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Computer Software is a collective term in information technology used to describe the function or the contribution of the sets of commands,

procedures in computer system. It is a set of instructions with step by step algorithm that directs the computer hardware to perform specific task. The computer software executes commands depending on the direction of the user or the programmer. Software also includes the TV, video games, logic implemented in the electronic health record, Hospital information system, etc. Types of Software There are practically three types of software that are distinguished according to its function and according to the manner it processes the system: System software, programming software and the application software. System software is just the computer software that commands the computer hardware and computer system to perform specific task, it includes the following components, Basic input and output system, operating system, machine servers, utility programs and windows. There already a direct and simple execution of commands because of the systems software. Programming software provides tools to assist a programmer in writing commands or codes using different programming languages in a more convenient way. Application software is complied readily executable program that can be used in different application such as in Electronic Health Record, Clinical information System, Pharmacy Information System, and Hospital Information System. Healthcare Information System, Other application software which performs specific functions also includes industrial automation, computer games, commercial software, telecommunications, database, education software. Application Software Useful to Nurse There are many useful applications of software to nurses and healthcare providers; one specific role of application software is data transformation to information. This benefits the nursing from doing a manual preparation of reports and documents, due to readily available information, the nurse will have more times synthesizing and analyzing the information. Using the Nursing Informatics Program The Nursing Informatics program is subdivided into different modules, a set of modules can be used to prepare report in tabular form and a set of modules can be used to extract data and transform it into graphical form, while a module is designed to prepare report to different data and information recipient.

Software The software is the information that the computer uses to get the job done. Software needs to be accessed before it can be used. There are many terms used for process of accessing software including running, executing, starting up, opening, and others.

Computer programs allow users to complete task. A program can also be referred to as an application and the two words are used interchangeably. Examples of software programs or applications

Operating System DOS Window 9x/Millenium/XP UNIX

Word processor Typing letters

Spreadsheet Financial info

Database Patients Record

Graphics program Graphical user interface (GUI) Internet Browser Email And many others.

As well any document that you create, graphic you design, sound you compose, file you make, letter you write, email you send or anything that you create on your computer is referred to as software. All software is stored in files.

Software is stored on a disk or tape whether that disk is a floppy, hard disk, CD, tape or one of the dozens of other storage devices available. There are millions of different pieces of software available for almost every conceivable need.

Three basic types of software Commercial Shareware Open source software

Computer Network A computer network is a group of interconnected computer systems. A computer network is an interconnection of various computers is linked at different places. In computer network two or more computers are linked together with a medium and data communication devices for the purpose of communicating data and sharing resources. Network may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics, which are categorized according to the basic components of a network.

The most common types of computer networks A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person such as the computer systems is hospital departments (pharmacy, laboratory, nursing, etc) examples of such devices includes printers, fax machines, telephones, ZPDA and scanners)

Local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small physical area such as hospitals and inters department computer systems. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology. A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that connects two or more local area networks but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town/city A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area. WAN is a network that uses routers and public communications links. The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the internet.

Network Topology The term topology in the context of communication network refers to the way the computers or workstations in the network are linked together. According to the physical arrangements of workstations and nature of work, there are three major types of network topology. They are star topology, bus topology and ring topology.

Star topology In the star topology a number of workstations are directly linked to a central station called node. Any communication between stations on a star LAN must pass through the central node. The central workstations are responsible for the controls all the activities of sub stations. The star topology offers flexibility of adding or deleting of workstations from the network. The breakdown of one station does not affect any device on the network. The major disadvantage of star topology is that failure of the central node disables communication throughout the whole network.

Bus topology In bus topology all workstation are connected to a single communication line called bus. In this type of network topology there is no central work stations as compared in star topology. Transmission from any station travels the length of the bus in both directions and can be received by all workstations. The bus topology is quite easy to set up. If one station of the topology fails does not affect the entire system. The disadvantage of bus topology is that any break in the bus is difficult to identify.

Ring topology In ring topology each station is attached nearby stations on a point to point basis so that the entire system is in the form of ring.