

~sua~'~e,;o ~
11. Don'! (do not) @;fu OSJobriJ

(~oe3 ;fuS

8) bro

S_PS50S}~eJeS

~oC: c:ifuJ~6

e..~ IDt;)~5)

<l>~070~o,)o)~.

b ;;)rJ ~~ &lfusS.

(NEGATIVE ORDERS)
Orders (~~m);;5§:Jo5.xJo6J

Don't go out. The storm is in full fury

jeD

"cj~"

1!!);::5,) 12,

(Cots r1' ~e5, c5


eJdSJb~
~~;;)t$). -Ii Q

"toe ~.e
eiJ~~

~.:5 ;QJo ~6)


~MoIT' tlJoB

;5S~Es@~Ut

(negative orders) ;"6J6~.

Don't gossip about others (t1'o~


nofu@ fu50D

J.

Don't come with me now (e;l'~ ~:5J ~g


!),) ~) FJ"'~

@a3"e3" 1!!)6~)
l;3';::;";;noN"W jdSJ;;S~

s,~c'iJ

O"~~

2. Don't forget that


(~oeS

s.e~e.J
13.
(t:oeJ

qJoileS" 66)
tJ.:ro> ~~

W"~~
10

Q5:J6t':)~056JQ

Don't get desperate, keep calm


fie.} c.~.)oe.), ~~ S"~)
~O"~

3.

Don't feel too shy

say a few words,


0> '~ .;) ~~Ie)

~o6o)~,

~o5JJBno eot'..1.

(I:1'oe;; qiof\e5
4. Don't forget
W

~oc;,r..J,)

14.

Don't hurl your books around so carelessly (t1'0e3" ~~


~ ~;:J5"rn
~

S"~ o:ll<>be.lJ a;-.),C"::Js ~ ~

o:lJe

~t'\:J ~E:'6J n w
om

dS.l!;'iO an§.,)
~

!!9B"OQ .fj6
0

soa~D)

put (he light off before you go to bed.


6,;0

tilbJtt !l~6 ;;jdSJ;;S(:"D

Cc1'o6 qj5R6 t;~


5.

~tS 6 ~6 @~B.)~o c:mo6;

Ff'

exJ ale)

15.

Don't irritate him with all.your questions.

~IP~
!D~B

tll05@g}Joj
fj5

£0> ~d5Jt:o

oS.:t6J;6oStg ..

If
16.

(ci'oeJ s.el)e)' b lfi~e.J.if'

~@J

!l6

1!!Je) om;;So

~a~:ti..)~J)

Don't behave so nastly


(~qe)

@eli:::J:::J g)@no..::s;;S~.

OJ"fJID)
tJ·

Don't indul.ge in vulger talk (t;l'oeS s.ol:Se)"a.'5 ;;)~5 tJI'!3) cs n

;illB
6,

~;;SOIi"

LQ)05.9o,:5CS~.
to

:alil .;;.)o&J"oJ.~&

~ff;S;;St$).Q [}

Don't come ever late

school
~P)e))
<7

17,

Don't lie to me

(E!06 !3.'ill.;)05o tie) ex; oS.:tfi~ .;)~~


7. Don'( cut joke
~!:iJw

(Coe3"
18.

..... ,

a e:u

g}J)

;:Jb& ~e:J6~~CS6:i
~

'Q

9::r:J.:Je.Jfu @~J;;.)S0fl'> u,:6cg


with her
g)~

Don't keep the lights on while sleeping


rE1'oeJ ~~ 6 .Q~

(CSo6 !3e.) as~

~...,o
(.:i

g)~SJ66J~~1il 19. (E!'oe.)

@;,5.)~

;SdSJ;56;o
grand
li"i"O~)

~e.n ;;leJK~OSSOS6J

@~

~o fu~or;)

Don't loose this pen

8.

Don't expect anything

W'a B~ ~!5)

.~ sec ~Fi"bJgS<66J.
to

(&06) 9.

~sf~so..fJt$ori r... .(..'

®!J"

0..

Fi";;)"11" ~z~oi5<i)6 Q OJ

20,

Don't leave the gate open

Don't blame him for it

(E1'0e3 t>~ 6 r\e5 a;~!5) ~b;)


w

(E!oe3lQ£J ~~
W"~s'";:Jo
@:ej~:O

aso

qJ6ia01 :0050.::$056

eo.:sCScSJ. o
~bru

Qr--------

80

.~
F!~> ---~.)~

21.

Don't listen to such words

(r1'0t3 D~!5 e»

;:J{5oS§'J) ~Qoe5

aoO~~6..,-O

IrAl
I 81 ~i-.

~<SoS~

Q-.~6~aoQ:.lᤤ~

-------0

22,

Don't makeme go there

(C:otJ ;&$
23.

.g)J 6:lJ

r1'·ao)

;:6;:illJ_ (l!ltStJ~

;;'3~;:6~ao::oos~

3 5 . Don't: disturb :me; I am talking to someone on the phone

(eGoe5e.~oaJ ~
36.

(0 ~.~

~~ofi.

<!oJ .;:5:;0

,;95 e5 tS1i'fo5)

Don't see sides


(c1oe) ~ ~E:j)

~C$[)ot:SSJ. ~rSJ 1i'fo15& a.~~rji

~~~8J~

lESS&eJ~i'i"'i'iOS~

Don't waste your time in reading trash

24.

Do~'t spoil your clothes (Ef'o6 iVa~~o d:bJcSo g£,§\) (oJ


I~ "...,

(r:!'~~ ;;3~ ·dfu05o

l~~ ai5 6e.on LeJ<>~


;;5JQ";jd5J05~

!:J 8)~rn 'e:J

OSJe:J<6o ~;SS£056Q" 37.

a~.i5a~ fJ ~~~~d..
(r:!'oeff·~ e:o @~15'
38. Don't: tell Iies

25.

Don't stand outside

Don't try to threaten me


:b) <6;fud.~Eleo6C"n~

ic:o~
26.
(C;;oe)

fJr>QC;;~e51'Jc) rodiltJi!JbeJ~;;5& tJ
-L... -

.@':lc:ilJud_oi5<6tg

Don't quarrel with each other .

~.s1S6,no ffi5 ~C5oJ a.~5&~!3fu

~/jPcro ;;.Jc$;;5t'8 39.


0

CttQ6 ~~ E~) elfDC);W t5;;J..)~i1J


Don't waste paper, write on both sides. (c}Qe1 ;;3~. ~o:So, £6

27.

Don't read in bad light (c;}oe'5


-

elJ s!5.~Q ro.-tJ. e.Jos


~Ql)O

e3e3) o:n;::SS&'.:56:J;;505~

~5 tif! T~cJ)
~.~O"

28.

Don't shout, talk softly

!,oS6JrSJ
40.

Q)JQ" :ad5JcS(g. Bo~

IP'dW~.

(ef'o6
29. [(f06

iJ>~b) @6oS;;5Cl5. a~Jer1" .;)y>~~0Sw.


d.'il,)cSo q,)y>[)~ ~s)
<6\r;l"
eJ

Don't walk fast

Don't spoil Illy time with your foolish talk .~ . .@~:)8

(eGoe5 GJ"§

~~)

;jKo~ i6~cSo:l~.

!J
30.

e;~ ~f ..H~)W <J" ;;Sq$:Jcl:SJo :

Bdil;;5lil.

Don't let them leave until they havefinished

(~o6 a6 a~ b$ ~oe5o 0'


®5 31. Don't move

~~·~~~c)

o.lJt>~ab~ ;;56!:i'J W"5:::J cSC5e);;:S~,

{f1'otJo5:uo.~)se:seJoS6J
32.

Don't leave anything in the class room

(c;5oe5 .tJ$ .;)b/Pon ::;;..'5IS


33,

S"~
~

6.Y>.ill) sotfue
~

;jib oS<:$e.lZStb Q

Don't provoke me with nasty remarks

(r:!'oeff ®£~s .~ ~o
34 .. Don't pluckflowers ,

<J"~

5~"'o&>B:t

c6PeJeJ~ <i5~ a,:s,)i?~Q5~.

U::f'oeS

%cSq))

.~exl

g&o:iJQ5~

o--~aoQ~·§$~

.. --'1~3 ------0 ~.I-~

., VERB - TENSE

TABLE OFTENSES
Tense Indefinite

(ls~
Spoken Engli~hd e3"10~t1";5~s5.;S 6!:i~~t1" L U. ill. e:>clliJ<fu.

CQnUnuous !:\o~~J)@~

Perfect

-StlQ~)
e3:5,) ~ @o-<f~<5:t
.Present

Perfect Contlnious

9.oa:~~tS'
He eats a.
fruit He ate a fruit

oSo~s
'"
He has eatean

055~s..,

TenSN!)~Oe L;iJ>Q";6S~ ):ba~~o6J<6 Q

SO~~e5@~
fie has been eating a fruit

He is eating

TENSE - KINDS (6~9mu») ;;SgJreer\


g)Qi3o-iS~o reMo~

sroeJ"~ e:>ti1, Tenses g) 3 ~Q1'<6 S"'e:>oS:o


S"e:>~

~~oe_S Past

a. fruit
He was eating a fruit He will be eating a fruit

a fruit
He had eatean a fruit He will have eaten a fruit

@D :

He had been
eating a fruit· He will have been eating a fruit

Present Tense (~~oe) Past Tense (~~ ~~) Future Tense (~t:S5

~:5J) <S~~;6
~f$5"e.>oS:o
e3~)

i;»% a
Future i;»~

~g)~8

He will eat a fruit

J. PRSESNT TEN SI!: (~.9~<6SDI:)~): .;SgJg) 6W~~oEl. Example :We buy a television (~illJ today

4J Tense @S~60 retbrD~<Sd.

'"

<oem ;;:; t..3l)g)e:l:5 b)~)


:&.>m T.V.
§"ObJ~~

PRSESNT TENSE
:OcSS6;6~ :

(gStS~.~
.. oJ>

~~~)
Present

4&a:l-'

n.r
rD50w

AST TENSE

(~~~~~)

·ea Tense

o:m<fuJociJ e35f1;5;;S;:);:)

~~i§o

e3e~ 05~;:) &JJ~ Verb ~~~c5


N"e.;I.)~

S"e.;IoejeolS;:) @ot!Ja~.

owoJ>~oe.
Example: We bought a television yesterday (~illJ e.,"'e_SoJ aV~e:l~ o')i65a)
(.l

Tense ;506.:1 L

6~DiDw Ke.;I~.

egg):

Present Indefinite (@>e3oeS' ao~~;:)eS) @~}5J~aCl"

g)~;&~

T. V 5"Nd~
.9"eJ~) ; 6a Tense ;;S:o;fuJoOJ

~~;5S

~.9~<6
S"eJDiD

S"e:>O:W.

In. FUTURE TENSE W::l~&' ?361K&o1J OSg)g) ~eow 8U)~~Oe.

2.

Present continuous, (@J2::l0e5 !:\oel~~i) !!!l;6o~6~6~;S t;I ~

(~cm

Example: We shall buy a television tomorrow ;;.':,0'

3.

Present perfect continuous n~a:loe_S;;So~~


;0o~g

~oe3;ir>S@~)

iDem oJ

i!J[lg)re:;)

e::u~f1)
g);;.':,~e.>;fu 6~~ff ~o-t5l5"~

o:S.9:~;6 S"e:>oQ

@;6o~g:o

c3Q',z) ;&~

T.V.:O S'oe.JocSx> Tenses a..S"&~6- ~Oe.> N"wi1~ O"~


l1"

a..S ;;')g) re5f\oEf ac}, oJl"~OJ.)o&S"aCS£@~


;;:5:0:0 ;;:rove;, OS"e.u (present. Past Future)

PRESENT INDEFINITE
:OISS6rs~ :

TENSE
S"~oc;olndefinite)

61S<5JJwr'i" g)¢5<So.:s~o e:JeF\oEl.


2. Continuous Tenses.

@g).

~.9:~;5 S"oo& 2::l6JK.J ~:OgJ @~~~o


ow;;;j) Tenseo

(~J~OIi"

I. .. Indefinite (simple) Tenses.

3. Perfect Tenses. 4. Perfect Continous Tenses

'Present Indefinite Tense' ~oty>1SJ, USAGE ~;;J~f\o\S;) ~od~~~

1.

Habitual actions

:GPQ9J"~'"

Or---------~~184--ii»,;J~ )•.

. .It

eeeii\e. Qjt6Jc.l<6:1 3~~Q~

~oQ~§55.v-<J

Q-~.~§i~---q

.1Il
85~lI-'

-------,0

a.

[ (Ike tea in the evening (<D~S e§ .~,!5 tS ~~~or;;)


;;!j;6) ~®ol~o

4. ~ ,@;:SSOoEJ"~,

This compnay sends. its reports annually.


&~ ~o ~~

~o~
~tI;Jb

a4J

He writes with his len hand

ea
~~ifu

o~8J

~<S:lr5oS~
Q)o~~o&.

~o ~~

i)<6 ~~E!~~i6J

(~ £e5,,) ~5 lbt>a!
2. Repeated
6Ul~t!J~

eJ~ Q:)-bSoc) @ej~

~aw

~cli:D;;:}J.
alene,
;;)~~;;)o

5, He is very sincere

actions
~
@;:)

(~~lJ'>OSJ6c:S:>c&S ;;J;6)Ul) : 66J.:nrl"


;0

~ eae- ;;38
t9tlcil
i:l"eJ"

~~o'5J5
~e3"O))h ~6JeiJ'

Tense
§Jo~

tl!oS~F\ot:5e;o

oSe};:J

6~~ "Interactive Present

Tense"

~otl;Jbru,

6. it is a long time since I saw you


'at)41ef ;) V"oFl ~~
O"a'~~o

Eg: She 'its here every evening

~~J so ~ dID
!'lcwoE.'l

(~ fve3"J :"""diJa c::J~eea~::::Jor;)


~:fu

g}~d. ~~
t5
~~U"~
@~

~a

~d\:)o@o

&S&~ s,./S)JobJo£:')

7. The baby feels a little feverish

He rarely goes out

~£l

~en~.l)~o ~Q)e4
@~~.

(~." <35[) Ff~ ~~e5) @66(!!)/S)6Jn<> E.)dilo~


3.
Universal

~;;)o

g"ooo 2ilS60 Gr5.l.~rl"

aJ'>OQ)6~r5d.E.'l

Truths (@'oe:Jo:OS

;:S~e:.:l): ~

~;;.)o.:s~o6es~ Tense D "Natural

S"a'~~

8. You go ahead.. J am corning


ctil:l ~ iroo6J

,:;)5otJ cilit:l"C ~;;J,~e.l;fueUl~ __. 0

Present Tense" 9.

ro cfu'o>!lJ Sllion
;;).6

~~

5~ j;)rE,~r5J
t:ooSJv5'i !'lOS;:66o <!O>~~oe,.

Eg : The Sun rises in the East


(6 ;:S:5

I need it by noon tomorrow ro ~~ ae5'


~E.'l
N"~

2.ad~ ~

£:,

ea~)

~~6

6J<>1n..);6 etSO))oi5J;5)

E ~~

The earth rotates on its axis


10.

c3~

oSl!;l"S~~~

He does not work before breakfast


:tr> tSB3' N"'e)

<656-£)~'5

@s~~

@s~~ (e1:SdiJo @e)'C..)oJG6o)§ omo6J ~M6 <6~adXitil


1. He always goes to school by-scooter

(~ C!;9as~ r1'fJ
@~6 ~~~

t:o

;:J:;o?:le

;'5.""'2,.05)
~t<6"6

~&Ul!fJ

;:J:;o?,tJ5~~

2.

r am also. out of pocket


(s:>dl..'<',ill
N"

C!;9~

lJe3"

15~

.;»se3")

tSQ6~W" 69)wa~

3.

Fle is ab olutely right

.bo ~eS @le5';:6e.lJ"S6V :e6


@J6<S:l !30S r.o

Q,.._-------_i

J).
.86
}*". ---

O-~~~fi5~---I'~R'-'-------b ..__

Yes; thisis not my own car.

jSECTION

- l· B~EFO-RM QUESTIONS]
: ~ ~zy'ri~ r\eJ Yes-No
~~;illJeJ~@;6fY"

@~i6J,:a.&

Oil"

i6so6sot1J

S"~

No, this is my own car,

1. PeslriveQuestlens
Main Verh (g.Q";:SL~ctSJ)n"

.;:SociJ is, axe @;fu "Be" am.


type positive

l:$.,-"iJoe;o

e5~.

at.)

;;:ro.

cSso~: s>15J

86.rf)_e;()

~5cti}).>r'~§

68.<5

~Q"r;r>tx)

oociJ

( ~~jSO~~~
Am I ear'ly for dinner? l!;~o!&J ~i6J o:illo6:ln-> ~~~?

-~~~~~

1. Positive response, 2. Negative response 6Ju<6<:mei& r;J.<5~Q;:S:J. 1. Positive response ; Question form'& rieJ subject:o 03"!:iso ~o6JSJ eit). 03"SSOw<ScKo questiou mark c full-stoprs
t'l"~§ S"o):r> Il'!l;fu

~eJ;§ ~Q"6wQ(i" positive /"i:l~& ~6om


.~oe$,~ jry>JD.

Yes, you are (early for dinner)


®~i6J. tJ~ (el<6"l0lil ;SxJotDno> );;S~~ No, you ate {early for dinner)

response 1iP;0o ~6.J.~B:!ot'l. @05~6~;;5 t:f~ ~M

;Syo.CJ.)e.lJ i.§diJul).
fl!J;:5) ;]O"~

2. Negative response: Postive response (j:o Yes ~-"B..)verb @O",:}~ notg) ~otJ;5~Q"6c;Jot'F 6.;loEl,@);5cStS~;:S

"No"

IT'

~tS.?,
E.~?ru

!:J~
~~

(l!;<5.}oru~oCSJI"'i")

O"e3CSJ

Negative response

6",>;;50

~6J6

Amo't I early for dinner? oSlJocDn<> O"ar:J"7

tS~

@l'\;;)

~6nOJ ?

,adiJt>£i.
<G.so~

Eg: Is this youecwncar

so!J
!!!J~,

9"a~
!iJ" ~.so€! S"'6JS'6:i 6JoiJotx)

Yes, you ale not early for dinner


@;;:j)i6J,. ~;Q)

Yes, this i~ own car; my

9.& ;;;r>;J.I:Po:1S"6:J

(a.~Ei~ ~otS.?l1"')

·0"'06

No. this is not my own car.

8lil. 9.0

No, you are early for dinner

2. Negative Questions; i3a :Jzy'ri~;:SotU Main verb C~Q";:S@cro)n<>riv


i)fI;S :-6;)jol;l"~tx) 006
6",>;;);{mv~

am, is.ure ®;5)"Be"

e36:l, ~;:J) l!;;6d.Ei!fu~oCSJI1"'<6;;:l"J~ Am lin time?

Yes-No type Negative@5·if1e:oc6Je05.:oOJ"'e!l~


@;Sn'"

ti~ ;6~ctiY'::)g <6'Z)0J"?


Yes,
YOLl

1. Postive response 2. Negative response li,.""oJ~lUe. a, Postive response; Question form

~,G).se;5~.
positive

are in time ::6cfudir>:::l§ ;;SiJ"J;Q) 0"'E36:i_ oS~N"7

®;Q);P., ~~

d'

KID Subject::J ;JO!3S0 i6:Dol:S:l~

No, you are not in time

@t:lJ, ;Y!:iso tJ~.6KeJ question mark ~ fuli-sroprr- ;fuoB.)~ ~Y"6~01l'>

otfu. tJ~;6;.iJ~~§
;;5;<u .iJo6oW'u~

response
@<6;:Jt5~;5

Q.,"<:)o :06Je:.6;JoC!l.

0";;);0

S"oir>

ru~&

yes @i6J~6o:ill ~O".)O§~~V.

Am I Iate for scl10011


@e.li6S0IT'

:::?b e'iM

;fuo15J.)w

oo..~l).

b..Negative

response: Positve response not;;)

&'tJ. 'Yes' ®rSJ ~&::Jd.'No'


j~D.

11"

Yes, you are late for school

;i_,.."en

verb ;!)O".so1li Eg:

e;oDd

iJoQ"LlE901"i"

Negative response ~;;)o

®~;;x,. .fj~ ~6
~6:l,

'8"

eJlil·

1~~H~);;SS011'" <5iJ".)<Q).

01:b<ileSJoB,

®~;:Jd~;6

·i.J.tJ

ejf\;5 ~~tx)

No,you are not late for school

:l5n:'" ,this your

own car '!

fJtt;

~t)'8"e)SJ

@V-oSSOI1"'O"e)CD.

~a tJ ::S:sci$ .~I:h ~C"?

Amn't I late. for school

~rSJ

;2?6 'O"IDru ~e)jSOil" O"e)oo?

1I,'i.
Of-----,-----____J!
88 ~:,,-. -iMO)s:i

.,il

~oO~.§5~_<)

Yes, you are not late for school


®~;fu,

Yes, he is some better how


0"6(,,)),
@~~.,

f.J~
~~

<iJo16~os,e.!IotJ£OiT

No. you are late for school


~(':5),

:¢l@6 a~t:J

8"0;30 ;::')ctlJol'? .rl'!W'db

No, he is not any better now. e'3ti1, @66 a~6

.DoC'O"o!5J l!;!lo;:Je')OiT;;)~~.

Is anybody there? ®s6,-d ..JoS~~


G~t:)"?

'. Isn't

.~ ~t9o

;;:idiJorr'E3<:&.:l ~W"?

he any better now? ~~


;::')tiS:JOIT"

,®i96 ~~tiJ
G~,:iJ

Yes somebody is there


@)~;fu.

Yes, he is any better now


@~;fu,
S\@~

@!32,ca.s6
.;J';si±r>'

'2ll,~..).)6~. OSJol60 ;:SdXlOIT" e36 qi:il§"'oiJo

No. nobody is there


dtSJ,@)S(,_C

otiJ

No, he is some better now. dCSJ" @66


@)®(fu

;:scroOJlb ~"'d.~

Isn'f any body there? @)~&d ,JoSe,.. ~~? Yes. nobody is there @)~<6J. ~S2,.d");;)c._,., a6 No, somebody is (here

Is be at home t.oday? .~ ES"ed' aoe

c5e

G~wo?
t!;OJd_CJ

Yes, he is at.home today


@~;fu,

@~tiJ ~ .. ef-i'ed' :aotl:G'5~~

No, he is not at home today e3(")), 'I!!ltS~


~

aC5J, ~~&t; e...~(i)G~6


Js be a ruisehtevious boy?
@e:,l6 ~~. eJ"ruG'?

~d'w

aoe;;SlS Q

8~

Isn't he at home today?


(jed' @f)~

~oe'l05~

e3wo

Yes, he is amischievous boy


r>!l~;GJ;

Yes, he is not at home today


®~~,

@)~6;]~

(?J"eJJb

®t1ru ~.
1!!l~6 ~

fi'el' a,oe3<59
a.oe3 <69

aeil

No, you are not in time

No. he 'is at home today


S"'~

eJ&.

@~6

Be.
I~

8J"'exIGJ

c6:1,
@I6~

~e>

d3~~

Isn't he a mlselrieviuus floy'?


®66,l

Is be really a 11001: man?


Kl~of1'O

ad GJ"w6 w t3d.

S1'lJ"?

!:J1:S;:r>W"?

Yes. He i~1101 a mischievious boy


®~~:iJt@'§;:;'

Yes, he is really a poor mall


@~~. @~~

~ .gJ'>rnt:(j S"'6J No. he is a mischrevious boy


1':;he any berter now'!

~elOn"

llcsOJ"e:...
ID1:S.:;Jbt$:l ~~

No, be is nor really a poor man 8tS:l.


1!!l66
;JreOJlD

d6J. @)ei6 iJt:i: a,.-'w6 G,

[sn't be really a pOQr man ?


@e)6Klelo11"

KllSo::PLiJ sot;;:'>? flt5OJ"CJS"CJ


1.,,;,\

Yes, he is not really a poor man


~%Sj;(jJ, @)~6
~~OI1"

Qr---------'

• 1I'...lI

90

bt-;

---,~",s£m~g,i5,.,-O

o--tM.,9£ SloOfi

§5f),;) ------'ii'

91

~r·---------

a..

O. .

No...be is really a poor mall e56:l. @~6 ;n~on" £l6~~


Is he erinusly ill'!
I!!)~~

No, She is not the girl 1 told you about

atSJ, ~<fu!.J~

~~..)ot)

e;!I

@~J=

l\:)5oi.)S"6J

Isn't she the girl you told meabout?

fi~ol1"

al~~l'. e~~?
~~~rF
alal{)~(!. GIV".,lCl

fl~

i'J"~

~~..)oe

e!l @~JQlJ

X:Jeoi.)

S"O"?

Yes, be is seriously ill


@~;fu, @8Cl

Yes. she is not the girl J told you about @~<fu, ~;fu !.J~ ~~..)o5 (!!jI@~JOJJ No. she is the girl I told you about
rU~ew soC'il

a6J, @8C0
<\986

No, he is not seriously ill


b~on" al~~C. Isn't he sedousl}'iU?

a~

a6J, ~;S;> ~~
~i6

t3~.)oEl

!9 @~~Ol)

rUEloB.

Is the baby stlUasleep?

bteSon" a':IDfJ~e.

a~?

SoOS"

:O(fSe e<5.}tJI>?

Yes he is not seriously ill @;Q)~. @~6 at5:>, @6 6

Yes, the babyis still asleep <!5>02l<fu, ~;6


aoS"

a~on" alIDfJ~c. a6 B~on"a;aDil~e e~CJ


?

:Olf5&~

t!:;oEl.
DOW

No, he is seriously ill


ls he your son?

No, the baby is not asleep

~~, ~~ S.Q~~i:;JOlfS& :
Isn't
o}>;j aoS"

a.::s,

the baby still asleep? :OLc5e oO"?

@66

!.J SJo5.Jo6J~1V"

Yes. he is my son
®~~.

Yes.the baby is not asleep now

a6J.

@~6 N" !;i);::lpfu6 No. he is not my son @i56 ~ !;i)tao6J6 S"'O:>


lsn't he your son '?
S"W"

@~<SJ, ~;6 s.~6 :otfSd No.the baby is still asleep


a6J, .;}o;6 SoOS"

a6J

;otfS&~ ecSd_t1.

@66 fJ SJ;:ipOJ6

Yes, he is not my son


@~;6;.

@~ci:J ;:)" t:iJtao6J6 5"6


@6t'.:l
iJ"

No, he is my son

e3c5.J.
!.J~

~~6J6
@oS:r>~OJ.')

Is she the girl you told.me about?


i'J"SJ a~..)o5 'C!9

l\:)50jN"

Yes. she is the girl I' told you about


@~;6::,

';Z;fu

!.J~

a~JoEi

I'!;I

f!!loiJ"~= l'Ueo~.

o..----------.

0- ~9:i

~oQ~.g5~---.#

.111.
93
1<.",-

----------10

...

r
1.

lam watching a movie on the TV.

2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE)


®;;)(I'>

~;fu

~!l~

~g:)~

.:5.1"~~;fu

:06~.:s;6({),);) : tr)~6~

ei ~~o& e:!~KJ~

e~

;:):0;0 @O)~

I am talking seriously ~;:fu~ad5J5n<' ;;S:yo~c$.)6JiJ"J.tSJ. ~c:lJKJ.oo~c$.) he is asking for mangoe @ili:&J ~.llic.5"d5Jru Who is Raju talking to ovW' OJQJafJ' ~~CJ.oo-~c:lJ
ga college

Tense D "Present Continuous aO" Progressive Tense" @:z:t

@o~-,,~.

~:;5~no~
~a

~o~6~~~
e;J1)){U.:));;)J.

/1<1108

i6:O:O@erJ~€.:J~

eD"~6~e»

; Sony is talking with her friend,


C<!Jo~) ~:06;;)~cli:Y>~i:)& ;:S.y>~I±I6J;;)J.,5

(?fo5 .~c2 tJ'>i3on .;)B";;:j-.o


He is going to college
(bo eif! FtQ))on
b)

My sister is not goint


~ ~~erJ Be is baving breakfast

$"ej,M ;i3t1Jco

e36J

S"a~) ®6~

S"~~§

ci)'IiOeiJN'd.CJ
®e.lQJ"e:n1l"

2.

~ S"6["q1be) QJe);;S ~;6O"oS~BoiJ03J08 ~ ~ 6"e"6v~ oS1"dJJ e:l5f\;S~6 ~. Teuse


§"~,

aO"

e:lBf'lC5 ;6;SJe;B

@~6

L~s~~ 3;6J~oQJ~6
6:!~6:J

O e.;6~I'\~tiJ,

They ate swimming in the canal .-.J"1iJ S"woS8 ~6J61"

Lusually take milk but now] am taking tea.


(S) ~CWQJt1,

~l"6- ::Je5 ~
~el)

f:)<5i>_"~

£360n

6) e3
B;::J:;~oQ)Nd;fu.

He is just beg inn ing to do it. @oli~ a~~


O"~:O ~dS.J60 @'>6o(J<:'~N'd6

~::5:! iJ-:.Q"6~0i7'

h;:2J~ot!Y<6J.5"g:) a.~6 ~;fu

3.

:O~tll\5g)o{;,§
;:$y.> @0~6

5"6s!§~~e))

oQ)~€.:J~

The milk is boiling over.


oJ-O)

Eg: My uncle is going to Chennai in the next tnonrh.

O~~ei>~OD

;:S3J ~t':)&

affi 3'liJ~~~

The baby is crying now

4,

t:5e;;;Sim~ oir>Oo~ @o'5Jm Future Ten, e 9,t:nJ€.:JS:l

~oJ' SlCiJ>c:lJ ~6~<5J.&


J am not eating much now. ~;:)) @~~o ~~6-oln<' a~c;o
;:fuot

(11)1

go ing

[0

coli mb a hill
WAC . .;)s~~~~.

(6:lc.6Jt>~

rtoxd\ en ~or5.;)~e5) ;;3tSJ


~E§

e36:J
ej6J ~~<J 6 03ije:.."'b

He is not feeling well for the last few days.


@e$6 S",5abre'v
Q

Look, ILis going to rain


(ru§,

a6

eJ"KJoPIb
';)~6J

rf'CUloFi

OCUl~)t::S.J<Ci)f tJ6.p !66aSclh:b~e.

He and his brother are always fighting about who wi;i .ake the scooter ®8c$.) @e$~ l'0661ileil
~obY>~

( ~~JSO~~~ ~iOd. ~~S~~


The baby is crying because it is hungry.

~&~:Jl5 b;::J:;~QJ"b

@~

GN'dfu.
[Q

1 am forcing you

go

:n~~ @@rp

e~otS);;)

~c:lJ~~Q.

~<6J i:)tSJ.)_;eJt:.~:O !!Je)<So80~<E.~;fu

Tile children are playing cricket right now.

My son is getting married


N" §"6!§J
g).:;:oo)oo

~ ~;)~ §.~o& I§seJ @c:lJPi,." G~ci:I.

t3;;5)!§JOUlN'd.c:lJ

QI-°---------'i

94' r...'--0

;\)i...,SS

aop~~~-o

o--~9~

~~§$5,;)---Il':

~5--~M.-:

-------0

My brother is studying abroad!


OJ"

No, I am not going to college today


Q'.,.

RJf>GSt5J~ ~a""'&i:56:J~a."" ~~CiJ


""'"'I

BtSJ,

E)a

5Gw~£~~g

:i3~~~6:J.

He is walking the cow


(\!l6dJ (!!I~;::D;:Se.~~N'd~

Aren't you going to college today?

6a 6"e:¥ .~~ S"aa§§~~tJ

e50"?

You are wasting a. lot of money on 'cigarettes ;bQ) ~na~~~e;"" ~<fu


~CJ{);::D ~~)r;r:'

Yes, [ am not going to college today


f;£J~;;)),

a~"'d~

·ea o"'w
f7eP

~';ill

S"d12§ ~~~!J ao,

[am going 'to buy her some shoes


@;fuSJ
.aJJ"~

No, ram not going to college today ~t.S.:J, .6a


j;fu S"aZ§S~GJJbdtS:!

S";;JC")!J§ ~t6~,~<$)

My brother .is waiting for me


OJ"

!\re you reaJlygoiogto


;O~.g)e:lOI1"

kill him?

!OSGS~~

i'J"

sIi:6o ,,)6J~i5:J'o~~6

@6&~ .;5o;;-)G;"ns~tb~;;:r>do;:l??

I am going to make this material into a skirt not a shin ;;3;::iJ ~


€O~~

Yes.I am really going to kill .him 11"&.


@~i'6:i,

~Ol1"tJa

6cJ:5.:po~.;5dSJd.ooN"d..;::D,W"S"&;;sa

£"r6J .~eson'"
unt really

@6e.::J.::)o;;-)(;;C::Js

( YES - NO TYPE QUESTIONS)

No" r am

ci'Hb6.>Wd<S:l

going to kill him

h he speaking the truth ?


@~c;"
~alO

at5J, ;3;fu.;oeson'"

@6atJ i5o.;:;S~~§~tUJIIJ a6:J.

~~~6J~C"?

_J\ren'l you really going to kill him '?

Yes, he is speaking the truth


@;;J);::D, @e§6 )!Je30~~6.i.)N"d.CJ

b~ :ae:OrF
@~<fu,

@~a;'J

6o'~~:ag

·;;3ti1·e.Ja~?
·d6.:J

Yes. J am not really going to kill him ;;3;;:))


;D02:1011"

a~. @e§dJ
@&6
~alO

No, he is not speaking the tnnh


~200·

@6c:ot5o~t:<;")!J'§~~b

~~.CJb

b1:SJ.
?

No, Jam. reallygoio.g to killhim d.6J,


.~;fu tie::!Oii'"

Isu't be speaking thetmth

@6c:O

.::)0<:)(:;";0&

;afuJ6J~'il.

;;S:.;o~6b ~t::fD?
~"'4':6t:J

Yes, he is not speaking the truth


@~;:5J,

®e§6 n~o

a6

No, he is speaking (he truth

86:J.
{Ja

@8i&:Ji:J&:lo ;i.,J"¢.J~i&:Jeil~6
(0

Are. you going

college today :?

cf(;t'b~
4a

~a<2§ i0fu~~;;}"'?

Yes, I am going to college toU(JY


®~~.

o?~ ;5;::iJ S"a~§

5:l~~~~.
,'.

Q-.~3l0Q~§§!)~

---t;. 97 ,._: -------0


til,

r:

r
~W" ~

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


~oQ:6'~~e.l:I : Ti[ne;:#
6e..u~t'.)!:b
<508JOc:;) ~({)O~ ·ffi

1
b\eSCSe;J~

11. He has promised to open the gate

"

f:j~~f\o:i:.5J
~~t0oa

r.tbJ
~;fu

6I:SJiJo;$~
_o

..

@~t;i)

.;j071";:5oa~~ o'

~g

@o:JJ<5QJ~(!l;j;,

Tense ~.ci:!CSd3J'>t'i~m.

14.

r have

just. returned

her book
;;:)'>~i6,) i3~;fu

eQ'>o:5'<>~~e:l:I :
J.
I have written a letter

@~

~~5":JJ. El,~a;

1.5. I have searched highand

low fur

¥Oll

;5r:n B~6J Liij'>dJJi:.1o 6,lY§;j'6"~


2. Lhave lostmy bicycle

f:l g;@o @o6~'" ~aS"<fu


16. I have heard you are a-clever astrologer
,~~ 6()~;-S

~<il]J.,§6 ~rr~~~<il

C§:P'4i&c.tJ~

!l<::ld.::i:J

3.1 4.
5.

have eaten more than enough


;SOSJ <6e;jc,;:)o.:!1 @:Jo:m~'fu

17. She-has informed me that she is coming


{!9~

cs~;;JO'~:'J N"~

t'ii1l~ ~~o~.

[have written a.letter


;;3oS
e..,~

l8,

I have seen her many times at the park


~;:D

aeJLlJ

ty'B";;:lJ

!!!I~ifu ~t5.:Il.;Sti C O"e'J"iJo6J.:5:l'>'S"ifu 0: ....-.

I have had nothing since yesterday morning :JrSd_fll<:SdSJo ;fuoe~iSJ ~~

19. J haven't sent in his report yet.


~tu 20.
El,05''

~i$Jg£ek5J

,~6~ ~~6J;:fu

;;)o;;Se36J

6.

J .have Come back to remind you fJ!:b X:!~,t:kto~~§tj6f\ ~W'jf:SJ

J have taken them out of the box.


~;:5J

OJ'e5;a ~~6' fSJoe. b<8"::i:J


[YES - NO TYIJE QUESTIONS)

7.

FIe has gone for a swim

®~6 ~6S:J
8, he has gone
@e§t;i)

~~J~
OUI -_

Have you bad any training?

!J~ ~eN"-5~EOI
lip

~QEl diu~iij'>?

8Jc.:l5J6!3J~t'\:;JEa:iPciJ '!<

Yes, I have had some training


@~<fu, i'3<S:l SOo6

9. Prices have gone

again

.a~... ~Ql;J
-S~!:QI~~OQ

diu~;:5J

'" IO. We have got vacancies for metal workers


L;:J~~Q ;;Sp

QCw iiSJ ~ ~5.1'\N"ill)

No, 1. haven't had any training at present


~i\l".1Ql)

csg

atS;l. ~<fu

,;)e.JbaeJ

dllioC;;e:§6J.

&oJb~ ;;J:Jiij'>ol¢S ~fie.lJ


1P'S"6;&
~ci5J,,[)

Haven't you had any trainiag?


f.JoJJ· oJeJ<>ot5 ~&W'~oadSJJa~atJ"? Yes, I haven't had any training
@~<fu,

,1 L

We have only got to do this by 'the rules

;fu1iD
12. Just
11

8~:J
day's

~8J.oQ;5e.l

rest has

unporved
@~

her health @&ri"i)~

;5;fu ";f)'>oe5

~~E9

~oa

cti.:l;lo~e31:S:J

§;;)(!lO

2..S

&'<:P g)l:O"oB

oSJ~ :i:l~OQ

No, I have had some training

e36J,;5<fu §"o6
~.

~~C!I

&?coa dlli~;fu

Qr----------------1J

--

98 ~;-. -_

~s,!5

Sl.~

~~-=O

o-.~

aoO~~~-----'.!\T

99JI-~

-------0

'

..

Have you chosen a hat vet?


f)~

Haven't YIJU got anyt'hing for head aches?

~L.o

;)oiil~~OJD?

tJ
oJo,:5)SJ~~

;;5~ ~~$'ibJ~ [;)fu


1)01

a~ ?

Ye.. I have chosen ahat now


@~;:)J,

Yes, I have
(!!)~;fu,

got anything for head-aches

;;3;:)J a.~6

e.,§ e~;o
A

;;J" oSl8 ~v3'~.)§

~tJ 'OtSJ

No. I have not yet chosen

hal

a6J.
tl~
@~~.

No, I have got something ~or head-aches aciJ,


.OJ"

;3<::0

9.0S"

d~;:)

~o.:D~atlJ

OS~~e.l3'~..)§ e.,~t5 ~;6.,lQ

Haven't
a,OS"

yon chosen a hal: yet?

Has an)'body seen, my pen?


;);;52;;J" ;;J" SeJ'~.,l tS.:r>-WD" ? Yes,

d~~

..Jo.::b~a~?

Yes 1 have not yea chosen a bat ;;3;fu


SoOS"

somebody seen you pen.

~l>L~ oJoi:S:JsS&u
;)oiSJ~Nd.i\D

(!9~<S:>, a.1&6
COl • .;)oS~

tJ

SeT'~d_iiJ.><O"cD

No. [ haven't chosen a hat now


ael),
;;3;fu

No, nobody seen your pen

s.;.JJ6 ~!:1 &~;.)


~~
(1

!l §eJ'~J. .:il'>caOJ_

Have you got a car to ride in'! l;;j~£'$o.:s~;os Yes. I have got
@~~,

Hasn't anybody seen my pen '! ?


C\l>:6d_G). .;)oStS;,o ;;J"

S"())

Q~O"

~eY'::J.l ~G.SaO"

car to ride in
S"/i)

Yes, nobody has seen your pen

L;;jdSJo~o.:srJ":::l§ <J"s,

(!!)~<S:>,

;);;5~

.~ !:ieJ"~d_ ..::SJvcB6J

a1SJ.

No. I have not got a car to ride in l16<ib&o.::lwu;.)§. N"s, S"tD SOLD aO" ?

a6J

No, somebody has seen your pen.

BtSJ,

e.,~Gil

!J eieJ"~

iSJ'o<O"6

Haven 'I' yon got a car to ride in ? L<:JdSJo~o.:5~~s ~~

Yes. I have not got a carto ride in


@~;S:.,
<J"'~

@Scfu~o,:)~~§

S"1»

atSJ
?

No, [ haven't had a car tu ride in

a6J.

~r6J

e,cfSKo t0oii'PtJo.:sa6J. ~e<J" eiSJO" ?


a,!§e3

Have, you got anything for head-aches


~ ;;52 p)e;)~~JS

Yes. I have got something for bead-aches s~~.


N" ;;:)~

~vZ'~)S

eiSd_El

No. I have not got. anything

for head-aches
e3cn
.7~ ~ 4f'
___J,i

B6J, .~

;;S~ Oe.l'~~Js

~!n

Or.

lOob'___·i\)i.;S£i

stoO·1l §§B,;,-D

o-~~~,Si~--:~I)I-' ------0

--

.1..

John has been looking at the exercise for half an hour and he still can't

~RESENT PERFEC'T CONTINUOUS TENSE)


e~~f)oiS:lC:SO~6~~:H!Xl:
L ~oS"vo~ ;S~ 8ru~t.::~

do
5.

e3:5

I!!!

@VSrSo c5~. @6Xot,) ~o~

~~~~

~oS"

O"~:o 305Jo!:l i:Jf-aiY>6


~<J'd.;fu.

I have been having stomach-pain

for 3 day now.

@'>6o~ot:SZJe.;6;;S~

~;(),es~6SJ

~6JlD~.

::.o!:'i~

8:l6:Jro
6.

<ll.;;5.Je5~;fujv~

ffire:.o <S:loE. ~;6J. S~;;J)~~.J&

ea

Tense P e~dlJonot:i;;S6JJ;fu. Ibis matter for marry days.

I have trying to telephone you since the office opened

Eg:

We have been discussing


~;5:D
W"e.i<' t1e'eJ

ifuoi5 ~g);;)_cJ:iJ<>~ 1:SBJ~ I have been reading this novel for six hours ..
6 rlob~

eNd~

1l!I~~ 6eD;S~e.'l;6Joe. ~SJ ~.5 3dSJ'>~;o @'jdSJaJ.;;:l,,::;5 ~;:i). Q 7. She has been working in. the garden all day. 1l!I~ rSPi30fJ'>

&tl~

;;5~a~

e;6d_e.

~;:$)

~oe,
;6;,ot'>

·aa ;Sc5o~

-t:S6J;;»~;a

eN'd._ifu

8.

He has been playing the same tune for two hours and I am getting very tired of it.
@~~

J have been sitting in the park since 3 p.m.

;e;6.) 3 Kobe)
2. 6a. Tense Eg:
~;:fu O"@

~"6J?/j

§Jo6:JJ~

eCJ"'~.
§J"G3"

@a

0"ri"~J.

006 Kob~;SJoE.

OJ"COJ;i..:!~ G~.

@o6:J;;S~;S

~6J..:5,)ri"

s571e, GJ;o~ 6ru~bl:D ;;»06

e~c.fuof\oiSc5~ifu. 9.

~;fu

O";:)~

W"e:l" g)<furui5oO";fu.

The ph ODe bus been ringing all night long


~eF

AJI day long I have been thinking about what you said fJ;;» ~g:u :a~J~ r:::P;o;o lD50[) ~rfu E?8:l06'! Il!I&D~~ t:;~;6J.

@Y'ru~~

3.._6a Tense ~Q"6raor1'" More temporary actions and situations (@)e§:so~

10.

You have been working all nigh!

fJOfJOlPIJ, ~;;5.)ru

;6)edfu

~od6J~el:l

~ru~bSJeGJCfu'on~tD.

Tenseo

f:l~

C"@06"

;;5;oa~;5

e.Nd.~.

clloSdlJo/,\ot:S;;').:lJJ;(:.:,.

More permanent actions and situations Eg : I have been living here for the last month
~~ ~"2,2.lf, X6

(®6s06

06".t.s~~;:S ~~ru

.:5J5dill ;:Joe50a1;;mru):O Oe.uo;'-!)bSJ present perfect tense ;n ~~cibF'I~6J.

~o

<fuoE. ;ooS~~

e~)

J have lived here En- tweaty years.


2;:S)

~S2r~ 20

;:Jo~~O"e)

;6)0(5. ~;;S~~i\l".,).ifu.

1. Raju has been flying kite. for two hours o<>e::-> oolil Kobe,)
;S.:.oc.

f1"Vc0boSJJ;5) .;)rU6;j~;,:P\~ ~ "'~~.) ~~6Y>


6;6JEJ

2. My tooth hn been aching for two days.


r;y.> j.~

oo6cfre>~

iDoe

3.

I have been hearing unfavourable

repons-about yourwork.
;)obJ'o

t> ;;5;0

re50t>

~;fu !!!l;S;:S,:;~~

~a-S6JOJ
..~I.:-;.II-

G:;~;fu

.",

0>----:--------',

10.2 ~~--~~

&e6~.~6~-<)

~'

r
2,
[?-t3"fu,

PAST INDE.FINITE TENSE)


1.?"iS"<fu. @J"'O"U5J:I,

2.

He was very emotional:


(!!)~~

he cried when
~~rr>~
Will>

r left
~~~.

i6:l8
II

c£l@§

: ~~

t!!)ii~

1_ ~a Ten e ~ ']mpJe Past~::> !Dv!4" "'t<$~5~6:l ~ Tense & ;fu;5J. ii:I"~;;<fuJ ~;gotn, ~Rlo5
~Q"i'Sf.OI;fro11"

3. He had

feeliog that be

going to _fujlagain.
!!l:oa~

J''6''4l,
4.

ifu~

e1'OlJe~~:s~

1P"<6;6

f!!l~~

15oe3 o'>l:><fu:le:t? !!9oe)r:Dri:Jt.o.

] bad may "tia[r cut ~iu l1OS6o 30ll0iil~~

~cJr;"moflQiS:l

~o~~~~
r'i~Q& e::M;;5
~(!)~

I. rz6l1~ :;Sifue» (paSt actions)

O~~1\.l~

5.

He had no meal. last nigh!. ~tio


'C"~ I!!)a~§

tense
~Ol)~

g]

~;;S03.:J"FI~~.

1 en e <606.J Pas! Time Adverb~ &a16i1·f'lo~ID.

¢iJg:;So ~

well known facts ~ Pa l Time ~ ec;)d!a"no6;6",;Jt$o

a6:J.
a;;.'boo6J.
iGa ~

6.

he folded the letter inhalf

r ate an apple yesterday.


I h;lV~ t:(~!el1an flpple @:::J ij~joS,:$,)J ",,:0 L ate an apple E\!:rJ

~~ e~O"~d. 7l":O~ oSJt';Oo& ~


7.
8. queue was formed im edia te Iy
~ob~

L hivaj t fl

llghl

agamst the Mughals


@)~<;Y>e,},)""

a.~

2. Habitual pa -1 : K~o& Tense~ tt,;;ja:trof'tiq;fu

e!!51\o$tJ<5;J~

6~tJ)f)

She: wept

~£ (~t$);::5) rne floor

od5Ju6anot'l

@;.'b ~v;6:, f5;I e,)OE'l

Eg : John etten bear hiswife when she was ,-Llive


e5"~ ~16 W5r,oil Cl9;ib e;

9.

Thi photo wa taken WlW II Cheap' camera

Ilook tea every cloy.


(~io l;"i~~e!"

~a.g 1h~::'w,~ 6tbt:i::l1" S"Diii"~ a'""t.l


(IJ

~ WOei'

C"!:lI$6l

s~O".:1l 1965JaJll<stt
~o6" a,u.,J~
~ L;6~6-~ .se~6.

~ bifu~;3Ul"e:'J) ®CUl3 ~

1!!lf).;:j"b:!

@'i~iio

a~ e1::>

10.

JI1 the letter he' told her everything:

®go.

eg,6od ®6~
N
12.

@I~~

3. Used to : Habitual past ~ ;::j.Jf}o~ i5Jt'~~ru


Indeflnue Tense

used

to::> Present

11_ He walked by me without noticing me


r5Jd_ K:J.9.o.:5~otP~ $eilil

8' ~v~ ei1ci'!J;ol)oi5;;;)t:DJifu.


or Gerund : evOJ"e.D;;.')a~:o

Eg : Nehru used to wear a rose everday a rdar Pare! tt ed 10 be brave,


4.
@If)~.

He went back with his letter


~ej~ ~.~

e~lSo& ~8f\
!!!!:iDs>

tliJ':)1il

Was used

to+I1011n

eJrJ"

a:05~6r,!5or1'' Q a:l ~

13. In the letter he told her everything

a<S:l!3"~;:S::J ijeD;())~!;bwas used to E;!).i'6J ~!JeJ:fu Eg ; The Mughal rulers \.... used 10 luxury. ere Gandhi wa . \I ed to spinning charaka.

&o)Cfuof\~~.

e~608 ~~ciJ
l!!)ej1:S.J X&

~oeJ'>

ij~~

14.. He walked up and down the room

(~~J~'~~~ ~!&£~~, J SU~


I. I worked in this school for six year.
-=);;).) ~ 'tJ:y>l,UJ&

®Oes~

;680"~

~~~J c.);o~'5"<to

Did you follow the instructions PAST INDEFlNrfETENSE (~~;:SS ~c:h~"e,)~) £)...-.., u,!I

on the packet?

~se5 1:J;fu~~ ;::}_,...,is;Sw


'0.

iJo~oO"cy?

YES - NO TYPE QUESTIONS Was the traffic heavy today ?


~ ~e>

Did you get my letter last week?

escm~ ~6o

fJSJ

i\l"

otJo

e!)o.5;SO" ?

6~ ';)~&.:5i1"
~

Gl~O"?

Did you go anywhere

for Deepavali ?

Yes. the traffic was heavy today


@~;5,), 0,

e,.iJo>oS~§. fJ~ oJ!5&1&~~ ~~,);;y> ?


Did. you go to college yesterday?

5"e> 6@ ~ap 66
6~

';)fu&aJl1"

~~le,

the traffic was not heavy today .JSJ;aJl1"


'" Q

~~
£)~

~O'$) S"o.,§g

;;:l~~

e361 . ...;a

OclJ

Did you hear the late news?


~~N" 8"~ OJ"~m

Wasntt the frame heavy today?

:DrJ'lo:l" ?

~ 5"ap
(!Jl~~,

,;)S:ld.~l1" ctl~O"?

Did you rake loan. from him? fJ~


e£l.,j~.:>'S~

Yes. thetraffic was not heavy today

ea
the!

<&08

@?.{p

§;:J:;SJ~~

ff'~ 6§ .J!bd,..:5fi" e3tTI


6 ~ ,;:nt(;_O'Sfi" eo ~J..5

Did you throw the storre ? .

atTI , ~a
~~J

No,

traffic was heavy today

i1e>

fJ~

tJ"COO

6JUJ'>S"'" '7
5"~

Did you use coffee essence in making this cake ?


~ "§s

Were you busy yesterday?

tidSJ06& .fJ~
iill'>~~cy

.;)~.J:tg) cyC"'OJ" ?

:O~l&liS"" ~~

Yes.
\!!)~~.

1was busy yesterday


;;3;fu ~;5d.aJ~"" GlN'd_tSl

Did you talk to Mary'?

b~ ~eif

No. I was free (not busy) yesterday a6J. ;;3;fu :O~d. ~e'§".,o;fu Weren't you busy yesterday'! ~05)

::J~d.2:)tSiI"

e)CY?

Yes. I wa. not busy yesterday

woSl<S:>, ;:3;fu :o~

rJ~ fi" o;fu

No. I was busy yesterday

06;. ;e~ :'J~ IDc!11"


~ 1l90~~&

6N"J:'"SJ

;:l~Oo~~

~.:,S'~1i"

19oe l;;S-t.lr:i~ ~t:;"

e;iJ>~W

\!!);S.s=o~S":O

l;;:r>~oa

Was there anybody inside?

&<6e:.l

g).:>'S2;:;J"

e. 03'd,0" ?
.'.:}

O~----------(J¢I06~~--~.)s:s

QOQ~

§5~-O

O-~QoQ~~5.;J~-.....o;1107~L,

J.

--------~

5. I saw a lady who

WIlS

walking GoC;"..

alone.

jPAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)


6. USAGE (e.~~flo~ ~oG:lIS~~al):
7.

a..l:5~ a..otJBn~ She broke the

;;:)c;0;5:Jo
CLIp

i5;fu

t'ilJ~;fu.

i:l.Ja-lJ<';fu.

while she was washing


O"~~

it.

@l3J !3oJ.J~ ~6~oorl" I "was watching the


@I;fu

oSlU~tQe

L Past time Q a..!ii ~~ ~~~ S"a-::l§ ~~S"~oC" e!1il~iSJ;6.l~i'l O~~Q~ Examples I. When [ went to him yesterday, he was taking coffee.

T.v.
lit

when .hecame itt

d~§ ~t'.)Ji6~6 ;;3;i)


~~~o

e5. g) .-tir>~
~~~cli~;$,

~.l<fu

.~~ :0~J..@le§~ QS~SJ ;i:jtl~c5~~


2. ;;j;i) <6Ja~wS;J~tU~ 3.

@B~s"~

·a~§"oe,g.

~<J'd..~

8.

l wa: reading a book


@I

\ba.ui.me

While I was .going to school, 1 saw a monkey eotil'l", aA

~;fuo:bo&;;3;fu

gGem ~~e.

.~'O"~

9.

She was sleeping when f;)~ ~D[);6<06


(!!!;ii) ~~~

YOIi

O'd.lleo

It was raining by this time yesterday :'J~ ~ ~;fudi""'~§ ~6o<0 futiJ~

~<.S-~
~~i:Do'iJ";5,o

10. I saw a lady who was tal.kIng to Ravi ac;o~~~


a..!3 ~~ IJ . 6g)
;6.y>~6ebo~r;o

2. i'laoQ
1.
~

S"ocSS"t:.lO ~~

~i'l~oO'" e!eM ;;J~eJ~ my sister was sleeping

While ( was studying.


i)&c55

When Lsaw him the other day, he was ruunillg high fever. ;;3~ ~5"S

~la~ e;o~1:i" ti~ ,j6:l~~cl;oe5:'J.


GgO"rn ~;6J§"ot:lJt>eo1&n"

esSe:!"

@l~:O:O

~~.i6~~,

@~~

a~ ee::lSo&

f:\lfil".l6

2. Mary was reading a book while David was writing some letters
~g)Q
§"~J.

12.

It was heavily raining ~~~;;S,~5J

when we reached the Station.

3J5

a,~

~£§.!!io ;S6c.1l~

36J~i6.}~til.

QS~p

~eii" ~6J~,

G~.5.

<ho~;i).

1.

John was studying las I night when I went to his room

K~

O"~

·~tfu ~a:',) K&§ ;;)f.lJ;5~~ ~:5

.:')tSJ~§"OtID>

eoctfu.

( ~~J~~t.:lSJ
I. 2. While 1 was making ;5~ c,~J..0 ~dSJo6:J j~
cl;~~~,

~~

0jQ~~~~

the dinner, John was cleaning the house.

<;3":5 Zi,oe3:'J -ibl9f;;S6:J~

eocifu.

She jumped off the train when it wa_s moving ;ern ~6Je.:o~ ~oC;r;o
1;!9~

2e.:lJ& ~oc. 6Jo§o5.


GoCSr;o,,;::)ifu.l ~e.:o 1il~o&. a.~

3.

While]
~;:5.)

was sitting on the gate. a scorpion stung me. ~6:JJ0W>

I1CJJ toti

4.

We were talking ~[)~,!5 ~F\~~I:iJ,

when the telephone rang ;&~ ~~~1iloe:.Jll G~;ill)

~AST PERFECT TENSE)


~ Tense~
USAGE

2.

If I had been there. I would have made several criticisms. ~r5u e:t;>§,?:rt:.
c50C,

e5;:)d'#:OIl~. !!9~S

g,);;))I:?JUl ~N

~D~;;)"C~

pre-past tense

®~

oSs~~5~.6J.

3.

J had completed my homework by yesterday morning ~;::SJ. 6cScfuo~§ ;;;j;:r,


<JO

(e;:::'~()o~

,:506l{)~exJ);

:yf> ~iytJ0lI::; ~g
;iiI)) 31J'6"~ ~.,.

8@ d5:D;;;;J'>d.~'

I. ~dS"'(.)oe

oo~ ~r5Je:>

ale('\;6~~

~o~Q

~olilTI"

alOM ~~~

4, By 8 0' clock, ! had done my horne work 8 5,


r\OQe)~

pre-perfect tense Qf:SJ O<:).,.,V. Examples I. The cat bad drunk the milk berfore I came ~ifu cS~Q;;)J~"§ 2.
~~ ~rn 1!J"~~oEl,

;S;::n ;;:;P fu

At 6 p.rn, yesarerday, she had not eorne,

~~d. ~fI
6.

K'OQe)SJ,

e.!!~

,;S[;Jd5:;JO~ac5,)

The car had changed hands five limes before 1 bought it. ;;3ifu S"jb;:).)e.'3'S s>tU
1l:lc5,),;]o~

Had we given you any trouble before then?


®O~S:! ;;Xoo6J ~~

;jo1iJru o,S,. 8oEl ...

~!iJ

~~PJ" ~

ra.2J~Oe ~tJ'>~?
-~ G)

3.

Had you finished

dinner when I telephone

Ye , you had given me some trouble before then?


C1!)~;6).

~<5J ~Z j1JQ;GJ~§ ~~
2,

e~1) ~f'l0iJ"iiJ"?
o$~:,)
eu)~Q~ :

®otiSJ <6:006:> ~6J

;:J'>~

s,G{)oo ~~6J.

'" Examples I. At 5 p.m. all the shops had. closed.


~c!S:Jo~05 2.
r\OQ~

tlt)oe (e...!;l: ::J!:Ii)

Bad she said any tiling (0 rum ?

~;;S,ClS,i"·;J§) o$;l;l1~~

Yes. she had said something to him.


@l~<S:lt

~~J.il-<\l)e:l)~~~c!S:Ja)e,~g).

@iS~&

@I~

~c} c.~.)oo
10

Doctor had advised me to take milk daily C"gtSJ r6~ tE)@5"er ~Ol

No, . he had not aid anything


e3t)),

him

3~g.olJ~

;:Je)~ra.~~

®~~W

@~

iJ£D aoJJa~
i5oJJe3WO ? ;:.t.)
;)~.)&5:J

3,

I bad bought this last week

Hadn't she said anythlng to him'.

~~ 8~~ @6o
3.' n fulfilled

,;:ro60

S"~ dfuoe'3;:) of the past


;J

@~~8 ell;;))
Oe,);liil!e.;,.~ :
fg~ifu,

;;"b,

desires

Yes. she had not said an thing to him.

Examples I. [f only she had not wasted her time

{\!)~~&
@e§~~

@~

@m
2. ;aifu

,;S;S ;S;fuctV....~

~e1Q" a~ tlloW"ID,.)oQ

sal:$J (@lcm~

oSJ4r-

tS@oo)

No. he had said sornetl ing to hun

] wishI bad listened to my father's advice


N" tio©

a6,

~;;n '!

'.;JEf

;S~JOQ,

;Se;jti

g);:) ;;t,oO"D~oo (S"~ ~;:sac5,)


N

"lad thevwon

4.lmpo sible (unfulfilled) conditions ofthe past ~ a~~Q~ Examples I. lf'she bad len earlier she would hove reached at time
@:ill tmo6J1l"ti ~~D ~;;)

Yes. they had won


~~;::D.

~OJ)a rJ';))cfuo~§
~'r

;;]"'to 7\E'JW"1il.
\,·,011

i3e &O~E>.

No. tile had not

O-------~:

.'1, 1·10)-----~.)s~a06X1gsti,;)__o

at)}.

;;:r->t).)

r.o;;~ac5.:J
.. """
...

o-~s.5

aoO~§5~·~~;

III

~"--------O

Hadu1t 0Wy won '!.

o:J"OJ 'i'\~~~0" ¥Its, tneyfffid


1!9'~1fu, ~~.

?
Dcit won

~ASTPERFECT
c

CONTINUOUS TENSE
:~a!ir'~oQ

nvi6~~.

~~~f\o~

~od~~

a.~ ;;S~ ~60~~

~oC~

6o~oS

No, tltei!had won

aifu,
®.;j~§

EJ"~'

Mb~6J bim~? ?

G:l:O ~eM~ aC)~I!.)~Past Perfect Centlnuous Tense:o~~floiS.oS·~.:J's,. I. The baby had been crying Ior five minutes when the nurse attended to

H.ad !fbey re:mifldud ,;y>6J r\J~

her.
@~

tJ-6"C"

IDl&~a1XJ qS6~, ~:fu (ID~) f;DtD g):l;i:tuv oiJatIJ ~~r:SJo;'j 600;6.) a w ~

Yes, they had reminded him


'@.~<SJ,I!!l~~§

2.

1 had been absconding from the classes before I was warned by the lecturer.

03"~/'\)~

tJ-6"1SJ ~cfuaCS:l
? him

a§,:)6oi5
03"e.:J.
3.

~"'iSJBO..;)e.)a ~otS.:J<66!:iJ

'~;:5,)

'~o:Dvs.,

116J

jliaetSo:fuh

e;o~

No, they had not reminded him

e36.:l,

@E)~~

03"':» K:J~

She had been walking for two hour when we found her.

Hadn't they reminded him?


~~~§

~o5JJ.

~~;$J

!3~fY';;3

;$6~

@~ao6

Koi!.:lv~tJJ

;66~~

GOa;6)

03"6J /'\)~

tJcfue3t:J"

Yes, the [lad not reminded ®~<5J,


@6'D§ OY'6J /'U~

;3c1SJe3lfu

No, they had reminded him

Thad been doing my horne work for an bOUT -., . ~~ rio~~~


;;so ~.fu;;So(,;:5)

a~

ti>oGdfuoe3~.

e36J.

@i)~§

OJ"tSJ

/'U~

B-a"tlJ.

She bad been combing her hair fix half an hour


.~.~ ti9t5riOi!.:liJotJJ 6el tSJ~~5"otlJ'> 6:;oc,~oQ;fu

John bad been playing from 5 p.m


;JiSd_ ~dSJo~o5

to 7 1'..111. ill

the evening yesterday.

Kolbel ~oe.

7 Koe:;{') ~6SJ z;o5 @6etr> clS;lJo~~

I had been preparing for the test for a month


~<SJ ;01:)

SSl»'e:l r:Do e, 058ss., 6o:SJt.6<.1>el..""~oeS~.

Wile I was appointed as a correspondent, my sister had been working as a teacher for four years.
~Ifu S6fJ:JoQo~n" ~ei$:J!lJot;j3)~05.J6, ~~S&

"'"

;;;JI>w"AfuJI'll'

oS~

a~

e3;:Son"

~o~;:s".

The balloons 'had been hovering in the sky since morning aW'~ Gtlcruo
is,)oc. ,;)ri;l6;}eiJo

e;oclfu.

--

Examples:

~"FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE


~~~S ~~~6
e~~l1o..:;SJ
~

~eJ~

r$006:v~Ul:
OQ

~~;;::.~o&:oe05.oS=cr;a fl"iO,
~.

®:Jej~fl" CC'

11":0

~eoe ~;S:lc:;llSJ

d~~. - ~~.

l , My mother wLIJ be eighty ill July @o5JJ!=i:>l;l-"'"'E& 80 ;;Jo05~JO"w ~~cm, <

2. 1shall go now
~;fu

~~a~~J[jS~;6.;;
OD

She will arrive after you leave (not, will leave) this place, [fyou .tart (not, will start) at once, you will reach by ten 0' clock. We shall buy it since you need. (not, will stop) it I shall wait till the rain stop, (not, will stop) Unless you work (not, will work) bard you will fail I can't give her the message until I ee (not, shall" see) her Wilen she arrives (not, will. arrive), she will tell us everything She will come whenever she is (not.will be ) called You shall never save any money while you are ( not. will be) :0 extravagant. J I sh a U give her the message as soon as 1 see (no. shall see) he!', 11, I shan lake my umbrealls in case it rains (nor, will rain)

I, 2. 3. 4. 5, 6. 7. 8, 9.

3. I shall see david


~;fu

my way back.

~.... ;6 : ~ l?iSo~;6d' We

oo~

;;);6,)e.l.)

a.~0"~

~ob;;3

a.!&e:l

O"O"~

.IDO"ofuo

a!ilo~

aeF\o$t5J6:l~~

ag)c;~

~~;fu.

Time clause i606:J Present Imlefinite tense ~ 6;,JcilJ->F\o~[l. :

KGSJ~s;

J st person pronouns 1$0:0<6,1, find person pronoun


@o::or:) he,

~& Shall ~ cl;;;Jd\:r>l1owoV.


~;;J(fuolloiJ"D.
@<SrI" @OXI;$

Examples 1. 2,

@cmi6 You ;fuBdilJ ill rd person pronouns


S"!§ ;t):t_Ol1"

I shall not come till the meeting begins. (tot5ori l~'N:So~;6 ~ob~) 1 shall not come till TIlemeeting has begun (tbe3ofi @o1jo~;5
~0".')6)

she, it, they v& wiiJ:::J

Coloured Future : ~ gJe;\.iill11"


®o::o<S 1, We or}

1 st person pronouns

will ~, U nd person pronoun

You o:lJ5o:m III rd


Coloured

person pronouns ®cmi6 he, she, it, theyv8 Future


@~~oE'l.

Shal1~ ~;;)Cfuof\oO~
(1, We)e:JW

1"1;;:).)):)13. ;:::'oaoJoon"e~J..~6 :

(l?S~d.eJo1il

~ol.J)

will

g)

@;,Jcfut>F\Oi:l"®.

Person
I

PronouD
1
we

Colourless I shall
we 'hilll

coloured future
I will write to you from Bombay .... Promise, W~ will wait for you"

Coloured Future
oe.D~;;il.

& J st person

pronouns

will

g,) ~;;J<fuoFloO (~.aJo:$)~)e:J~

;6~1:fu promise (QJ"~;:So), intention (a,t:t1),

Determination

Intention
Future

Coloured

6' U nd person. pronoun (You) ,&<6u,

Ilnd person
(W"11";;)o), -a

pronoun (he, she. it, they) W<6u shall;6) e;;)(fueF\oD;:$~6 ccmpulsron (~6J0l;So), duty (!:l~~,so), restraint {@t:i:><;0),
~W"

promise

We will fight. Determination. II 1Il


YOlL

threat (~Eleo~)

You

will

command

(@a:l)o;6)
61

~kJJ~;fu,

You shall haveit back tomorrow". Promise" He shall. report for duty tomorrow .. command" She shall SIdler for this Threat/Warning They shall depend their
dmy/-Dury/ determination.

Tense in the clauses: after, before, if, since, till, unless, until, when, Whenever, while. incase. as long as, as soon 0$08
oe.u~ o$~oEl ~be.D

He She It They

He will Site will Itwill They will

time, condition 0$j50'" Future Tense


e;,J~F\ot:5O"1:5:J

clau es <6u LoJn60!Joiilb!=i:> 6;;JaL-"F\oD;S~tiJ subordinate clauses 6'

'S'>~c6 ~

,fu~J Fu~ure Tenses»

Simple Present e§r:r> Present Future Tense

Perfect rSJ to;;J03J<>Flot;S;6.:5JJc:::c.. Main Clause

&- L.:J'crl)C:),::Sr);fu.

Future Indefinite
cll;;Scib'>no.::5O"~.

Ten e ~ Imperative

e:90':)6 subordinate

clause ;So6:l

~;:;).)

r;JO

!3O":::J.l a~;fu

I will go for a doctor at once j;S:, ~ob~

Eg : Make sure that everything is in proper order. See that the' work is completed by 10 a.m, Future Action. ;0 1. 2.
~tl)~

t:;"~o gOcJo
OJ

~t"U".~

1will never forget: what: I have seen j;fu .;S.y:~ti (;)"~:::J


~~(iJ;fuo

5"~J. rJ~;;)J._ ~~6Jtl)

;6~.J~~

Present Indefinite Tense WOSO" Eg: My examinations begin tomorrow. Present Continuous Tense~O" Eg: We are leaving this place next week

I shall give you another one

~sS;:Jo O"DE)'S~
.~;:5.)

e~~

I shall go and tell tbe truth to everybody ;5t1 1@06M. :Oa:JoBEO:Je:JO;iJ


,'_"

,3. "Going to" Eg: Let us get into the train. It is going to 'Start. It is going (0 rain, Look at {he clouds 4. M.ay, must ~o~ auxiliary verbs Eg: You ma t get good marks I must go there tomorrow

=s=

I will tell the broker j;6) L~~OS ~~~ 'I shall watch the baby
~;;D

D'Stl"

all:o
e.,S

i5:Jn~~

I shall write a letter


) ~;;i) G~6o

( i5~J§B~~~~ 0jIl~~el:)
He will not be back
(!!!le':Se5J' 8M 0"e3"f.)~) J will be hack in a moment

~~ciJ

We shall meet at 10 0' clock as usual o.'o:!<5..m


as.J<.~Wr1"j

10

rlOII.eJ~

!:ie.::ur:l6tJ.:o

We will take later. ;&.fuJ~0"!Je)

(;:3~ a...S;.;

~~o&

@M oS~r6J)

@::JJS:Jo~~ ~'11"~~

It will not be; easy


~Q ;:JJf.)<\:lon"sol::'i&C)).

I will go home early


~;$:J
9,O~

§ ~o6f.)~dj

I shall call him here

Thedoor eie.::u~

will not lock


a bed on the floor ~O"J~ j~fSJ

~~ @~c.:o sS&~SJ ~f.).)~.;:s:,


I shall get some more curry
~;fu

aof1o ~dS"Z-)l5d::

Twill makeup

;$~ jd~'

oJcs;;5:)

cfue§'>o~ ~6

~rJJ~~<fu ( (YES - NOT TYPE QUES~IONS) Will you be in college tomorrow

I will eat in father's place,

'~o5J
j;fu

N";;5J.rI"e

-&~d'

~otJ<><fu

I will get
~~ej

it later. 6:0:0 6~S:Joe..,"';:5:J

~~ c3~ 5"e3~g
@~;5J.

clloty>;;:ro?

Yes, 1shall be in college tomorrow ;5~

I wil.1 give you mypen

'5~ S"e)e§e

e.o~J";fu.

-~ ..

No, I shan'( be in college tomorrow

'ViII she corne back soon?


@ill

BcD,

;;3;S,;,

:B~ soae§& <2O~;fu


eoC03"? GOc<6J,

~Ij&

001'1 oS~oO'"

Won't you be in college tomorrow

Yes. she will come back soon. I expect so.


@)~tn,lS~

~~ ~~ S"eJe§&
@~;fu,

6~1:S{j ~of\ O'l~oe


'W

Yes. I rhan't be in college tomorrow

No, she

n't

come back soon


@ElnO"6J
SOQn

~c::o 'B~ S"eJ~e?

acD.

(!!I;fu

6;-,'6&

No, I shall be in college tomorrow

e3cD, j;fu E~ S"ae§&

Won't she come back

<2oey>;fu.

Will he be in Chennai in May Ist @)e§~ ;& IrS i:\<5J.cma ~otJ"o ? Yes, He will be in Madras on May Isf. @cQ)rS:>, ~ 1<5
@e§~

~~ ~~Mj ®M CPO'" ? Yes. she won't come back soon. [ expect so. @~<6J, ~;;;'be§~6{j
a5f'1O"~

a;::JJ.cm& ~oey>lil

No, she will come back soon

No, He won't be in Chennai on May lst

e3ciJ,
@6CJ

@<i§6;.

;& 1;:5 i:\i'SJWe? ~ol:llil ~ocC"

BcD. wm

(!!I~

~,'6& u5F\oS;:::Uo&.
0.. _..:

you be ready

by four?

Won't he be in Chennai in M'ay 1 st

1;6 i:lr:lJ.cfu&

?
e.oclil May 1st ~o~CJ

~05) ~enlU

rlotle.lSJ ~l:SOf1" e.O~.;"03" ?

e_

Yes, He won't be in Madras on May Ist, (!!)~;fu, ~


e3tl), @)e§~

Yes. I shall be ready by Ibfu @~:il.


1

Ii'S @6~

a~tfue

;:;5;5:);3"'enI"U XOe.:H!.l1b ~tSol1l' ~o~ifu ; Q ~;:i, ;;:i"wr.) Ko6:le>fu fu6ol1" eoti;:i, Q

No, He will be in Chennaion ;& 1;6 E~cm&

-0.

I. shan't be ready by four

e3tS:l.
~~

Shall [boil you an egg? jrS:>

Won1t )o'OUbe ready by four? W"e.ulU rlobe>~~gof1" GOCOJ'" ?

5t3J a.S LrU~~ se;go;jCJ'" ?


f::;<f?J
N"~

Yes, you will boil me an egg.


~~;fu.
0,

Yes, I shan't be ready by foul' 6MoLU @o,i)<6J, ;§;;$:)


, 10,

e...l:l' (6l6~ c

N"e.:Jru

Kobe;t3J fu~oi'1'" eo6;fu

you won't boil me an egg. <J"'t3Je..,S JlU~;:i, e.e;so~Q)~ boil you an egg.

1 shall be ready by four


;:;:;>w(\)

a6J. ~~)
Shan't] ;§;s, ~~

e)6J, ~;5:)

Kobe.l~

~6or1"

eoeJorS:>

e...S

~~;:S:.

~Mo,:5c6~
all

Yes•.you won't boil me


@)~;:S;J,

egg,
e..!§oL'ic66J. 0

f::;~ ~S:l eA (6J6:il c ~~

No, you will boil me an egg a6J, f::;~ a..S ~"06;5:) Ge.~o,jJ

'"

,~t O-~ao~~5",---;
119!i;-~'--------O

4.

'I h ill b lnt 'ewingJ'ob applicants Don't telephone me at 9 ,00 .. s a .. e in eTV] ,


;::r>~

<It

!FUTURE CONTINUO.US TENSE)


e~CDJoFlo~ ~o~~~
wOJ,"\)ei,.., GobJob::JaoS,?e.:>l:G ~

that time, 9 rio.

t)SJ ~.:'5 jc:lSJiti~.

es «);&65Jo&

<5;&

®t;5s6gv;:)J

[';),ob6.""~

: ~

~!}O{;e&

a,$

~::J (<;>~"""~ r:J<5Joilo5.:lo6)

;3~ 5. When

@oeJo~.

r go to his

room. be will be studying

T ense ~ G05"m.fI.?~, ~

~to ~~::J Keg ~~;6oJ;tiJ@)~6

.t:5~~~

Go~6

Exa III pies :


1. 1 shall be writing the examination by this time I.oUl0rrO\I.·

( YES·~NO TYPE QIJESTIONS Will she be sleeping when you arrlve home
~~ aoe5§

e~ ~ ;0~~~13 -a~ ~

~~ oS5~ ~~

~otJo~.

2.

I shall be eating may lunch by this lime tomorrow ;0oSJoiP>~§ ;:5;6) ~ea;::)o

j6:J15oJ.,)d§ ~~
aoe5§

f.ll§5~~

eO~JoO"?

a~
;:;~

fi;oe.Jn~

Yes she will be sleeping when @~tSJ


~;fn

r arrive horne.
@fu

3. 1 shall be typing letters by this tune tomorrow

;:3~i'y6:l

~lfS~~

Go·tbJoo.

ti~ ~ ;6oSJ~iOs
Goingto ;:3;6,

~~C"w ~~

GOeJc;:S:)

No, she won't be sLeeping when I arrive home, e)l':5J, ~Cfu 'aoe5§;5~;6;;S'yC:l
~fu

.: going to ~ iJoe:n .~ Tenseo


~OB'"

fi;05(fu<>f\o<S<5t$:;J~'

::JlfS~rua

GoQ6:J

'Eg : 1 am going to 'be working all day tomorrow

Won't she be sleeping when you arrive bome

ti~

;:}~Bm)f&;~ e~;6). clauses cll~J.~t5J Main

tl~ C\otSs ~6:Jc:S;:'.)eSs ~;;:O ::Jl§&JS6.Jo- ttoQO"'?


Yes, she won'!. be sleep.ing when 'I arrive home.
@~::6J, ~<SJ
9,Q€) §

Two clauses: Future Continuous tense KeJ ;;:J"1§~;.fu:,;$oc$) oo~


t3Q)~f\oW"D.

:;3~c:SoJ.:?6

t$~

1'Jl6~~

6oct»,

Clause & Future Continuous .Kl, ubordi:I1,8tecLauseef Present Indefinite ~ S


Eg: When she comes here. David will be waiting for her
C!S~

No, she will be sleeping when I arrive home.

a6J. -;;3;.fu

9,oe.3~ ~.::5J<S;;SJt$l

~;il:J

1'JlfS~~

GQ~oe.

<9,S6,cl!iJ <6q,y:5oJ;C:l.

<3:JEi @lciilg9;:Jq;3Dt5J'>t,l,:!
g)O"S~e) L§se5 ~.6~ €5.Jot';e..i·";;;§ ;;'3~6J~<6.E "'-

GOe.':i'''©

When we go to school, the students will be playing cricket


.;));;:)0

;0.y>&.C)J~ ~~J;:S~~'
10 ;:n;:.)~

fJoe.Jn6J

I,

We shall be going

see the movie in the evening

;zy,ctiJoiic ~~
2. The sky
(!!3S".;30 IS

dark. It will be raining by the time we are ready to leave


;fu;6o ~f}Ji)5<6t;;<>~§~~;;5J~~~~oJJ~ oS~o

;6$di1" ci>~t)_ eotTIoE:!.

!fuci;~

3.

We shall be waiting foryou right here when

YOlI

return at Ii p.m.
~!f;;:)o

fJ~
~~

~II

6 l"Iobe_)~

~5f\ <S~J;:S;;SJe3§ ;&,~

~sJ,a J6J6:J

GOv;;m.
.(;\1',

0;-· ~------"~

120~"""'_--~s;5a~§'.i~-O

L
;;So..)

I shaH have taken my bath before the food is ready

FUTURE PERFCT TENSE)


: (',f~~6&

tVe:l;5o ~~o

@&us~oa ~c6~j6o <61'10 ;6oSe>i6J l?~

d~ ;6~~.
tl!a"~;6j.

e~~,f\oiSJ;;5oC$c:iJ~

~gt:~QS)(tiJ"~§ (cSuoB)

By next month, !shall have written half of the novel

a..S:

<:j~

oSjJ ;'3o!S:l,~cfu

~~@;:S6~ t:)~.:?b~
;J"U"~g

ea Tense e e~ca..""FI~I:SJ.
.:5E>,g) Goey.<6.i.

1. 1 shall have read •. e novel by next week. h ;;3r:iJrS;0f.)~ 2. 3, I shall have been here for six years by next march .;);3J <6Jo5J§

"iLl you have cleaned the room) e rme . 1:>@@~o,) ~6J.~~ c6;fuctiY>:o§ !;)~ ,~5 ~@;:;!6{'J, eot,.-,...,..?

(YES ~ I'ilOTTYPE QUESTlONS ) b r rh t'· the

. esrs arrwe ?

~cS:> es~c ~':5J ~o<:Se{JO"'ru 6:>o.c esatF;fu


t0

Yes,l will have cleaned the, mom by the time the guests arrive
@~~.

I shall have reached Cbennai by c3~ecSdSJo::J§

ll10Q"ow morning
e~;;)'y~

@3~ru

;3t»!;.b~ ~~ctiJ"~s

~;fu. ~E>

-t:l§1<Ji1n boe.P;;))
arrive
d}oli;;l:i.

;;3~ ;fulrJ"lJJ ;je

6loeJt;;:50.

No I won't have cleaned the ro~m by the time j\leguestlS


~/S).

Two Clauses .: Future Tense ,ie; o:l"S~cSurSo6:; Doli! Clauses Main Clause I. 2.

l1!Ja~w j6J!3.:l~

~;fuc:JWo:O§ ;5iG;)

rio -ID®;;}l5D

,,g Future Perfect Tense D, Subordinate Clause if Present

Won't youha.ve cleaned the room by the time the guests arrive?
@a6Jw ~6J~j
;6;fuo$J"::J§ ~~

Indefinite Tense ~ t;~d'u_"F\oW"v Before we reach the station, the train will have left the platform ~;;m

Ke, ~~;;}6D

e>o~o::r>?

Yes, I won't have cleaned the room by the lime the gut'st'> arrive
@)~;6.),

"2<;S.<'Js 05cSuoB.:ee:v

~eS~6o~

,g)c~ e.oe:ooo

@@1ihe:vi36J!3.:l~

;:)o5Jo:SJ"~§ .~;:.D

K& ~191;S6D

eoc$;S:;

[f you start now. you will ha ve completed the work before it grows

No.1 will have cleaned the room by the time-the guests arrive
e3t$),

dark

@O~e.D

j'6J!3.:l~ ~<fuei5Jo~§

~;S:;

KE> %il.¢;;}6D eci~::5J.

tl~ <9.~til8.)dSJe»aai8 bse3 ~~soS»oa


~~ @~~~

~4l ~~.l.'~Q ~oilj')f.)~. ~d<5"~ .il~D eoe.."'~.

3. Before you go to see him be will have left the place ~t&~:J8 "3f.1J.,;:r!JS:l <fu)Oa, @8t$:) ~

(~~J~~e.J~~~~~~]
I shall have done all these exercises before the teacher comes.

e5.::5o

o:S;jJ~oa

.i5~

* t!!)~~f.)<6:1

;YJ"~ t~J GotF~.


t011l0ll"OW

lie will have reached Chennai by this lime

"6~ ~ r:J~di""~se_,~ @f.§dJ;3;5ddJ:i~l5is.,~


~ f.§cSuJ6 ;;5~ c6o;;)~,":l0o~§;;3)c.~i5& e:§;$

~oe....""G:l

My brother will have completed his course in Medicine by next year.

s05j;fu o)og ~;(n§",::J eO~..."t$:); j

You will have heard this news already


!;)~ ~;:;D~"§ ~
.:;J"~;).

~~rlloe....""~.

-~

O,_..------.....;j'122~~·

--~.,~a~g55..,-O

~UTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE]


~;;Sa3Jol'lciS:l ~c~ti~~: t:;o~otS~ Examples: 1. 2. I shall have been writing the no el till next Friday i0v1i.J~ 9.~.sro~!\) Future Time r5S:l a..~
o:Jgj

e:l6:JKJllio

~ tense ~ tll;;Scil.Ff\~6:J.

(~5 ;;J"~so&a6J)

cS~J ~L~;;?60

~16J. ;S;6eJ;;i) ~~ &Oa ~o€J'>(6), He will have been teaching, fur two years by April ;;~~ ~e'l§ ~o1Siil ootiJ:;5o;5e§jO"w ;;}>e.:o&~r5
CStl~

o~ ~oe. eotJ<>~

( ®ljS~~~o
1. 2.

~oi!QS~~~~~S~e,)
~O!!bJ

ego2)iP, )

I shall have been complerirrg

twenty years of service by next July, 16B,s)fu ~~

oSaJ <:P'E <J"&l~ 75ifu 20

;5<0J~ E.o6.)<fu,.
~o6:J6:J,

By 2002lhey will have been living in Paris for six year. 2002 <JO!I ;::j"ej§ iiJ"m ~B~66 6 ;:SOIlG) iJoe.:o ~il~~
(YES - NOT TYPE QUESTIONS

Will you have been playing cricket hy this time tomorrow? B~ ~. ;:.J~c:rb>:as ~6:J ~s6 (!!idJ~ <!'iolbJ'> e;oe.J'>O" ? Yes, I will have been playing cricket by this time tomorrow. ®<:JJ;6), ~rS:J a<0 ~ ~~dSJo:Os lsseJ (!;!l~6Y> ci;oew eoeJ'><SJ
No. r won ejt5J, ;:;)<fu

-a~

'I;

have been playing cricket by this time tomorrow. ~j;fudSJo:0g @seJ e:91:&)~ eobP d'o 0 6;6",
to6:J

Won't you have been playing cricket by this lime tomorrow'!

5'~ ·61~<6Jcfu1>:Os
(ID~r5:J, ;:;);6" e.lt5J, i5~

Yes, 1 won't have beenplaying

-a~ ~a

@stJ g~h 6JobJ'> ao~O" ? cricket by this lime tomorrow.

:6~cfuo:::l1~

~seS' @C:Jb

C:;obY>

606;6)

No, I will have been playing

nickel by rhl lime

l1l110n'OW,

c3<ill ~ ~~~~S.

@se3 ~~h

dsotmn ffioe.Y>ifu,

I .~~

OI--""'-------~1:r24.H;.---~s£i~~g§~~