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The following experiment explores the time it takes two chemicals in solution, Crystal Violet and NaOH, to reach equilibrium. Equilibrium is said to be a state of rest or balance between two opposing forces of equal action or force. In a chemical reaction the equilibrium is reached when the rate at which reactants form products is the same as the rate at which products dissociate back into reacants. This state can be found several different ways. Some can be observed physically such as a change in color or state but most equilibria must be obtained by measuring the actual concentrations of chemicals left when the reaction has stabalized. In the following experiment the rate of the reaction and the equilibrium will be determined by the decrease in absorbancy over time as crystal violet reacts with NaOH.

Material and Methods

Computer Vernier interface Vernier Colorimeter Plastic Cuvette 250-mL Beaker 0.020 M NaOH 2.0x10-5 M Crystal Violet Distilled H2O stirring rod 2: 10-mL graduated cylinders

Methods: Wear goggles 10-mL of 0.020 M NaOH solution and 2.0x10-5 M Crystal Violet solution were poured into two separate graduated cylinders. The file Experiment 30 was opened from the folder Chemistry with computers. (Verticl axis = absorbance scaled 0-0.35 and horizontal axis = time scaled from 0-20 minutes) For the colorimeter test a cuvette was filled full of water. The ribbed side was handled and the reference mark was positioned towards the white mark of the machine. The wavelength of the colorimeter was set at 565 nm (green). o calibrate was chosen from the experiment menu then button perform now was selected. o (1st Calibration point) The wavelength knob was set to 0% T o 0 was entered in the edit box. o After the voltage stabalized for Input 1, keep was selected in the computer. o (2nd Calibration point) The wavelength knob was set to Green or 565 nm. o 100 was entered in the edit box. o After the voltage stabalized for Input 1, keep was selected and then the ok button was selected. The reaction was started by pouring the measurements of Crystal Violet and NaOH into a 250-mL beaker at the same time. Then the mixture was stirred until evenly mixed. o In the computer interface collect was selected.

o The water was emptied from the test cuvetted and rinsed with distilled water then it was refilled with the chemical solution. After 3 minutes from the start of the reaction the cuvette was placed in the colorimeter. When the reading stabalized keep was selected. The cuvette was then removed from the colorimeter. After 45 second the cuvetted was again placed in the colorimeter and the voltage was recorded when the reading stabalized. o This process was repeated approximately every minute for 20 minutes. The final data was then graphed in excel.

The results of the data were graphed to show the decrease in absorbancy over time. (Graph 1)

Absorbance 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 12 17 22 T ime (min.) 27 32

y =-0.0826x +2.927 R =0.9959


Series1 Linear (Series1)

Graph 1 The graph showed a consistent decrease of absorbancy over time and observation of the solution revealed a steady change in color as the reaction proceeded. The solution started out deep purple but paled to a light lavender towards the end of the reaction. In order to determine the rate law for the reaction both the natural log (Graph 2) and the fraction of 1/absorbance (Graph 3) were graphed. According to literature whichever graph produced a straight line determine whether the reaction was first order or second order. In the case of the two graphs produced from the experiment the natural log of the absorbance produced a straight line allocating the reaction as first order. From the graphed data the rate law was determined to be Rate=0.0826[CV][CVOH] in which the reaction was first order overall. T1/2 or the half life of the reaction was determined to be 8.39 minutes. The half life was obtained by dividing the literature given value of 0.693 by 0.0826 or the rate constant, k.

L n(Absorba nce)
0.6 Absorbance 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 T ime (min) 0 10 20 30 40

y =-0.0801x +1.8118 R =0.9943


Series1 Linear (Series1)

Graph 2

2 Absorbance 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 1 T ime (min) 1.5 2

y =-0.9431x +2.064 R =0.9299


Series1 Linear (Series1)

Graph 3

Knowing how to calculate an equilibrium provides the ability to more fully interpret the results of a reaction. It also allows the reaction to be manipulated in a way that produces more favorable results. Arrehnius law states that a reaction will compensate for changes made to it. A practical example of this is the simple action of adding more reactants in an effort to create more product. Several other adjustments can be made as well that effect the rate of the reaction. The most common ones are the addition of a catalyst or a change in temperature. The experiment performed on crystal violet used the change in absorbtion instead the calculations of concentration to determine the equilibrium rate constant. In theory the method is straight forward and simple but it may take several minutes for the results of the colorimeter to begin showing the over all trend of the reaction. In future experiments of this type it may help to stir the reaction for a full three minutes and then let it rest as the reaction begins before starting the colorimeter data collection. However as in the case of the experiment the first few minutes of the data were discarded and only the data showing a consistent trend was used.