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ECHIPAMENT DE PROTECIE, COMANDA CONTROL TRANSFORMATOARE DIN STAIILE ELECTRICE DE TRANSFORMARE CONTROL, PROTECTION EQUIPMENT FOR TRANSFORMER OF ELECTRICAL

L SUBSTATION
Alexandru VASILIEVICI
Universitatea Politehnica din Timioara, Romnia, 1900, Timioara, Bd. V. Prvan nr. 2, Tel.: +40-256-403229, fax: +40-256-403214, e-mail: sandi@et.utt.ro

Florin BALASIU
Transelectrica- ST Sibiu, Romnia, Bd. Coposu, nr.1-3, Tel.: +40-269-207103, fax: +40-269-207107, e-mail: florin@sts .ro

Gheorghe MORARU
SMART Sibiu, Romnia, Bd. Coposu, nr.1-3, Tel.: +40-269-207090 fax: +40-269-207071, e-mail: misu@smartsb .ro

Rezumat: Lucrarea prezint principalele funcii de protecie i automatizare necesare ntr-un echipament digital pentru a proteja corect un transformator de putere 110 / 20 kV. Verificarea, n laborator, a terminalului numeric TPT 100 este apoi prezentat. O atenie deosebit se acord, n lucrare, simulrii n laborator a saturrii transformatoarelor de curent i verificarea comportrii terminalului numeric TPT 100 n aceste condiii. Rezultatele verificrilor i simulrilor din laborator asupra TPT 100 sunt prezentate n ncheiere mpreuna cu concluziile autorilor. Cuvinte cheie: Protecia diferenial, terminale numerice de proteie, TPT 100.

Abstract: The paper presents the main protection functions and automatisations needed in the digital equipment for correct action in protecting a 110/20 kV power transformer. Is also presented the lab tests for TPT 100 digital protection. A special part of paper consists the lab simulation of CT saturation and verifying the TPT 100 behaviour in such conditions. In the last part are presented the lab verifying and simulating results and the final conclusions of the authors about TPT 100. Keywords: Differential protection, numerical protection terminal, TPT100

1. Introducere Releele de protecie bazate pe microprocesoare, frecvent denumite relee numerice sau terminale numerice sunt utilizate pe scar larg pentru protejarea LEA de transport sau transformatoarelor de putere din staiile de nalt tensiune. Utilizarea mai frecvent, comparative cu releele electromecanice sau statice se datoreaz unor avantaje pe care le ofer. Printre acestea, comunicaia n reele locale dedicate la nivelul celulei i la nivelul staiei, interfaa de comunicaie om-main ar fi printre cele mai importante. Funcia de autosupraveghere este una din cele mai importante pentru optimizarea mentenanei proteciilor. Totusi, integrarea la acelai nivel a multiplelor funcii de protecie comand i autosupraveghere conduc la reducerea substanial a volumului de circuite secundare din staie, reducerea probabilitii de apariie a erorilor umane i imbuntete compatibilitatea electromagnetic. Grupele de seturi de reglaje multiple ofer posibilitatea integrrii releului n configuraia actual a staiei i sistemului energetic. Soluia uzual folosit n acest caz este schimbarea grupei de reglaje fie prin legatura de comunicaie de la PC, fie prin utilizarea intrrilor opto-izolate dedicate acestui scop. Neajunsurile sunt: nevoia de ingineri protecioniti foarte ndemanatici i experimentai, setri mai multe de calculat i transferat apoi releului, analiza mai n detaliu a sistemului i multe probe de efectuat cu releul. Cantitatea de documentaie tehnic care trebuie studiat i aplicat este mult mai mare comparativ cu cea pentru releele clasice. Cerina configurrii releului este, poate, cea mai dificil problem pentru inginerul protecionist cnd are de-a face cu protecii

1. Introduction Microprocessor based relay protection, often called numerical relays or numerical protection terminals are used on large scale to protect the overhead transmission lines or power transformers in high voltage substations. The extended use of such devices is due to some certain advantages when compared to the old electro-mechanical protection relays or even to the static protection relays. Among these, communication in a local dedicated area network at bay level and at the substation level as well as the humanmachine communication interface is perhaps the most important. The self-supervision function is another important function that optimizes the protection maintenance. Nevertheless, integration of multiple protection functions and even control and supervision functions provide reduced size of wires in the substation, thus reducing also the probability of human mistakes and improving electromagnetic compatibility. Multiple setting groups offer the possibility to fit the relay to the current substation or power system configuration. The typical solution in this case is to change setting groups either via a PC communication link or by use of multiple optical-isolator inputs dedicated to change among setting groups. The drawback is the need of more skilled protection engineers, more settings to be calculated and transferred to the relay, more detailed system analysis and intensive tests of the relay. Even the large amount of technical documentation to be studied and applied represents more than usually needed for classical relays. The need of numerical relay configuration is perhaps the most difficult task for a protection engineer

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numerice. Pe de-alt parte aceast facilitate ofer largi posibiliti de integrare a releelor numerice n orice fel de aplicaie. Configurarea cere mult timp pentru implementarea i testarea atent a releului. 2. TPT 100 - echipament numeric pentru 110 kV Principalele caracteristici propuse pentru terminalul TPT100 [1, 2,3]: Schema de protecie pentru transformator cu dou nfurri; Protecie diferenial cu frnare cu sensibilitate i selectivitate mare; Protecie diferenial instantanee mpotriva defectelor interne violente; Protecia diferenial include o caracteristic cu una sau dou pante; Eliminarea automat a componentei homopolare; princiliu de functionare bazat pe blocarea acionrii la armonica 2 i 5 n condiii de oc de curent i supraexcitaie; elementul de recunoatere a armonicii a 5-a emite o alarm pentru prevenirea operatorului despre condiiile de supraexcitaie; protecii maximale de curent instantanee i temporizate; protecia maximal / minimal de tensiune temporizate; functia de DRRI activat n cazul refuzului de declanare a bateriei de condensatoare; intrri optocuploare pentru monitorizarea funcionrii proteciilor exterioare; funcii de masur i afiare local; funcia de msur i afiare la distan; funcia de nregistrator de evenimente; faciliti de testare; posibilitatea comunicaiei la distan; funcia de continu autosupraveghere. 3. Verificarea TPT 100 in laborator Verificrile executate n laborator asupra echipamentului de protecie, automatizare i msur s-au efectuat n concordan cu normativele n vigoare. Verificrile au cuprins totalitatea funciilor implementate n cadrul echipamentului [4]. n fig. 1 este prezentat schema montajului utilizat pentru verificarea funciilor de protecie maximal de curent i tensiune.
I - ART3 I

when dealing with numerical relays. Although this feature gives large possibilities to fit numerical relays to any kind of application, configuration takes a lot of time to be implemented and to be carefully tested. 2. TPT 100 - numerical equipment for 110 kV Principal characteristics of proposed terminal TPT 100 [1, 2, 3]: protection schemes for two or three windings; percentage restraint differential protection function with high sensitivity and selectivity; instantaneous differential protection for heavy internal faults in the transformer; fixed or variable percentage restraint differential protection function including a single or a dual slope characteristic; automatic zero-sequence component removal; second harmonic and fifth harmonic blocking principle of operation for magnetising inrush and over excitation conditions; the fifth harmonic recognition element issues an alarm to prevent the operator about over excitation conditions; instantaneous and time delayed over current protection functions; time delayed over / under voltage protection functions; breaker failure protection functions activated in case of shunt capacitance breaker failure; several opto-isolated inputs to monitories operation of external protections; local measurement and display function; remote display of measurements; event recording function; disturbance recording functions; testing facilities; remote communication capabilities; continuous self-supervision function. 3. TPT 100 laboratory tests The laboratory tests for numerical protection, automation and measurement terminal was made in concordance with current normatives. The tests consist in all functions applied for numerical terminal [4]. Fig. 1 presents the mounting diagram for overcurrent and overvoltage functions tests.
TPT100

IR IY IB N
U - ART3

7 8 9 10 11 12

U 1 2 3 5 4 6

TPT100

UR UY UB N

Fig. 1. Montajul de verificare TPT 100 protecia maximal de curent / tensiune Fig. 1. Mounting diagram for tests overcurrent / overtension functions

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n Fig. 2 este prezentat schema montajului utilizat pentru verificarea funciei de protecie diferenial utiliznd un simulator de ntreruptor realizat tot cu un terminal numeric de protecie.
TPT100

Fig. 2 presents the mounting diagram for testing the differential protection function using an circuit breaker simulator made with an numerical terminal too.

Trip R,S,T
DO1

SEL-387
2 IN102 Declansare R IN103 Declansare S IN104 Declansare T OUT102 Poz - R OUT103 Poz - S OUT104 Poz - T

A2

A R T 3

C2

OUT106 IN101 Conectat R & S & T Anclansare OUT105 Pres scazuta

Fig. 2. Montajul de verificare TPT 100 protecia diferenial utiliznd un simulator de ntreruptor Fig. 2. Mounting diagram for differential functions tests with circuit breaker simulator

n Fig. 3 este prezentat graficul caracteristicii de lucru a proteciei maximale de curent faza S de pe partea de m.t.
Protectia maximala m.t. Faza S treapta 1 [IS>>]
50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19

Fig.3 presents the working characteristic graphic for overcurent protection for S phase on low tension part.
Caracteristica TPT 100 faza T p1=0,3;p2=0,6
9 8 7
IOP (lucru) [A]

Iregl Il [%]

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10
IRT (franare) [A]

Fig. 3. Caracteristica de lucru protecie maximal de curent faza S m.t. Fig. 3. Working characteristic for overcurrent protection medium voltage phase S

15

20

25

Fig. 4. Caracteristica de lucru protecie diferenial Fig. 4. Working characteristic for differential protection

n figura 4 este prezentat caracteristica de lucru obinut la verificarea funciei de protecie diferenial n laborator. 4. Breviar Este de dorit ca saturarea TC s nu aib loc n perioada n care releul de protecie msoar valorile de defect. n acest caz TC trebuie s fie supradimensionate. Supradimensionarea este influenat de amplitudinea curentului de defect, de constanta de timp primar a sistemului i de amplitudinea componentei aperiodice. n plus fluxul remanent i sarcina secundar trebuie luate n considerare la dimensionarea TC. pentru releele numerice, care furnizeaz o sarcin pur rezistiv pentru TC, constanta de timp secundar nu este aa de important pentru dimensionarea TC. Trebuie de asemenea spus c, amplitudinea componentei aperiodice este dependent de comutaiile din unda de tensiune. Considerm circuitul echivalent, tipic, pentru bucla de defect, artat n figura 5, pentru calcularea componentelor periodice i tranzitorii a curentului [6], unde: E valoarea tensiunii electromotoare; S comutator; R, L rezistena i inductana circuitului; i(t) curentul de sarcin dup nchiderea circuitului. Curentul de defect este format din componenta periodic i componenta aperiodic ca n relaia (1):

Fig. 4 presents the working characteristic rised at differential protection lab testing. 4. Basic theory background It is desired that CT saturation should not occur during the period of time the protection relay is carrying out the measurement. In this case the CT has to be over dimensioned. The over dimensioning is influenced by fault current magnitude, primary system time constant and DC component magnitude. In addition flux remanence and the duty cycle have to be considered when dimensioning the CT. For numerical relays, that provide a pure secondary resistive burden for the CT, the secondary time constant is no more so important for CT over dimensioning. It has to be noticed that the DCcomponent magnitude is dependent on the switching instant on the voltage wave. Lets consider the equivalent circuit of a typical fault loop as shown in Figure 5, to calculate the steady state and transient components of the current [6], where: E sin-wave e.m.f.; S switch; R, L resistance, inductance of the circuit; i(t) current flow after switching on. The fault current consists of a steady-state component and a transient one:

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Fig. 5. Equivalent circuit for transient fault current calculation Fig. 5. Schema circuitului echivalent pentru calculul curentului de defect tranzitoriu Fig. 6. Fault current with transient component Fig. 6. Curentul de defect cu componente tranzitorii
i (t ) = 2 I sin ( t ) + sin e L P = R L tan = R t P

(1) (2)
(3)

unde: I valoarea efectiva a curentului periodic; P constanta de timp primar a sistemului; = , este defazajul ntre tensiune i curent, iar este faza iniial a undei de tensiune n momentul ntregirii circuitului; =2 f, unde f este frecvena sistemului. Constanta primar i unghiul de faz sunt definite n relaiile (2) i (3). Pentru un circuit reactiv ideal, 90. Curentul maxim este obinut pentru = 90 cu = 0, care are loc la momentul n care valoarea instantanee a tensiunii este zero. Pentru = 90, tensiunea este la valoarea maxim, iar componenta tranzitorie dispare. De exemplu n figura 6 este prezentat variaia curentului de defect n prezena valorii maxime a componentei tranzitorii pentru un circuit pur reactiv avnd constanta de timp primar 30 ms i = 0.

where: I RMS steady-state current; P primary system time constant; = , is the phase shift between voltage and current and is the phase instant on the voltage wave when switching on. =2 f, f - rated system frequency. The primary time constant and the phase angle are defined by (2) and (3) For a basically reactive circuit, 90. The maximum current comes out for = 90 that is for = 0, that is at the instant the voltage is zero. For = 90, that is for the instant the voltage passes the maximum, the transient component disappears. As an example, Figure 6 shows the fault current in the presence of the maximum transient component for a pure reactive circuit with a primary time constant of 30 ms and = 0.

Fig. 7. CT equivalent diagram Fig. 7. Schema echivalenta TC 4.1. TC i curentul de defect tranzitoriu Schema echivalenta din figura 7 poate reprezenta TC, unde: R2, L2 sarcina secundar total; L0 inductana principal. Bazndu-ne pe circuitul echivalent al TC i innd cont de curentul de magnetizare putem obine consecutiv relaiile (4) i (5). 4.1. CT and transient fault current The equivalent diagram shown in Figure 7 can represent the CT, where: R2, L2 total secondary burden; L0 main inductance. Based on the CT equivalent diagram and taken into account the magnetizing current we obtain consecutively the relations (4) and (5).

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di0 di (t ) = R2 i2 (t ) + L2 2 (4) dt dt di d L0 0 = R2 ( i1 i0 ) + L2 ( i1 i0 ) dt dt (5) di0 (t ) 1 di (t ) 1 + i0 (t ) = q 1 + i1 (t ) dt S dt S unde: where: L + L2 L0 L2 L ; S = 0 q= 2 R R L0 + L2 L0 Prin introducerea relaiei (1) n ecuaia (5) putem obine Now, by introducting relation (1) in equation (5) we urmtoarea relaie: obtain: t 1 1 di0 (t ) 1 + i0 (t ) = q sin e P + cos( t ) + ^ S P I dt e(t ) = L0

t 1 sin e P + sin ( t ) = S -t

= sin e + iar prin integrare obinem relaia (6)


i0 (t ) = I sin
^

q 1 + P S

+ q cos(t ) +

sin (t ) and by integration:

P q S S P

2 t 1 + (q S ) 1 + (q S ) ^ + I sin( + + ) e S + I sin(t ) 2 2 1 + ( S ) 1 + ( S ) 2 ^

(6)

cu tg = q S i tg = S . Sarcina secundar a TC este de cele mai multe ori rezistiv n cazul conectrii releelor numerice i atunci q 0 , = 0 i
1 + ( S ) ( S ) .
2 2

with tg = q S and tg = S . The CT secondary burden is almost resistive in case of connecting numerical relays and then q 0 , = 0 and
1 + ( S ) ( S ) .
2 2

Ecuaia (6) devine:

The equation (6) becomes:

i 0 (t ) = I sin

t P t e + e S P
S P

( S )
+ 1

I sin ( + + ) e
^

+
(7)

( S )2

I sin (t )
The transient component maximum value is obtained for sin ( t ) = 1 and (7) is more simple.

Valoarea maxim a componentei tranzitorii se obine pentru sin ( t ) = 1 i (7) este mult mai simpl.

t t P t S 1 e sin ( + + ) e S e P + sin ( ) ^ S P S i0 (t ) = I 1 + ( S )

(8)

Conform definiiei factorul tranzient de supradimensionare (KT) pentru TC este dat de relaia (9). nlocuind putem obine relaia (10).
KT ( t ) =

Assuming the definition of the transient over dimensioning factor (KT) for the CT given by the relation (9). Then we obtain relation (10)
i0 ( t ) i0 p max
t + sin( + ) e S + 1

(9) (10)

K T (t ) = sin

S P S P

t t S e e P

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Pentru constanta de timp secundar a TC S =

L0 0.5 s R

care constituie valori uzuale, 900 i n cele mai defavorabile condiii ( 900 ) factorul de supradimensionare a TC este dat de relaia (11).
KT ( t ) = 1 +

L0 0.5 s , which R is a common value, 900 and under the worst condition

For a CT secondary time constant S =

( 900 ) the transient over dimensioning factor is given by the relation


t t P S P e e S P S

(11)

Factorul de supradimensionare tranzitoriu este dependent de constanta de timp primar a sistemului (P), de constanta de timp secundar a TC (S) i de unghiul de conectare (). Ca un exemplu figura 8 prezint variaia factorului de supradimensionare fa de parametrii menionai mai sus. Se poate sublinia faptul c pentru o constant de timp primar a circuitului mai mic de 60 ms factorul de supradimensionare tranzitorie este independent de constanta de timp secundar. n acest caz ecuaia (11) poate fi simplificat i considernd un timp de funcionare (tOP) pentru proteciile numerice mai mic de 30 ms, care este o valoare uzual, putem obine relaia (12).

The transient over dimensioning factor is dependent on the primary time constant of the system (P), the CT secondary time constant (S) and on the switching angle (). As an example Figure 8 shows the over dimensioning factor as a function of the above mentioned factors. It is to be pointed out that for a primary time constant of the circuit less than about 60 ms, the transient over dimensioning factor is independent on the secondary time constant. In this case equation (11) may be simplified and assuming an operation time (tOP) of the numerical relay less than 30 ms, which is a common value then we obtain:

t OP 1 e P KT = 1 + P
25 KT fi=87 grd, psi=0 grd, tau p=60 ms

(12)

KT
35.00 Tp=100 ms

20

tau s = 3000 ms tau s = 1000 ms

30.00

25.00

15

20.00 Tp=50 ms 15.00

tau s = 500 ms 10
10.00

Tp=30 ms

5.00

0.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

tOP [ms]
0 0 100 200 300 400 500 t [ms]

Fig. 9. KT = f(tOP) for various primary time constant values Fig. 9. KT = f(tOP) pentru diferite valori a constantei de timp primare

Fig. 8. KT = f(t) for different CT secondary time constant values Fig. 8. KT = f(t) pentru diferite valori a constantei de timp secundare a TC

Ca exemplu n figura 9 se prezint infuena timpului de acionare a proteciei asupra factorului de supradimensionare tranzitoriu pentru trei constante de timp primare. Pentru o valoare tipic, tOP = 20 ms, factorul de supradimensionare variaz ntre 6, pentru p=30 ms i 16 pentru p=100 ms. TC comune, din ziua de azi, au miezul de oel fr goluri de aer, n acest caz fluxul remanent va rmne i dup ntreruperea curentului de defect. Dac miezul TC intr n saturaie cnd fluxul remanent este de 80 % din fluxul de saturaie, atunci fluxul va mai fi prezent n miez nc mult timp. n aceste condiii disponibilitatea fluxului principal este redus,

As an example Figure 9 shows the influence of relay operating time on the transient over dimensioning factor for three primary time constants. For a typical tOP = 20 ms, the over dimensioning factor varies from about 6, for p = 30 ms, to about 16, for p=100ms. Todays common CTs are iron core type without any air gap and in this case a remanence flux will remain after fault current break. If the CT iron core goes into saturation then a remanence flux of about 80 % of the saturation flux will be still present in the core. Under these conditions the available remaining main flux is reduced even more and the time to

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iar timpul de saturare de asemenea redus. Pentru a lucra n astfel de condiii severe miezul TC trebuie crescut utiliznd factorul de supradimensionare la remanen Kem definit de relaia (13). n aceast relaie remanence = flux remanent i saturation = flux de saturaie a miezului TC. De exemplu pentru Kr = 80%, Krem = 5 factorul de supradimensionare crete semnificativ.
K rem = 1 1 Kr

saturation also reduced. To deal with this severe condition the CT core has to be increased even more and usually using the remanence over dimensioning factor Krem, definite by the following equation (13), with remanence = remanence flux and saturation = saturation flux in the CT iron core. As an example, for Kr = 80 %, Krem = 5 and thus the overall dimensioning factor increases significantly.
; Kr = remanence saturation

(13)

4.2. Tensiunea de saturaie a TC Pentru a nu avea saturaia TC pn cnd releul ia decizia de declanare miezul de oel trebuie supradimensionat. innd minte cele de mai sus i bazndu-ne pe circuitul echivalent al TC tensiunea electromotoare de saturaie trebuie s ndeplineasc condiia (14) pentru ca releul s nu declaneze intempestiv.

4.2. CT saturation voltage To avoid CT saturation at least until the relay takes the trip decision the iron core has to be over dimensioned. Keeping in mind the above over dimensioning factors and based on the CT equivalent diagram, the saturation e.m.f. has to fulfill the following condition in order to avoid relay maloperation.

max VS KT K rem i2 ( RCT + RLOAD )

(14)

n relaia (14): RCT rezistena secundar a nfurrii TC; RLOAD sarcina secundar total a TC (rezistena circuitelor i rezistena releului); i2 - curentul secundar staionar maxim. Considerm exemplul unui TC 400 kV 1600 / 1 A, RCT = 10 , cu conductoarele de legtur de cupru cu seciunea de SL = 4 mm2 si sarcina releului de curent numeric SR = 0.2 VA. Curentul maxim de scurtcircuit n regim periodic este max rated i2 = 25 i2 = 25 A . Pentru nceput nu considerm c avem flux remanent. Factorul de supradimensionare tranzitoriu este KT = 8.6 (din figura 9) pentru tOP = 20 ms, Tp = 50 ms, rezistena conductoarelor 0.44 i bazndu-ne pe relaia (14) obinem:
VS 8.6 25 (10 + 0.64 ) 2300 V
max

where: RCT CT secondary winding resistance; RLOAD CT total secondary load, i.e. connection leads resistance and relay current input burden; i2 - maximum secondary steadystate current. Lets consider the following example with a common 400 kV CT 1600 / 1, RCT = 10 , cooper connection leads with a cross area SL = 4 mm2 and the numerical relay current burden SR = 0.2 VA. The maximum short-circuit current max rated = 25 A . under steady-state conditions is i2 = 25 i2 At the begin-ning we do not consider the remanence flux. The transient over dimensioning factor KT = 8.6 from Fig. 9, for tOP = 20 ms, Tp = 50 ms, leads resistance of 0.44 and based on (14)
VS 8.6 25 (10 + 0.64 ) 2300 V
max

Asta nseamn c TC trebuie s furnizeze o caracteristic liniar pn la tensiunea VS pentru a nu avea actionri eronate a releului. Considernd acum un flux remanent de 80 % din fluxul de saturaie, limita tensiunii de saturaie atinge o limit ireala de VS 11400 V . Acum este clar ca investigarea comportrii releelor n condiiile saturrii TC trebuie verificat, iar simularea saturrii TC trebuie fcut cu dispozitive uzuale de verificare.
5. Simularea saturrii TC IEEE a fost la originea teoriei care st la baza programului CT SAT Calculator [5] i de asemenea a software-ului pentru analiza informaiilor necesare pentru indicarea rapid a formei de und din secundarul transformatorului de curent saturat. S-a considerat astfel c prin curba de excitaie a TC se poate defini o metod de determinare a tensiunii de saturaie, gsirea soluiei modelului de circuit folosit i n final se poate stabili eroarea curentului de excitaie i valoarea curentului n secundarul TC n condiiile de saturaie. Avnd la baz aceste rezultate i caracteristica de funcionare a TC i n special caracteristica de magnetizare este posibil crearea unor nregistrri specifice care s simuleze saturarea TC i care s fie salvate n format Comtrade. Dup ncrcarea fiierului n echipamentul de testare este posibil investigarea comportrii releului n condiiile de saturare.

That means the CT has to provide a linear magnetizing characteristic up to this VS to avoid relay maloperation. Further more if considering a remanence flux of about 80% of the saturation flux, the saturation voltage reaches a quite unrealistic value VS 11400 V . Now is almost clear that investigations of relay behaviour under CT saturation have to be done and a way to simulate CT saturation has to be established using common tools.
5. CT saturation simulation The IEEE PSR Committee originated the theory for CT SAT Calculator [5] and also a spreadsheet in order to provide quick indication of the actual wave shape of the secondary current under CT saturation. Basically, they consider the excitation curve of the CT, define a method of determining the saturation voltage, find the solution of the circuit model considered and finally establish the excitation error current and the actual secondary current under saturation conditions. Based on these results as well as on the characteristics of the CT, mainly the excitation curve it is possible to produce a specific disturbance record that simulates CT saturation and to save it into the Comtrade format. Then downloading the file to the testing device is possible to investigate the behaviour of the relay under CT saturation conditions.

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5.1. Exemplu de aplicare la TPT 100 Exemplul prezentat ia n considerare comportarea proteciei difereniale de curent produs n Romnia, tip TPT 100 n condiiile de simulare a saturrii TC. Principala aplicaie a releului este protejarea transformatoarelor de 110 / m.t. Datele TC 110 kV sunt prezentate n continuare: raport de transformare 150 / 5 A / A; SCT = 30 VA; ALF = 20; VS = 150 V; RCT = 0.42 ; RL = 20 (pentru a cauza saturarea la dublul curentului nominal); System X / R = 3.5; I = 2 x Irated = 10 A; DC offset: 0.9. n figura 10 sunt prezentai curenii aplicai releului. Canalul IR este curentul aplicat pe faza R pe partea de 20 kV, pe cand IS este curentul saturat simulat aplicat pe partea de 110 kV pe faza R. La poziia cursorului (aproximativ 100 ms dup curentul de pornire) eroarea amplitudinii este de aproximativ 34 % i defazajul este n jur de 37 datorita saturrii severe. n aceste condiii severe de saturare releul diferenial de curent declaneaz prin protecia diferenial de curent cu frnare aa cum se arat n figura 11. Curentul msurat i defazajul sunt n concordan cu valorile aplicate, iar declanarea are loc conform setrilor stabilite. Simulnd, acum condiii mai puin severe de saturare a transformatorului de curent prin reducerea sarcinii secundare a TC cu 50 %, rspunsul releului este corect i este prezentat n fig. 12. Prin aceast metod este posibil de gsit limitele acceptabile ale saturrii transformatoarelor de curent, pentru anumite funcii de protecie i ajustarea reglajelor n consecin.

5.1. Examples of the applied method for TPT 100 Examples of the above approach to test numerical relays are included below. Example regards to the behaviour of a transformer current differential relay made in Romania, type TPT-100 under simulated saturated wave shape. The main application of the relay is to protect transformers 110 / medium voltage. The CT-110 kV basic data are the following: CT ratio 150 / 5 A / A; SCT = 30 VA; ALF = 20; VS = 150 V; RCT = 0.42 ; RL = 20 (to cause saturation at twice the rated current); System X / R =3.5; I = 2 x Irated = 10 A; DC offset: 0.9. Figure 10 shows the applied currents to the relay. Channel IR is the applied current on the 20 kV side, pahse R, while IS is the saturated simulated current applied on the 110 kV side, on phase R. At the cursor position (about 100 ms after current start) the magnitude error is about 34 % and the shift angle is about 37 due to severe saturation. Under this severe saturation condition the current differential relay trips due to bias differential protection function as shown in Figure 11. The measured currents and shift angle are accordingly to the applied values and tripping matches the settings. Now, simulating a less severe CT saturation by reducing the secondary load with 50 %, the relay response is right as shown in Figure 12. This way it is possible to find the acceptable limits of CT saturation for a certain protection function and to adjust the settings accordingly.

Fig. 10. Current saturation wave shapes Fig. 10. Forma de und a curentului de saturare

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Fig. 11. Relay TPT 100 operation Fig. 11. Funcionarea releului TPT 100

Fig. 12. Relay TPT 100 response under moderate saturation

Fig. 12. Rspunsul TPT 100 la o saturare moderat

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5. Concluzii Lucrarea prezint verificarea proteciei difereniale TPT 100 n laborator i comportarea acestuia n condiiile de simulare a saturrii transformatoarelor de curent. Lucrarea prezint, apoi, o scurt trecere n revist a saturrii TC n relaia cu proteciile numerice astfel nct s fie scoi n eviden acei parametrii de importan major pentru fenomenul propriu zis i verificarea compatibilitii proteciilor digitale cu transformatoarele de curent. Bazat pe aspectele teoretice privind caracteristica TC, n special caracteristica de magnetizare, lucrarea prezint calea de a produce nregistrri de defect specifice care simuleaz saturarea TC. Fiierele salvate n format Comtrade i apoi ncrcate n dispozitivele numerice de testare (truse numerice) ne ofer o soluie fezabil de a investiga capacitatea releului n condiiile de saturare a TC. Exemplul de testare n laborator a proteciei difereniale TPT 100 bazat pe metoda de mai sus i utiliznd dispozitive de testare uzuale sunt de asemenea prezentate n lucrare pentru a scoate n eviden uurina i valabilitatea metodei propuse. Bibliografie (References)

5. Conclusion The paper presents the TPT 100 differential protection lab tests with simulation of CT saturation and the TPT 100 behaviour in such conditions. The paper presents a briefly theoretical approach to CT saturation in relationship to numerical relays just to highlight those parameters of major importance for the phenomenon and to aware on compatibility of numerical relays to the CTs. Based on theoretically issues as well as on CT characteristics, mainly the excitation curve the paper shows the way to produce a specific disturbance record that simulates CT saturation. Saving it in the Comtrade format and then downloading the file to the testing device it is feasible to investigate the behaviour of a relay under CT saturation conditions. Examples of site testing of a transformer differential relay TPT 100 based on this method and using a common testing device is also presented in the paper to emphasis the capability and easiness of the proposed method.

1. Moraru, Gh.,: Referat sintez nr. 1 - Stadiul actual i tendine de evoluie a proteciilor transformatoarelor din staiile electrice de transformare (Synthesis paper nr.1 - The present stage and tendency in evolution of transformers protection), Universitatea Politehnica, Timioara, aprilie,2001. 2. Moraru, Gh.,: Referat sintez nr. 2 - Echipament de protecie, command-control (Synthesis paper nr.2-Equipment for power transformer of electrical substation), Universitatea Politehnica, Timioara, octombrie, 2003. 3. Moraru, Gh.,: Referat sintez nr. 3 - Echipament de protecie, command-control (Synthesis paper nr.3-Equipment for power transformer of electrical substation), Universitatea Politehnica, Timioara, octombrie, 2003. 4. Romanian Prescriptions: Protection of High Voltage Transmission Lines and Power Transformers. 5. IEEE PSRC: Theory for CT SAT Calculator, 2001. 6. Gal, S., Balasiu, F., Fagarasan, T., Moraru, Gh.: Simulation of Current Transformer Saturation to Test Numerical Relays, MSP, Poiana Braov, 6-8 aprilie, 2005.