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π.

π ,

π

π = + [ , ].

π π = ( ).

π

π .

, → − π π = + [ , ] . π π = ( )

π = + [ , ]

π = + [ , ]

R = { ; , , }

−→ π

=

π

:

, R

= + .

= + + ,

, R.

π ,

= + + ,

, R, π.

∈ R − = + . = + + , , ∈ R . π ,

R = { ; , , }

−→ π

=

π

:

, R

= + .

= + + ,

, R.

π ,

= + + ,

, R, π.

∈ R − = + . = + + , , ∈ R . π ,

R = { ; , , }

−→ π

=

π

:

, R

= + .

= + + ,

, R.

π ,

= + + ,

, R, π.

∈ R − = + . = + + , , ∈ R . π ,

=

=

=

+ + ,

+

+

+ ,

+ ,

+ ,

= +

, , π :

=

+ + , = + + ,

= + + ,

, R.

, π :  = + + , = + + ,  = + +

−→

= , ,

( , , ) = .

= .

+ + +

= ,

+ +

= ,

−→ = − , , ( − , , ) = . − − − =

π = ( )

−→

−→

= = , = = . π,

=

+ ( ) + ( ) ,

, R

= ( )

+

+ ,

,

R,

= + ( ) + ( )

= + ( ) + ( , )

, = + ( ) + ( ) ,

, R

− − − = .
= .

) + ( − ) ,   , ∈ R − − − − −

= .

( , , ), ( , , ) ( , , )

+ +

= .

= . ( , , ) , ( , , ) ( , , ) +

π,

π

∈ π, ⊥ → − π

( ) π

−→ ⇔

< , >= .

, , R ( , , ), ( , , ),

( ) + (

) + ( )=

+ + + = .

, ,

) , ( , , ) , ( − ) + ( − ) + (

( ) :

( ) :

( ) :

=

=

=

π

π

π

( ) :

( ) :

( ) :

=

=

=

, , R


π( ) :

+

+

=

π( ) :

+ + =

π( ) :

+ +

=

R    π ⊥ ( ) : + + = π ⊥ ( )

( ) :

( ) :

( ) :

=

=

=

π

π

π

( ) :

( ) :

( ) :

=

=

=

, , R


π( ) :

+

+

=

π( ) :

+ +

=

π( ) :

+ +

=

   π ⊥ ( ) : + + = π ⊥ ( ) :

( ) :

( ) :

( ) :

=

=

=

π

π

π

( ) :

( ) :

( ) :

=

=

=

, , R


π( ) :

+

+

=

π( ) :

+ + =

π( ) :

+ +

=

R    π ⊥ ( ) : + + = π ⊥ ( )

+

π :

π :

π

=

+ =

+ =

:

π :

+ + = .

 + π : π : π  = + =  + = : π

+

π :

π :

π

=

+ =

+ =

:

π :

+ + = .

 + π : π : π  = + =  + = : π

(π ) :

+

+

+ =

,

(π ) :

+

+

+ = .

= ;

=

=

=

=

=

= .

;

+ = , ( π ) : + + + = . ⇔ = ; ⇔

(π ) :

+

+

+ =

,

(π ) :

+

+

+ = .

( π ) : + + + = , ( π ) : + + +
( π ) : + + + = , ( π ) : + + +

ϕ ϕ

( , , ) ( , , ).

ψ =

+ +

+

+

+

+

ϕ = π ψ.

+ + = .

, ) ( , , ) . ψ = + + + + + + ϕ

,

= ;

π π = ;

π

=

= [ , ]

.

∈ ∈ → − , = ; π ∩ π = ; ∈ → − π

,

= ;

π π = ;

π

=

= [ , ]

.

∈ ∈ → − , = ; π ∩ π = ; ∈ → − π

= + [ ]

= + [ ] ( ) ∈ ⇔ ∈ → − −→ ⇔ − = ,

( )

−→

= ,

= + ,

R.

R.

= + , ∈ R.
= + ,
∈ R.

( , , ) = + + , ( , , ) ( , , ), :


= +

= +

,

= +

R.

=

(= ) .

=

+ ( ) + ( )

= = . ,
=
= .
,

= ,

=

−→

= =

= ( ) + ,

R;

= (

= (

= (

)

+ , + ,

 

)

R;

)

+ ,

=

=

 

.

 

∈ R ; − ) + , − − = =   .   − −

= π π

= π ∩ π ( π ) : ( π ) : + + + =

(π ) :

(π ) :

+ +

+ = ,

( ) ( ) +

+ +

+ = ,

+( ) +( ) =

( ) + ( ) = ,

+

+

+ =

+

+

+ =

) = ( ) + ( ) = , + + + = + + +

= .

× , ( , , )

( , , )

:

=

=

,

:

=

=

,

:

=

=

.

= . × , ( , , ) ( , , ) : = = ,

= .

× , ( , , )

( , , )

:

=

=

,

:

=

=

,

:

=

=

.

= . × , ( , , ) ( , , ) : = = ,

= .

× , ( , , )

( , , )

:

=

=

,

:

=

=

,

:

=

=

.

= . × , ( , , ) ( , , ) : = = ,

:

+ +

=

=

:

:


=

=

=

=

, ,

,

= +

.

R

: − − − − + + = = : :    = =

π

= [ , ]

∈ → − π = [ , ] ⊥ → − × .

× .

∈ → − π = [ , ] ⊥ → − × .

( , , )

:

:

=

+

+

+

=

=

=

+

=

= , = ,

+ +

:

=

+

:

:

( , , ) ( , , ),

.

=

+

=

. .

× = + + ,

:

− + − = = . −
+
=
=
.

= + [ ] = + [ ]

= + [ ] = + [ ] −−−→ −−−→ , , −−−→ , ⇔ (

−−−→

−−−→

, ,

−−−→

,

( , ,

) = .

.

+ [ ] = + [ ] −−−→ −−−→ , , −−−→ , ⇔ ( ,

⇔ ( , , − ) = ( , , − ) = ( )
⇔ ( , , − )
=
( , , − )
= ( )
×
=
( )
=
⇔ ×
× ( − )
=
( )
=
⇔ ×
× ( − )
=

= + [ ] π = +

π ,

π .

[ ] π = + → − π , ⊥ → − π . π ⇔

π < , >= < , >

π = { } ⇔< , >

−→

−→

= ;

π < , >= ;

= .

, > ∩ π = { } ⇔ < , > −→ −→ = ; ⊂

π : + + = .

− = + = − − . − + : = . − =
= + = −
− .
+
:
=
.
− =

( , − ). , −→ ⊥ →− .
(
, −
).
,
−→ ⊥ →− .

π : + + = .

− + − = = − . + : − = . − =
+
=
=
− .
+
:
=
.
− =

( , − ). , −→ ⊥ →− .
(
, −
).
,
−→ ⊥ →− .

π : + + = .

− + − = = − . + : − = . − =
+
=
=
− .
+
:
=
.
− =

( , − ). , −→ ⊥ →− .
(
, −
).
,
−→ ⊥ →− .

π : + + = .

− + − = = . − + : − = . − =
+
=
=
.
+
:
=
.
=

( , − ). , −→ ⊥ →− .
(
, −
).
,
−→ ⊥ →− .

π, − + : = = , π : − + + = . −
π,
+
:
=
=
, π
: − +
+ = .

π π π. π.

+

+

+

= , = .

− π π π. π. − + − − + + = , = .

π, − + : = = , π : − + + = . −
π,
+
:
=
=
, π
: − +
+ = .

π π π. π.

+

+

+

= , = .

− π π π. π. − + − − + + = , = .

π, + = + − π : + − = ; : = ; −
π,
+
= +
π : + − = ; :
=
;
= +
:
=
;
π :
+ +
− = .

,

( ) (− , − ); (− , − , ); , ( , ,
( ) (− , −
); (− , − , );
,
(
,
, − );
π, = + − π : + − = ; : + = ; −
π,
= +
π :
+ − = ;
:
+
=
;
= +
:
=
;
π :
+ +
− = .

,

( ) (− , − ); (− , − , ); , ( , ,
( ) (− , −
); (− , − , );
,
(
,
, − );

− = − − − = − − ( ) = ( ) . −
= −
= −
( )
=
( )
.
=

( + , + , + ).

,

( + , + , + )

( , , ).

,

π π , π ( )

( ) ( ), π ( ) ( )

( ).

.

=

+

.

=

, π ( ) ( ) ( ) , π ( ) ( ) ( )

− = − − − = − − ( ) = ( ) . −
= −
= −
( )
=
( )
.
=

( + , + , + ).

,

( + , + , + )

( , , ).

,

π π , π ( )

( ) ( ), π ( ) ( )

( ).