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Research Project Report on

Importance of Exit Interview for betterment of HR Policies and Employee Satisfaction

Submitted for the permission of pursuing Research Project Report (MBA-043)

Under the Guidance of

Ms Mamta Kumar

Submitted by

Priyanka Srivastava
MBA IV Semester

Lucknow 2011-2012


express to

my my

profound esteemed kumar,

gratitude guide,



Goel institute of Technology and Management, Lucknow. For her kind that advice made and my


project successful. She gave me a wonderful opportunity to work on this project. Her timeto-time guidance and

incessant support helped me to broaden my outlook on the project I am highly obliged for his support throughout the completion of this project.

I would like to give my sincere thanks helped to all people directly who or


indirectly in completion of this project.

Priyanka Srivastava

MBA4thsem 10360700 28


1. Introduction

Need of the study Scope of the study 2. Research methodology Objective of the study Research methodology (Sample size, Instrument used, Methods of data collection) Scope of the study limitations 6. Descriptive work 7. Data Analysis 8. Suggestion and Conclusions 9. Bibliography 10. References 11.Appendices 12. Checklist of the items in the project


What is an Exit Interview?
An exit interview is typically a meeting between at least one representative from a company's human resources (HR) department and a departing employee. (The departing employee usually has voluntarily resigned vs. getting laid off or fired.) The HR rep might ask the employee questions while taking notes, asks the employee to complete a questionnaire, or both. (Sample exit interview questions are listed on

What's the Purpose of an Exit Interview?

Human resources departments conduct exit interviews (also called exit surveys) to gather data for improving working conditions and retaining employees. However, a hidden purpose is to help employers avoid costly litigation down the road, caused by "disgruntled" employees. In other words, your comments and the notes an HR rep takes during your exit interview might be used against you in court, should you decide to sue your former employer.

Must I Submit to an Exit Interview?

No. It's your right to decline an exit interview. A reputable employer will respect your decision. However, a not-so-reputable employer might resent that you didn't participate and file a "would not rehire" or similar adverse notation in your personnel records. The same employer might reveal the notation during a background check.

Should I Participate in an Exit Interview?

Naturally, the decision whether or not to participate in an exit interview is ultimately up to you. But there are varying opinions about whether or not you should participate. Some career

experts think you should, because, although it doesn't help you much, it helps a sincere employer improve working conditions for remaining employees. But other career experts question the usefulness of an exit interview. (A better time to conduct such a meeting is while an employee is committed, not while he or she is on the way out the door and concerned about burning a bridge.) Consequently, they don't think the risks for departing employees are worth it, so they advise against participating. Alternately, they advise participants to give "generic" responses only or at least think carefully before responding. Besides potential bridge burning, risks for departing employees include the information falling into the wrong hands and ruining references, the employer revealing negative information during a background check, and as previously indicated, the employer submitting either positive or negative information as evidence in a lawsuit. Some things to consider before participating in an exit interview are listed below. As a departing employee, will you benefit from an exit interview? Is the exit interview anonymous or must you sign a questionnaire or the HR rep's notes? Is the reason you're leaving any of the company's business or an invasion of your privacy? Why did your employer wait until you're leaving to ask your opinion? Will the HR department really use your comments for improvements or are they just trying to find out the "real" reason you're leaving? Might an exit interview burn a bridge, ruin a reference or cause an adverse background check for you? Might you use your former employer down the road?

About Exit Interview Questions

Employers ask exit interview questions verbally or in questionnaire form. These days, it's not uncommon for exit interview questions to be in electronic questionnaire form on computers.

Exit Interview Questions - Samples

Listed below are samples of the types of exit interview questions that employers commonly ask departing employees. What is your primary reason for leaving? Did anything trigger your decision to leave? What was most satisfying about your job? What was least satisfying about your job? What would you change about your job? Did your job duties turn out to be as you expected? Did you receive enough training to do your job effectively? Did you receive adequate support to do your job? Did you receive sufficient feedback about your performance between merit reviews? Were you satisfied with this company's merit review process? Did this company help you to fulfill your career goals? Do you have any tips to help us find your replacement? What would you improve to make our workplace better? Were you happy with your pay, benefits and other incentives? What was the quality of the supervision you received? What could your immediate supervisor do to improve his or her management style? Based on your experience with us, what do you think it takes to succeed at this company? What did you like most about this company?

An exit interview is an interview conducted by an employer of a departing employee. They are generally conducted by a relativelyneutral party, such as a human resources staff member, so that the employee will be more inclined to be candid, as opposed to worrying about "burning

bridges". Exit interviews are conducted by paper-and-pencil forms, telephone interviews, inperson meetings, or online through exit interview management systems. Some companies opt to employ a third party to conduct the interviews and provide

In business
The purpose of an exit interview in business is to gather employees' feedback on the work experience in order to improve working conditions and retain employees. Other uses for exit interviews for organizations include improving work productivity, providing an early warning about sexual harassment, workplace violence and discrimination issues and measuring the success of diversity initiatives. Questions Common questions include reasons for leaving, job satisfaction, frustrations, and feedback concerning company policies or procedures. Questions may relate to the work environment, supervisors, compensation, the work itself, and the company culture.

In education
Schools may also conduct exit interviews with students before graduation, or even as a requirement of it. This is sometimes called a graduation interview.

Introducation of the Company

Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS)
(BSE: 532540, NSE: TCS) is an

Indian multinational IT services, business solutions and outsourcing company headquartered inMumbai, India and a subsidiary of the Tata Group conglomerate. It is the largest Asia based provider of business process outsourcing services It is the largest IT service company in India by revenue and market capitalization TCS has 142 offices across over 42 countries and generates around 30 per cent of India's IT exports. The company became the first Indian IT company to cross the ten billion dollar milestone posting annual revenues of $10.17 billion.

It began as the "Tata Computer Centre" for the company Tata Group whose main business was to provide computer services to other group companies. F C Kohli was the first general manager. J. R. D. Tata was the first chairman, followed by Pankaj Roy. One of TCS' first assignments was to provide punched card services to a sister concern, Tata Steel (then TISCO). It later bagged the country's first software project, the Inter-Branch Reconciliation System (IBRS) for the Central Bank of India It also provided bureau services to Unit Trust of India, thus becoming one of the first companies to offer BPO services.

Early 1970sTata Consultancy Services started exporting its services. 1974The company pioneered the global delivery model for IT services with its first offshore client . TCS's first international order came from Burroughs Corporation, one of the first business computer manufacturers. TCS was assigned to write code for the Burroughs machines

for several US-based clients. This experience also helped TCS bag its first onsite projectthe Institutional Group & Information Company (IGIC), a data center for ten banks, which catered to two million customers in the US, assigned TCS the task of maintaining and upgrading its computer systems

Bombay House, the Head Office of theTata Group.

1975TCS counducted its first-ever campus interview which was at IISc,Bangalore. The recruits comprising 12 IITians and 3 IISc graduates were the first to get formal training at the company

1979TCS delivered an electronic depository and trading system called SECOM for SIS SegaInterSettle, Switzerland. It was by far the most complex project undertaken by an Indian IT company. TCS followed this up with System X for the Canadian Depository System and also automated the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE). TCS associated with a Swiss partner, TKS Teknosoft, which it later acquired

1981TCS set up India's first software research and development center, the Tata Research Development and Design Center (TRDDC) in Pune. 1985The first clientdedicated offshore development center was set up for Compaq (thenTandem).

Early 1990sThe Indian IT outsourcing industry grew tremendously due to the Y2K bug and the launch of a unified European currency, Euro. TCS pioneered the factory model for Y2K conversion and developed software tools which automated the conversion process and enabled third-party developers and clients to make use of it. 1999TCS saw outsourcing opportunity in E-Commerce and related solutions and set up its E-Business division with ten people. By 2004, E-Business was contributing half a billion dollars (US) to TCS.[12]

August 9, 2004TCS became a publicly listed company,[13] much later than its rivals, Infosys, Wipro and Mahindra Satyam.

2005TCS ventured into a new area for an Indian IT services company Bioinformatics.

2006TCS designed the ERP for IRCTC. 2008TCS went through an internal restructuring exercise that executives claim would bring about agility to the organization2011TCS entered the Small and medium enterprises (SME) market with cloud-based offerings. 2012-TCS became the first Indian IT company to cross the 10 billion dollar revenue milestone.

Operations and acquisitions

Indian Branches

TCS had development centers and/or regional offices in the following Indian cities: Ahmedabad, Baroda, Bangalore, Bhubaneswar,Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi,Goa, Gurgaon, Guwahati, Kochi, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Noida, Nagpur, Pune, Trivan drum, Jamshedpur,Hyderabad

Global units

Africa: South Africa, Morocco Asia (outside India): Bahrain, Beijing, Hong Kong, Hangzhou, Shanghai, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, UAE (Dubai)

Australia: Australia Europe: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom

North America: Canada, Mexico, USA, Chile South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay, Peru

Innovation and R&D

Tata Research Development and Design Center

Tata Consultancy Services campus atLucknow, Uttar Pradesh.

Tata Consultancy Services campus atMadhapur, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.

TCS established the first software research center in India, the Tata Research Development and Design Center, in Pune, India in 1981. TRDDC undertakes research in Software engineering, Process engineering and Systems Research. Researchers at TRDDC also developed Master-Craft (now called TCS Code Generator Framework ) a Model Driven Development software that can automatically create code based on a model of a software, and rewrite the code based on the user's needs. Research at TRDDC has also resulted in the development of Sujal, a low-cost water purifier that can be manufactured using locally available resources. TCS deployed thousands of these filters in the Indian Ocean Tsunami disaster of 2004 as part of its relief activities This product has been marketed in India as Tata swach, a low cost water purifier.

In 2007, TCS launched its Co-Innovation Network, a network of TCS Innovation Labs, startup alliances, University Research Departments, and venture capitalists. In addition to TRDDC, TCS has 19 Innovation Labs based in three countries. processing, text, data and process analytics, multimedia applications and graphics.

TCS Innovation Lab, Embedded Systems: Medical electronics, WiMAX, and WLANtechnologies.

TCS Innovation Lab, Hyderabad: Computational methods in life sciences, metagenomics, systems biology, e-security, smart card-based applications, Linux and open source,digital media protection, nano-biotechnology, quantitative finance.

TCS Innovation Lab, Mumbai: Speech and natural language processing, wireless systems and wireless applications.

TCS Innovation Lab, Insurance Chennai: IT Optimization, Business Process Optimization, Customer Centricity Enablers, Enterprise Mobility, Telematics, Text Analytics, 2D Barcodes, Mashups, Innovation in Product Development and

Management (PLM) for Insurance.

TCS Innovation Lab, Chennai: Infrastructure innovation, green computing, Web 2.0 and next-generation user interfaces.

TCS Innovation Lab, Peterborough, England: New-wave communications for the enterprises, utility computing and RFID (chips, tags, labels, readers and middleware).

TCS Innovation Lab: Performance Engineering, Mumbai: Performance management, high performance technology components, and others.

TCS Innovation Lab, Cincinnati, United States: Engineering and Manufacturing IT solutions.

Some of the assets created by TCS Innovation Labs are DBProdem, Jensor, Wanem, Scrutinet, SmartTest Manager.


Human Resource plays a crucial role in the development process of the modern economics. Human resource management is the management of employees skill, knowledge abilities, talent, aptitude, creativity, ability etc. different terms are used for denoting Human Resource Management. They are labour management, labour administration, labour management relationship, employee employer relationship, industrial relationship, human capital management, human assent management etc. Though these terms can be used differently widely, the basic nature of distinction lies in the scope or coverage and evolutionary stage. In simple sense, human resource management means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements. Fig No. 1


Strategic planning, organizational evaluation, County Board relations, policy

recommendations, supervision of department staff

Health insurance, dental insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, retirement benefits, vacation, sick leave, paid holidays, section 125 plan, donor program, educational incentive, uniform allowance, and others.

Salary and benefit surveys, job evaluation, job descriptions evaluation, job descriptions

Employee relations:
Disciplinary processes, incident investigations, complaint/grievance procedures, labormanagement relations.

Employee services:
Enrollment in benefits, employee discounts for recreational spots, resolution of enrollment or claim problems, employee newsletter. Educational assistance, employee service awards

Staffing budgets, departmental budget, accounts payable, insurance receivables, insurance fund management, total package costing, Insurance receivables, insurance fund management, total package costing.

Health and safety:

Employee assistance, workers compensation claims, drug testing, safety compliance and training.

Leaves of absence:
State and/or Federal Family and Medical Leave rights, County approved leaves of absence, rights upon return to work, light duty assignments for temporary periods.

Payroll administration:
Computer-based or manual evaluation systems, supervisory training, compliance with timeliness standards

Performance appraisal:
Employee files, litigation files, payroll records, safety records and other administrative files

Job posting, advertising, testing administration, employment interviews, background investigations, post-offer employment testing.

Recruitment is defined as a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures fir meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ to employ effective measures for attracting the manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an effective workforce.

After identifying the sources of human resources, searching for prospective employees and stimulation helps to apply for jobs in an organization, the management has to perform the function of selecting the right man at right job and at the right time.

Separations and terminations:

Rights upon termination of employment, severance benefits, unemployment compensation, exit interviews.

Training and development:

County-wide needs assessment, development of supervisory and management skills, employee training and workshops Benefits orientation for new and transferring employees, Supervisory newsletter.

Salary and benefits:

Salary/wage plans, employee benefits

Importance of Human Resource Management

1: Attract highly qualified and competent people 2: Ensure that's the selected candidate stays longer with the company. 3: Make sure that there is match between cost and benefit. 4: Helps the organization to create more culturally diverse workforce The poor quality of selection means extra cost on training and supervision. Further, when recruitment fails to meet organizational needs for talent, a typically response is to raise entry level pay scales. This can distort traditional wages and salary relationship in organization, resulting in unavoidable consequences. Thus the effectiveness of the recruitment process can play a major role in determining the resources that must be expended on other HR activates and their ultimate success.

Fig No. 2


Mumbai: With the rise in attrition levels taking a toll on IT companies, the countrys largest IT services firm, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), is all set to bring about a change in its human resource management. The firm has put forth a resources management group (RMG) that will work towards various retention initiatives. TCS on Thursday reported a 13% attrition rate in spite of an average 10-13% wage hike that it gave this quarter. Though a second round of wage hike is not a possibility, vice-president & head for global human resources, Ajoy Mukherjee, feels the strengthening of people management and training will improve retention levels. For instance, the firm will bring about a rotation of employees for on-site locations. With the decrease in on-site opportunities, we intend to rotate employees so that more people get a chance to be at the clients locations, Mukherjee said. There has to be a stress on aspirations and we have to ensure that business and HR work together to do that. The industry, at the moment, is witnessing the experienced band of about 3 6 years contributing to the majority of the attrition rate. The RMG will also identify individuals that are keen on having newer challenging jobs. The experienced employees have different aspirations and wage is not necessarily a reason for an employee to quit. For the IT industry, it is increasingly becoming an aspect of having a challenging job. And so, we would want to retain such employees by moving them to such projects, he said. The firm also intends to translate a number of freebies into beneficial spends like increase in premium of health insurance and extra hospital coverage. TCS may look at paying additional variable components if the company continues to perform better. With demand picking up,

it could be a challenge for TCS to support a sudden surge in employee requirements. The firm has a high utilisation level of about 82.6% (excluding trainees) and has not been able to attract huge additions. Of the 10,849 offers made in Q1, the firm had a net addition of only 3,271. It has hiked overall hiring requirements to 40,000 for the year from 30,000..

Employee turnover
Employee turnover is one of the largest though widely unknown costs anv organization faces. While companies routinely keep track of various costs such as supplies and payroll, few take into consideration how much employee turnover will cost them: Ernst & Young estimates it costs approximately $120,000 to replace 10 professionals. According to research done by Sibson & Company, to recoup the cost of losing just one employee a fast food restaurant must sell 7,613 combo meals at $2.50 each. Employee turnover costs companies 30 to 50% of the annual salary of entry-level employees, 150% of middle-level employees, and up to 400% for upper level, specialized employees. Now that so much is being done by organizations to retain its employee Why is retention so important? Is it just to reduce the turn over costs ? Well, the answer is a definite no. Its not only the cost incurred by a company that emphasizes the need of retaining employees but also the need to retain talented employees from getting poached.

Retention involves five major things: Compensation Environment Growth Relationship Support


Compensation constitutes the largest part of the employee retention process. The employees always have high expectations regarding their compensation packages.

Compensation packages vary from industry to industry. So an attractive compensation package plays a critical role in retaining the employees. Compensation includes salary and wages, bonuses, benefits, prerequisites, stock options, bonuses, vacations, etc. While setting up the packages, the following components should be kept in mind:
Salary and monthly wage: It is the biggest component of the compensation

package. It is also the most common factor of comparison among employees. It includes Basic wage House rent allowance Dearness allowance City compensatory allowance

Salary and wages represent the level of skill and experience an individual has. Time to time increase in the salaries and wages of employees should be done. And this increase should be based on the employees performance and his contribution to the organization. Bonus: Bonuses are usually given to the employees at the end of the year or on a festival. Economic benefits: It includes paid holidays, leave travel concession, etc. Long-term incentives: Long term incentives include stock options or stock grants. These incentives help retain employees in the organization's start up stage.

Health insurance: Health insurance is a great benefit to the employees. It

saves employees money as well as gives them a peace of mind that they have somebody to take care of them in bad times. It also shows the employee that the organization cares about the employee and its family.

After retirement: It includes payments that an Employee gets after he retires

like EPF (Employee Provident Fund) etc.

Miscellaneous compensation: It may include employee assistance

programs (like psychological counselling, legal assistance etc), discounts on company products, use of a company cars, etc.

Employers And Their Key Drivers To Attract And Retain Talent Employers Key Drives To Attract And Retain Talent

Procter and Gamble India Early responsibilities in career Flexible and transparent organizational culture Global opportunities through a variety of exposure and diverse experiences Performance Recognition

American Express (India) Strong global brand Value-based environment Pioneer in many people practices


Learning and growth opportunities Competitive rewards Opportunity to grow, learn and implement Strong social security and employee welfare performance- oriented culture.

Johnson & Johnson Strong values of trust, caring fairness, and respect within the organization Freedom to operate at work Early responsibility in career Training and learning opportunities Visible, transparent and accessible leaders Competitive rewards Innovative HR programs and practices

Glaxo Smith Kline Consumer Healthcare

Performance-driven Rewards Its belief in Growing our own timber Comprehensive development and learning programs Flat organization, where performance could lead to very quick progression Challenging work context Competitive rewards Exhaustive induction and orientation program

Tata Steel Organization philosophy and culture Job stability Freedom to work and innovate

Colgate Palmolive India Company brand Open , transparent, and caring organization Management according to the managing with respect to guiding principles Training ad development programs Structured career planning process Global career opportunities

Wipro Companys brand as an employer Early opportunities for growth High degree of autonomy Value compatibility Innovative people program

Indian Oil Corporation Company brand image Work ethics Learning and growth opportunities

Challenging work assignments Growing organization

TCS The group brand equity Strong corporate governance and citizenship Commitment to learning and development Best in people practices Challenging assignments Opportunity to work with fortune 500 clients Organization Environment

It is not about managing retention. It is about managing people. If an organization manages people well, employee retention will take care of itself. Organizations should focus on managing the work environment to make better use of the available human assets. People want to work for an organization which provides Appreciation for the work done Ample opportunities to grow A friendly and cooperative environment A feeling that the organization is second home to the employee

Organization environment includes Culture Values Company reputation

Quality of people in the organization Employee development and career growth Risk taking Leading technologies Trust

Types of environment the employee needs in an organization

Learning environment: It includes continuous learning and improvement of

the individual, certifications and provision for higher studies, etc.

Support environment: Organization can provide support in the form of work-

life balance. Work life balance includes: Flexible hours Telecommuting Dependent care Alternate work schedules Vacations

Work environment: It includes efficient managers, supportive co-workers,

challenging work, involvement in decision-making, clarity of work and responsibilities, and recognition. Lack or absence of such environment pushes employees to look for new opportunities. The environment should be such that the employee feels connected to the organization in every respect. Growth and Career Growth and development are the integral part of every individuals career. If an employee can not foresee his path of career development

in his current organization, there are chances that hell leave the organization as soon as he gets an opportunity. The important factors in employee growth that an employee looks for himself are:

Work profile: The work profile on which the employee is working

should be in sync with his capabilities. The profile should not be too low or too high.

Personal growth and dreams: Employees responsibilities in the organization

should help him achieve his personal goals also. Organizations can not keep aside the individual goals of employees and foster organizations goals. Employees priority is to work for themselves and later on comes the organization. If hes not satisfied with his growth, hell not be able to contribute in organization growth.

Training and development: Employees should be trained and given chance to

improve and enhance their skills. Many employers fear that if the employees are well rained, theyll leave the organization for better jobs. Organization should not limit the resources on which organizations success depends. These trainings can be given toimprove many skills like: Communications skills Technical skills In-house processes and procedures improvement related skills or customer satisfaction related skills Special project related skills Need for such trainings can be recognized from individual performance reviews, individual meetings, employee satisfaction surveys and by being in constant touch with the employees.

Importance of Relationship in Employee Retention Program Sometimes the relationship with the management and the peers becomes the reason for an employee to leave the organization. The management is sometimes not able to provide an employee a supportive work culture and environment in terms of personal or professional relationships. There are times when an employee starts feeling bitterness towards the management or peers. This bitterness could be due to many reasons. This decreases employees interest and he becomes demotivated. It leads to less satisfaction and eventually attrition. A supportive work culture helps grow employee professionally and boosts employee satisfaction. To enhance good professional relationships at work, the management should keep the following points in mind. Respect for the individual: Respect for the individual is the must in the organization.

Relationship with the immediate manager: A manger plays the role of a

mentor and a coach. He designs and plans work for each employee. It is his duty to involve the employee in the processes of the organization. So an organization should hire managers who can make and maintain good relations with their subordinates.

Relationship with colleagues: Promote team work, not only among teams but

in different departments as well. This will induce competition as well as improve the Relationship among colleagues.

Recruit whole heartedly: An employee should be recruited if there is a proper

place and duties for him to perform. Otherwise hell feel useless and will be dissatisfied. Employees should know what the organization expects from them and what their expectation from the organization is. Deliver what is promised. Promote an

employee based culture: The employee should know that the organization is there to support him at the time of need. Show them that the organization cares and hell show the same for the organization. An employee based culture may include decision making authority, availability of resources, open door policy, etc.

Individual development: Taking proper care of employees includes

acknowledgement to the employees dreams and personal goals. Create opportunities for their career growth by providing mentorship programs, certifications, educational courses, etc.

Induce loyalty: Organizations should be loyal as well as they should promote

loyalty in the employees too. Try to make the current employees stay instead of recruiting new ones. Support Lack of support from management can sometimes serve as a reason for employee retention. Supervisor should support his subordinates in a way so that each one of them is a success. Management should try to focus on its employees and support them not only in their difficult times at work but also through the times of personal crisis. Management can support employees by providing them recognition and appreciation. Employers can also provide valuable feedback to employees and make them feel valued to the organization.

The feedback from supervisor helps the employee to feel more responsible, confident and empowered. Top management can also support its employees in their personal crisis by providing personal loans during emergencies, childcare services, employee assistance Programs, conseling services, etc Employers can also support their employees by creating an environment of trust and inculcating the organizational values into employees. Thus employers can

support their employees in a number of ways as follows: By providing feedback By giving recognition and rewards By counseling them


Retention Management: Abstract: Background: retention management is a highly topical subject and an important dilemma many organizations might face in the future, if not facing it already. We believe that the leader plays a key role in employee retention and retention management. The concept of retention management can both have a narrow, and a broader significance. Both parts of its significance are generally included in this thesis. The background of the thesis present a few articles that discuss issues that makes it important for the organization, and the leaders, to work hard with retention management. The research is based on the leaders in the Finnish case company Tradeka. Following key questions are intended to be answered: What are the consequences between leaders actions and employees retention? Which is the leaders role when it comes to retaining employees?

Purpose statement: The purpose of the thesis is to investigate and analyze how company leaders today can retain their key employees. How can the provision of key human resources develop a long-term relationship that makes top employees stay in the company?

The study aims to establish the procedure leaders apply to retain employees. The purpose is to compare the qualitative study, made at the case company, with findings from the thesis theoretical framework.

Research method: The study is a qualitative, as well as a theoretical study where empirical findings and theories has been compared. The intention of investigating and using the Finnish company Tradeka Limited as a case company, is to make the information from the theories more valid, and also the interest in how retention management works in practice. Eleven qualitative interviews were conducted at Tradeka? financial department, both with supervisors and employees to get a broader view at the phenomenon retention management. Result: Leaders and their skill in creating a culture of retention, has becoming a key in why people stay and what usually drives them away from a company. The leader has become the main factor in what motivates peoples decision to stay or leave. For organizations to keep its key employees their number one priority should be to look at their management, because people leave managers and not companies. Characteristics in a leader that are of importance, as the leader plays a key role in retention management is: trust builder, esteem builder, communicator, talent developer and coach, and talent finder. The leaders relation to the employees plays a central role in retaining employees.

Employee Retention Strategies

The basic practices which should be kept in mind in the employee retention strategies are:

1. Hire the right people in the first place. 2. Empower the employees: Give the employees the authority to get things done. 3. Make employees realize that they are the most valuable asset of the organization. 4. Have faith in them, trust and respect them 5. Provide them information and knowledge. 6. Keep providing them feedback on their performance. 7. Recognize and appreciate their achievements. 8. Keep their morale high. 9. Create an environment where the employees want to work and have fun.

These practices can be categorized in 3 levels:

Low, medium and high level. Low Level Employee Retention Strategies:

Appreciating and recognizing a well done job Personalized well done and thank-you cards from supervisors Congratulations e-cards or cards sent to spouses/families Voicemails or messages from top management Periodic days off for good performance Rewards ( gift, certificates, monetary and non monetary rewards) Recognizing professional as well as personal significant events

Wedding gifts Anniversary gifts New born baby gifts Scholarships for employees children Get well cards/flowers Birthday cards, celebrations and gifts Providing benefits Home insurance plans Legal insurance Travel insurance Disability programs Providing perks: It includes coupons, discounts, rebates, etc Discounts in cinema halls, museums, restaurants, etc. Retail store discounts Computer peripherals purchase discounts Providing workplace conveniences On-site ATM On-site facilities for which cost is paid by employees laundry facility for bachelors Shipping services Assistance with tax calculations and submission of forms Financial planning assistance Casual dress policies

Facilities for expectant mothers Parking Parenting guide Lactation rooms Flexi timings Fun at work Celebrate birthdays, anniversaries, retirements, promotions, etc Holiday parties and holiday gift certificates Occasional parties like diwali, holi, dushera, etc Organize get together for watching football, hockey, cricket matches Organize picnics and trips for movies etc Sports outings like cricket match etc Indoor games Occasional stress relievers Casual dress day Green is the color day Handwriting analysis Tatoo, mehandi, hair braiding stalls on weekends Mini cricket in office Ice cream Fridays Holi-Day breakfast Employee support in tough time or personal crisis Personal loans for emergencies

Childcare and eldercare services Employee Assistance Programs ( Counseling sessions etc) Emergency childcare services Medium Level Strategies for Employee Retention

Appreciating and recognizing a well done job Special bonus for successfully completing firm-sponsored certifications Benefit programs for family support Child adoption benefits Flexible benefits Dependents care assistance Medical care reimbursement Providing conveniences at workplace Gymnasiums Athletic membership program Providing training and development and personal growth opportunities Sabbatical programs Professional skills development Individualized career guidance High Level Strategies

Promoting Work/Life Effectiveness Develop flexible schedules Part-time schedules Extended leaves of absence

Develop Support Services On-site day care facility etc.

Understand employee needs: This can be done through proper management

style and culture Listen to the employee and show interest in ideas Appreciate new ideas and reward risk-taking Show support for individual initiative Encourage creativity

Encouraging professional training and development and/or personal

growth opportunities: It can be done through: Mentoring programs Performance feedback programs
Provide necessary tools to the employees to achieve their professional and

personal goals Getting the most out of employee interests and talents Higher study opportunities for employees
Vocational counselling

Offer personalized career guidance to employees

Provide an environment of trust: Communication is the most important and

effective way to develop trust. Suggestion committees can be created Open door communication policy can be followed

Regular feedbacks on organizations goals and activities should be taken

from the employees by: Management communications

Intranet and internet can be used as they provide 24X7 access to the information

Newsletters, notice boards, etc.

Hire the right people from the beginning: employee retention is not a process

that begins at the end. The process of retention begins right from the start of the recruitment process.

The new joinees should fit with the organizations culture. The personality, leadership characteristics of the candidate should be in sync with the culture of the hiring organization. Referral bonus should be given to the employees for successful hires. They are the best source of networking. Proper training should be given to the managers on interview and management techniques. An internship program can be followed to recruit the fresh graduates.


Transparent Work Culture

In todays fast paced business environments where employees are constantly striving to achieve business goals under time restrictions; open minded and transparent work culture plays a vital role in employee retention. Companies invest very many hours and monies in training and educating employees. These companies are severely affected when employees check out, especially in the middle of some big company project or venture. Although employees most often prefer to stay with the same company and use their time and experience for personal growth and development, they leave mainly because of work related stress and dissatisfactions .More and more companies have now realized the importance of a healthy work culture and have a gamut of people management good practices for employees to have that ideal fresh worklife. Closed doors work culture can serve as a deterrent to communication and trust within employees which are potential causes for work- Related apathy and frenzy.

A transparent work environment can serve as one of the primary triggers to facilitate accountability, trust, communication, responsibility, pride and so on. It is believed that in a transparent work culture employees rigorously communicate with their peers and exchange ideas and thoughts before they are finally matured in to full-blown concepts. It induces responsibility among employees and accountability towards other peers, which gradually builds up trust and pride. More importantly, transparency in work environment discourages work-politics which often hinders company goals as employees start to advance their personal objectives at the expense of development of The company as a single entity.

Quality Of Work

The success of any organization depends on how it attracts, recruits, motivates, and retains its workforce. Organizations need to be more flexible so that they develop their talented workforce and gain their commitment. Thus, organizations are required to retain employees by addressing their work life issues. The elements that are relevant to an individuals quality of work life include the task, the physical work environment, social environment within the organization, administrative system and relationship between life on and off the job. The basic objectives of a QWL program are improved working conditions for the Employee and increase organizational effectiveness.

Providing quality work life involves taking care of the following aspects:

Occupational health care: The safe work environment provides the basis for the person to enjoy working. The work should not pose a health hazard for the person. The employer and employee, aware of their risks and rights, could achieve a lot in Their mutually beneficial dialogue.

Suitable working time: Organizations are offering flexible work options to their employees wherein employees enjoy flexi-timings for dedicating their efforts at work.

Appropriate salary: The appropriate as well as attractive salary has always been an important factor in retaining employees. Providing employees salary at par with the other counterparts of above that what competitors are paying motivates them to stick With the

company for long. QWL consists of opportunities for active involvement in group working arrangements or problem solving that are of mutual benefit to employees or employers, based on labor management cooperation.

People also conceive of QWL as a set of methods, such as autonomous work groups, job enrichment, and high-involvement aimed at boosting the satisfaction and productivity of workers. It requires employee commitment to the organization and an environment in which this commitment can flourish. Providing quality at work not only reduces attrition but also helps in reduced absenteeism and improved job satisfaction. Not only does QWL contribute to a company's ability to recruit quality people, but also it enhances a company's competitiveness. Common beliefs support the contention that QWL will positively nurture a more flexible, loyal, and motivated workforce, which are essential in determining the company's competitiveness. Supporting Employees Organizations these days want to protect their biggest and most valuable asset and they want to do this in a way that best suits their organizational culture. Retaining employees is a difficult task. Providing support to the employees acts as a mantra for retraining them. Employers can also support their employees by creating an environment of trust and inculcating the organizational values into employees.

The management can support employees directly or indirectly. Directly, they provide support in terms of personal crises, managing stress and personal development. Management can support employees, indirectly, in a number of ways as follows:

Manage employee turnover: Employee turnover affects the whole organization in terms of productivity. Managing the turnover, hence, becomes an important task. A proactive approach can be adopted to reduce attrition. Strategies should be framed in advance and implemented when the times arrives. Turnover costs should also be taken into consideration while framing these strategies.

Become employer of choice: What makes a company an employer of choice? Is the benefit it offers or the compensation packages it gives away to its employees? Or is it measured in terms of how they value their employees or in terms of customer satisfaction? Becoming an employer of choice involves following a road map which tells where to go as a brand.

Engage the new recruits: The newly hired employees are said to be least engaged in the organization. Keeping them engaged is an important task. The fresh talent should be utilized to maximum before they start feeling bored in the organization.

Optimize employee engagement: An organizations productivity is measured not in terms of employee satisfaction but by employee engagement. Employees are said to be engaged when they show a positive attitude toward the organization and express a commitment to remain with the organization. Employee satisfaction also comes with high engagement levels. So, organizations should aim to maximize the engagement among employees. Coaching and mentoring: Employees whose work performance suffers due to poor interpersonal relationships or because of lack of interpersonal skills should be provided proper coaching by their superiors. Planed coaching sessions help an individual to work through issues, maximize his potential and return to peak performance.


Feedback acts as a channel of communication between the employee and his manager. The amount of information employees receive about how well or how poorly they have performed is what we call feedback. It is a dialog between a manager and an employee which acts as a way of sharing information about the performance. It suggests where the employee performance is effective and where performance has to improve. Managers can provide either positive feedback or negative feedback to employees. This feedback helps the employee assess his performance and identify the improvement areas. Positive feedback communicates managerial satisfaction. Positive recognition for good performance boosts up morale of employees and results in performance improvement to a higher productivity level. It is believed that positive feedback is the only type of feedback that generates performance above the minimum acceptable level. Negative feedback obviously communicates managers dissatisfaction. However, negative feedback sometimes make employee to put more efforts to improve his performance. But such times are very rare. Moreover this improvement is short term. Some managers do not provide any kind of feedback to their employees. Due to no feedback, employees may assume that they are performing productively or they may feel that the manager is satisfied with their performance. Studies reveal the performance tends be same or even decreases if no feedback is provided. Thus, feedback is necessary because:

It builds trust and enhances communication between manager and employee. It gives managers and employees a way to identify and discuss skills and

strengths. Positive feedback leads to employee retention and Retention.

It helps in identifying performance areas that need improvement and specific

ways to improve them. It acts as an opportunity to enhance performance by identifying resources for skill development. It is an opportunity for managers and employees to assess and identify career and advancement opportunities. It helps employees to understand the effectiveness of their performance and contributes to their overall knowledge about the work Managers have tendency to ignore good performances of their employees. Providing no feedback may demotivate employees and may lead to employee absenteeism. Input from managers side is necessary as it help employees to improve their performance and increase productivity.

Communication Between Employee and Employer

Communication is a process in which a message is conveyed to the receiver by the sender. The message may be or may not be in a common format or language that both the sender and receiver understand. So there is a need to encode and decode the message in the process. Encoding and decoding also helps in the security of the message. The process of communication is incomplete without the feedback. Communication is the solution to almost everything in this world. Same applies to employee retention also. Straight-from-the-shoulder communication is what the employees need from their employers. Employees look for organizations where communication and process are transparent. Nothing is hidden and shared with the employees. There are 3 categories of employees:

A: Who will leave their current employer in 3 years of their employment B: Who have a probability of leaving their current employer in next 3 years C: Who will stay with their current employer in the next 3 years

Category A: These are the employees who lack communication with their employers.

Category C: These are the employees who have proper, well structured communication with their employers. Communication is also the way to win the employees trust in the organization. Employees trust the employers who are friendly and open to them. This trust leads to employee loyalty and finally retention.

Employers also feel that the immediate supervisors are the most authenticated and trusted source of information for them. So the organizations should hire managers who are active communicators. Communication mediums.

Open door policy: Organizations should support open door policies so that the employees feel comfortable and are able to express their doubts and feeling to their employers. Frequent meetings and Social gatherings Emails, Newsletters, Intranet and many more. So there should be effective communication across the organization and this communication should be two-way. Communication alone can lead to unimaginable heights of employee retention.

Importance Of Employee Retention

The process of employee retention will benefit an organization in the following ways: 1. The Cost of Turnover: The cost of employee turnover adds hundreds of thousands of money to a company's expenses. While it is difficult to fully calculate the cost of turnover (including hiring costs, training costs and productivity loss), industry experts often quote 25% of the average employee salary as a conservative estimate.

Loss of Company Knowledge: When an employee leaves, he takes with him valuable knowledge about the company, customers, current projects and past history (sometimes to competitors). Often much time and money has been spent on the employee in expectation of a future return. When the employee leaves, the investment is not realized.

Interruption of Customer Service: Customers and clients do business with a company in part because of the people. Relationships are developed that encourage continued sponsorship of the business. When an employee leaves, the relationships that employee built for the company are severed, which could lead to potential customer loss.

Turnover leads to more turnovers: When an employee terminates, the effect is felt throughout the organization. Co-workers are often required to pick up the slack. The unspoken negativity often intensifies for the remaining staff. Goodwill of the company: The goodwill of a company is maintained when the

attrition rates are low. Higher retention rates motivate potential employees to join the organization.

Regaining efficiency: If an employee resigns, then good amount of time is lost in hiring a new employee and then training him/her and this goes to the loss of the company directly which many a times goes unnoticed. And even after this you cannot assure us of the same efficiency from the new employee What Makes Employee Leave? Employees do not leave an organization without any significant reason. There are certain circumstances that lead to their leaving the organization. The most common reasons can be:

Job is not what the employee expected to be: Sometimes the job responsibilities dont come out to be same as expected by the candidates. Unexpected job responsibilities lead to job dissatisfaction.

Job and person mismatch: A candidate may be fit to do a certain type of job which matches his personality. If he is given a job which mismatches his personality, then he wont be able to perform it well and will try to find out reasons to leave the job.

No growth opportunities: No or less learning and growth opportunities in the current job will make candidates job and career stagnant.

Lack of appreciation: If the work is not appreciated by the supervisor, the employee feels de-motivated and loses interest in job.

Lack of trust and support in co workers, seniors and management: Trust is the most important factor that is required for an individual to stay in the job. Non-supportive co workers, seniors and management can make office environment unfriendly and difficult to work in.

Stress from overwork and work life imbalance: Job stress can lead to work life imbalance which ultimately many times lead to employee leaving the organization.

Compensation: Better compensation packages being offered by other companies may attract employees towards themselves.

New job offer: An attractive job offer which an employee thinks is good for him with respect to job responsibility, compensation, growth and learning etc. can lead an employee to leave the organization.

Managing Employee Retention:

The task of managing employees can be understood as a three stage process: 1. Identify cost of employee turnover. 2.Understand why employee leave. 3.Implement retention strategies The organizations should start with identifying the employee turnover rates within a particular time period and benchmark it with the competitor organizations. This will help in assessing the whether the employee retention rates are healthy in the company. Secondly, the cost of employee turnover can be calculated. According to a survey, on an average,

attrition costs companies 18 months salary for each manager or professional who leaves, and 6 months pay for each hourly employee who leaves. This amounts to major organizational and financial stress, considering that one out of every three employees plans to leave his or her job in the next two years.

Understand why employees leave : Why employees leave often puzzles top management. Exit interviews are an ideal way of recording and analyzing the factors that have led employees to leave the organization. They allow an organization to understand the reasons for leaving and underlying issues. However employees never provide appropriate response to the asked questions. So an impartial person should be appointed with whom the employees feel comfortable in expressing their opinions.

Implement retention strategy : Once the causes of attrition are found, a strategy is to be implemented so as to reduce employee turnover. The most effective strategy is to adopt a holistic approach to dealing with attrition.

An effective retention strategy will seek to ensure: Attraction and recruitment strategies enable selection of the right candidate for each role/organization New employees initial experiences of the organization are positive Appropriate development opportunities are available to employees, and that they are kept aware of their likely career path with the organization The organizations reward strategy reflects the employee drivers

How To Increase Employee Retention Companies have now realized the importance of retaining their quality workforce. Retaining quality performers contributes to productivity of the organization and increases morale among employees/ Four basic factors that play an important role in increasing employee retention include salary and remuneration, providing recognition, benefits and opportunities for individual growth. But are they really positively contributing to the retention rates of a company? Basic salary, these days, hardly reduces turnover. Today, employees look beyond the money factor. Retention Bonus

Higher attrition rates within a particular industry have forced companies to use some innovative strategies to retain employees. Retention Bonus is one of the important tools that are being used to retain employees. Retention bonus is an incentive paid to an employee to retain them through a critical business cycle. Retention bonuses are becoming more common in the corporate world because companies are going through more transitions like mergers and acquisitions. They need to give key people an attractive incentive to stay on through these transitions to ensure productivity. Retention bonuses have proven to be a useful tool in persuading employees to stay. A retention bonus plan is not a panacea. According to a survey, non management employees generally receive about 10 percent of their annual salaries in bonuses, while management and top-level supervisors earn an additional 50 percent of their annual salaries. While bonuses based on salary percentages are the generally used, some companies choose to pay a flat figure. In some companies, bonuses range from 25 percent to 50 percent of annual salary, depending on position, tenure and other factors. Employees are chosen for retention bonuses based on their contributions to management and the generation of revenue. Retention bonuses are generally vary from position to position and

are paid in one lump sum at the time of termination. However, some companies pay in instalments as on when the business cycle completes. A retention period can run somewhere between six months to three years. It can also run for a particular project. A project has its own life span. As long as the project gets completed, the employees who have worked hard on it are entitled to receive the retention bonus. For example, the implementation of a system may take 18 months, so a retention bonus will be offered after 20 months. Although retention bonuses are becoming more common everywhere, some industries are more likely than others to offer them. Retail/wholesale companies are the most appropriate to implement stay-pay bonuses, followed by financial service providers and manufacturing firms. Companies of all sizes use retention bonus plans to keep knowledge employees retained in the company. To retain its key senior employees post merger with EDS Corporation, Mphasis is providing cash component based retention bonus plan for its employees. This is mainly to retain good employees and provide them a cash incentive to keep them motivated.

Hire Right Talent

employee retention starts with recruitment. Early departures arise from the wrong recruitment process. Here are a few ways to ensure how to hire the right talent for a particular job. Hire appropriate candidates. Hire candidates who are actually suitable for the job. For this the employer should understand the job requirements clearly. Dont hire under qualified or clearly overqualified candidates.

Provide realistic job preview at the time of hiring: Mostly employees leave an organization because they are given the real picture of their job responsibilities at the time of joining. Attrition rate can be reduced if a right person is hired for a right job. Realistic preview of the job responsibilities can be given to the employment seekers by various methods like discussions, trial periods, internships etc.

Clearly discuss what is expected from the employee: Before joining the organization, tell the candidate what is expected from him. Setting wrong expectations or hiding expectations will result in early leaving of employees.

Discuss what the expectations of the employees are: Ask employees what they expect from the organization. Be realistic. If their requirements can be fulfilled only then promise them. Or tell them beforehand that their requirements cannot be fulfilled.

Dont show them an unrealistic picture Culture fit: Try to judge individuals capability to adapt to the organizations culture. A drastic change in the culture may give a culture shock to the candidate.

Referrals: According to the research, referred candidates stay longer with the organization. There is a fear of hampering the image and reputation of the person who referred the candidate.

Manager Role in Retention

When asked about why employees leave, low salary comes out to be a common excuse. However, research has shown that people join companies, but leave because of what their managers do or dont do. It is seen that managers who respect and value employees competency, pay attention to their aspirations, assure challenging work, value the quality of work life and provided chances for learning have loyal and engaged employees. Therefore, managers and team leaders play an active and vital role in employee retention. Managers and team leaders can reduce the attrition levels considerably by creating a motivating team culture and improving the relationships with team members. This can be done in a following way:

Creating a Motivating Environment: Team leaders who create motivating environments are likely to keep their team members together for a longer period of time. Retention does not necessarily have to come through fun events such as parties, celebrations, team outings etc. They can also come through serious events. e.g. arranging a talk by the VP of Quality on career opportunities in the field of quality. Employees who look forward to these events and are likely to remain more engaged. Standing up for the Team: Team leaders are closest to their team members. While they need to ensure smooth functioning of their teams by implementing management decisions, they also need to educate their managers about the realities on the ground. When agents see the team leader standing up for them, they will have one more reason to stay in the team.

Providing coaching: Everyone wants to be successful in his or her current job. However, not everyone knows how. Therefore, one of the key responsibilities will be providing coaching that is intended to improve the performance of employees. Managers often tend to escape this role by just coaching their employees. However, coaching is followed by monitoring performance and providing feedback on the same.

Delegation: Many team leaders and managers feel that they are the only people who can do a particular task or job. Therefore, they do not delegate their jobs as much as they should. Delegation is a great way to develop competencies. Extra Responsibility: Giving extra responsibility to employees is another way to get them engaged with the company. However, just giving the extra responsibility does not help. The manager must spend good time teaching the employees of how to manage responsibilities given to them so that they dont feel over burdened.

Focus on future career: Employees are always concerned about their future career. A manager should focus on showing employees his career ladder. If an employee sees that his current job offers a path towards their future career aspirations, then they are likely to stay longer in the company. Therefore, managers should play the role of career counsellors as well.

How to Improve Employee Retention?

People want to enjoy their work so make work fun and enjoyable. Understand that employees need to balance life and work so offer flexible starting times and core hours. Provide 360 feedback surveys and other questionnaires to foster open

communication. Consider allowing anonymous surveys occasionally so employees will be more honest and candid with their opinions. Provide opportunities within the company for career progression and cross-training. Offer attractive, competitive benefits .

Organizations should target job applications for employees who have characteristics that fit well with the organizational culture. Upon conducting an interview, seek out traits, such as loyalty. Also, ask the potential employee what motivates them on the job. Having more information about the potential employees expectations can help retain them, should they get hired into the company.

Rewards and Recognition

Employees want to be recognized for a job well done. Rewards and recognition respond to this need by validating performance and motivating employees toward continuous improvement. Rewarding and recognizing people for performance not only affects the person being recognized, but others in the organization as well. Through a rewards program, the entire organization can experience the commitment to excellence. When the reward system is credible, rewards are meaningful; however, if the reward system is broken, the opposite effect will occur. Employees may feel that their performance is unrecognized and not valued, or that others in the organization are rewarded for the wrong behaviours. Unrecognized and no valued performance can contribute to turnover. Recognition for a job well done fills the employees' need to receive positive, honest feedback for their efforts.

Need for Rewards and Recognition

Recognition should be part of the organization's culture because it contributes to both employee satisfaction and retention. Organizations can avoid employee turnover by rewarding top performers. Rewards are one of the keys to avoiding turnover, especially if they are immediate, appropriate, and personal. A Harvard University study concluded that organizations can avoid the disruption caused by employee turnover by avoiding hiring mistakes and selecting and retaining top performers.

One of the keys to avoiding turnover is to make rewards count. Rewards are to be immediate, appropriate, and personal. Organizations may want to evaluate whether getting a bonus at the end of the year is more or less rewarding than getting smaller, more frequent payouts. Additionally, a personal note may mean more than a generic company award. Employees should be asked for input on their most desirable form of recognition. Use what employees say when it comes time to reward for performance.

Designing a Rewards and and Recognition Solution

In designing a rewards and recognition program, the following guidelines should be considered.

Rewards should be visible to all members of the organization. Rewards should be based on well-defined, credible standards that have been

developed using observable achievements.

Rewards should have meaning and value for the recipient. Rewards can be based on an event (achieving a designated goal) or based on a

time frame (performing well over a specific time period).

Rewards that are spontaneous (sometimes called on-the-spot awards) are also

highly motivating and should also use a set criteria and standard to maintain credibility and meaning.

Rewards should be achievable and not out of reach by employees. Nonmonetary rewards, if used, should be valued by the individual. For

example, an avid camper might be given a 10-day pass to a campsite, or, if an individual enjoys physical activity, that employee might be given a spa membership. The nonmonetary rewards are best received when they are thoughtfully prepared and of highest quality. Professionalism in presenting the reward is also interpreted as worthwhile recognition.

Rewards should be appropriate to the level of accomplishment received. A cash award of $50 would be inappropriate for someone who just recommended a process that saved the organization a million dollars. Determining the amount of money given is a delicate matter of organizational debate in which organizational history, financial parameters, and desired results are all factors. Recognition for a job well done can be just as valued and appreciated as monetary awards. Formal recognition program can be used with success. First Data Resources, a data processing services company that employees more than 6,000 individuals in Omaha, Nebraska, uses a formal recognition program (Adams, Mahaffey, and Rick,2002). Rewards are given on a monthly, quarterly, and yearly basis, and range from Nebraska football tickets, gift certificates, pens, plaques, mugs, and other items.

One of the most popular awards at First Data is called the "Fat Cat Award" that consists of: $500 gift check Professional portrait of the employee Appreciation letter from the CEO and senior management E-mails, phone calls, and notes from peers

In addition to nonmonetary rewards, employees can be rewarded using money in numerous ways. Cash is a welcome motivator and reward for improving performance, whether at formal meetings or on the spot. Variable bonuses linked to performance are another popular reward strategy. Profit sharing and pay-for-skills are monetary bonus plans that both motivate individuals and improve goal achievement. Small acts of recognition are valuable for employee daily Retention. Sometimes a personal note may mean more than a generic company award.

In one survey, employees cited the following as meaningful rewards (Moss, 2000):

Employee of the month awards Years of service awards Bonus pay (above and beyond overtime) for weekend work Invitations for technicians to technical shows and other industry events Meaningful and Retention Rewards

What gives meaning to rewards and recognition? What makes them effective? First, rewards and recognition should be based on a clear set of standards, with performance verifiable or observable. The standards for the reward should also be achievable. If the reward is based on an unachievable result, such as a production goal that is beyond employees' power, then those employees will not be motivated. Meaningful rewards and recognition that are achievable have the greatest impact. Case Studies

1.Employee Retention Best Practices in Keeping and Motivating Employees By LisBeth Claus Ask any CEO of an organization, What keeps you awake at night? and you will get a response that relates to people management issues. a main concern for any organization (whether small or large; private, public or nonprofit) is its capacity to attract, engage, and retain the right people. The problem of retention is compounded by the predicted talent shortage resulting from the upcoming retirement of the baby boomers, the scarcity of talent with relevant work skills for todays jobs, the changing values about work and the high cost of turnover. Research and human resource practices provide us with a number of recommendations to increase employee retention.

2.How Auditing Company X Works with Retaining Valuable Employees : Swedish Case study University essay from Hogskolan i Jonkoping/IHH, EMM (Entrepreneurskap, Marknadsforing, Management) Author: Josip Bogic; Elina Armanto; Maja Cassel; [2008] Abstract: Today, neither employees nor employers seem to take for granted that a person will stay with the same firm until retirement. Yet, keeping employees for longer periods is an imp-ortant challenge for firms. One

industry where retention is interesting is the auditing industry in Sweden, this because certain requirements are needed to become an auditor. Firstly, the employee needs to have a Swedish university degree, including specific courses within au-diting/accounting. Furthermore, the person needs practical experience for a specific period of time. Due to these statements the challenge of retaining and motivating valuable employees is crucial for the auditing firms, which is why we have chosen to do a case study at Auditing Company X to see how they work with employee retention. We have compared the findings to our chosen theory, which consist of four categories:

the hiring process, in-ternal labor market and career, motivation and performance, and finally culture and leader-ship. These four categories are initially based on Leigh Branham?s book: ?Keeping the people who keep you in business: 24 ways to hang on to your most valuable talent? (Bran-ham, 2001).

In our conducted case study, at Auditing Company X, we have been able to conclude that the firms retention practices are to a great extend in line with the theoretical framework. There are some areas that need further attention from the company, such as an individualized reward system and communication between managers and employees. Even though there are some parts to work on the most important aspects of retention, such as having a holistic and long-term orientation, Auditing Company X seems to have incorporated this into their practices successfully.

3.Retention: An explanatory study of Swedish employees in the financial sector

regarding leadership style, remuneration and elements towards job satisfaction University essay from Vaxjo universitet/Ekonomihogskolan Author: Sanna Paulsson; Linda Lindgren; [2008]

Abstract: Introduction: Companies today are forced to function in a world full of change and complexity, and it is more important than ever to have the right employees in order to survive the surrounding competition. It is a fact that a too high turnover rate affects companies in a negative way and retention strategies should therefore be high on the agenda. When looking at this problem area we found that there may be actions and tools that companies could use to come to terms with this problem. Research told us that leadership, remuneration and elements like participation, feedback, autonomy, fairness, responsibility, development and work-atmosphere is important for job satisfaction and retention.

Object: The main objective is to increase the understanding regarding employees retention in relation to leadership style, remuneration and elements such as participation, feedback, autonomy, fairness, responsibility, development and work atmosphere in the Swedish financial

Sector Method: We wanted to investigate how employee of the Swedish financial sector prefers to be retained, and how they consider and react to the chosen areas.

The survey has a quantitative approach with a web based questionnaire and includes 129 respondents from banks, insurance and finance companies. The

theoretical framework includes leadership and leadership style, financial as well as non-financial remuneration and research done in later years regarding participation, feedback, autonomy, fairness, responsibility, development and work-atmosphere connected to retention.

Conclusion: The result shows that regarding leadership the respondents prefer leadership based on relations were they feel appreciation. Both appreciations from the closest manager as well as the company management influences employee job satisfaction in a positive way. More money was the most common reason for wanting to change jobs, and when asking how the remuneration system should be designed, base pay with additional bonus and benefits were preferred. But also non financial factors such as participation, feedback, autonomy, fairness, responsibility, development and work-atmosphere must be taken in consideration to satisfy since they seem to increase employees? Willingness to stay in the company.

4.What leaders can do to keep their key employees - Retention Management University essay from Goteborgs universitet/Foretagsekonomiska institutionen Author: Lisa Hedberg; Maria Helnius; [2007-09-03T08:22:31Z]

Abstract: Background: retention management is a highly topical subject and an important dilemma many organizations might face in the future, if not facing it already. We believe that the leader plays a key role in employee retention and retention management. The concept of retention management can both have a narrow, and a broader significance. Both parts of its significance are generally included in this thesis. The background of the thesis present a few articles that

discuss issues that makes it important for the organization, and the leaders, to work hard with retention management. The research is based on the leaders in the Finnish case company Tradeka.

Following key questions are intended to be answered: What are the consequences between leaders actions and employees retention? Which is the leaders role when it comes to retaining employees? Purpose statement: The purpose of the thesis is to investigate and analyze how company leaders today can retain their key employees. How can the provision of key human resources develop a long-term relationship that makes top employees stay in the company? The study aims to establish the procedure leaders apply to retain employees. The purpose is to compare the qualitative study, made at the case company, with findings from the thesis theoretical framework.

Research method: The study is a qualitative, as well as a theoretical study where empirical findings and theories has been compared. The intention of investigating and using the Finnish company Tradeka Limited as a case company, is to make the information from the theories more valid, and also the interest in how retention management works in practice. Eleven qualitative interviews were conducted at Tradeka? financial department, both with

supervisors and employees to get a broader view at the phenomenon retention management. Result: Leaders and their skill in creating a culture of retention, has becoming a key in why people stay and what usually drives them away from a company. The leader has become the main factor in what motivates peoples decision to stay or

leave. For organizations to keep its key employees their number one priority should be to look at their management, because people leave managers and not companies. Characteristics in a leader that are of importance, as the leader plays a key role in retention management is: trust builder, esteem builder, communicator, talent developer and coach, and talent finder. The leaders relation to the employees plays a central role in retaining employees, because employees need to feel involvement, and that their presence count. When retention is a core value, good things happen for customers, employees, and the company. because employees need to feel involvement, and that their presence count. When retention is a core value, good things happen for customers, employees, and the company.

Theoretical Concept

Meaning Of Research:
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information as a specific topic. In fact, research is an area of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Morry define research as a systematized effort to gain new knowledge. Some people consider research as movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery. We all possess the vital instinct of inquisitiveness makes us probe and attain full and fuller understanding of the unknown. This inquisitiveness is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.

Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D.Slesinger and M Stephenson in the encyclopedia of Social Sciences define research as the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short, the

search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of a theory is also research. As such the term research refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions(s) towards the concerned problem or in certain generalizations for some theoretical formulation.

Defining A Research Problem

A researcher must find the problem and formulate it so that it becomes susceptible to research. Like a medical doctor, a researcher must examine all the symptoms (observed by him) concerning a problem before he can diagnose correctly.

Research Methodology

Research Design: Descriptive as well as Analytical

The research design indicates the type of research methodology under taken to collect the information for the study. The researcher used both descriptive and analytical type of research design for his research study. The main objective of using descriptive research is to describe the state of affairs as it exits at present. It mainly involves surveys and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. The researcher used descriptive research to discover the characteristics of customers. Descriptive research also includes demography characteristic of employee who are woking in TCS. The researcher also used analytical research design to analyze the existing facts from the data collected from the employee

Methods Of Data Collection:

There are various tools for collecting the data which are required for deep study and analysis of the project.

Qualitative Method
Talking to employees of finance sector Taking interview Personal observation

Data Collection: Secondary Data:

The secondary data was collected from the books, company catalogue, and websites and through the interaction with the individuals.

Data Analysis: The data which is collected is analyzed and is represented in the chart and
theories form.

Statistical tools
In this research report several statistical tools are being used. Some of them are pie chart, bar graph, average, etc.


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It is found out that, 40% of respondents are aware of HR Policies and 60 % of respondents are not aware of HR Policies. It is found out that, 76% of respondents are getting right amount of accurate information at right time and 24% of respondents are not getting right amount of accurate information at right time. It is found out that, 82% of respondents are able to meet superiors expectation and 18% respondents are not able to meet superiors expectation. It is found out that,57% of respondents feels that there pay is on par with compare to employees handling similar responsibilities, and 39% of respondents feels that there pay is less with compare to employees handling similar responsibilities. It is found out that, 70% of respondents are satisfied with hygiene and cleanliness of company infrastructure and 30% of respondents are not satisfied with hygiene and cleanliness of company infrastructure. It is found out that, 40% of respondents are satisfied with Availability of system, storage facilities of company and 60% of respondents are not satisfied with Availability of system, storage facilities of company. It is found out that, 78% of respondents skills are recognized by superiors and 22% of respondents skills are not recognized by superiors. It is found out that, 74% of respondents feel that superiors are taking efforts to motivate them and 26% of respondents feel that superiors are not taking efforts to motivate them. It is found out that, 83% of respondents feel that workload is manageable and 10% of respondents feel that workload is very hard to manage.

It is found out that,55% of respondents feels that the field worker are able to get updates on internal activities, and 45% of respondents feels that the field worker are not able to get updates on internal activities. It is found out that, 89% of respondents feel that the superiors are easily accessible and 11% of respondents feel that the superiors are not easily accessible. It is found out that, 51% of respondents feel that their complaints are resolved quickly and 49% of respondents feel that their complaints are not resolved quickly. From weighted Average analysis it is found that most of the respondents are satisfied with the working hours of the organization From weighted Average analysis it is found that roles & responsibilities are clearly defined by the Reporting heads. From weighted Average analysis it is found that employees feel that their superior's commitment towards job is good. From weighted Average analysis it is found that respondents feel that training and orientation programs are neither good nor bad. From weighted Average analysis it is found that most of the respondents are satisfied with job. From chi-square it is found that there is a significant relationship between Work Culture of the Company and interpersonal relationship between employees. From chi-square it is found that there is a no significant relationship between overall satisfaction and Commitment towards Company. From chi-square it is found that there is a significant relationship between overall satisfaction and aspects of job.

From Kendalls coefficient of concordance it is found that there is a significant difference in the rank assigned by respondents towards the attributes that gives them satisfaction in the company. From One Run Test it is found that the samples are taken randomly.



Employee should be provided with proper training. Employee should be appreciated for good work. Employee should be motivated to welcome the change. If any changes are brought in to software or any module is added then proper training should be given.



1. The findings of the study are subjected to bias and prejudice of the respondents. 2. Area of the study is confined to the employees in Chennai only. 3. Time factor can be considered as a main limitation. 4. The findings of the study are solely based on the information provided by the respondents. 5. The accuracy of findings is limited by the accuracy of statistical tools used for analysis. 6. Findings of the research may change due to area, demography, age condition of economy etc.


Retention is an important concept that has been receiving considerable attention from academicians, researchers and practicing HR managers. In its essence, Retention comprises important elements such as the need or content, search and choice of strategies, goal-directed behaviour, social comparison of rewards reinforcement, and performance-satisfaction. The increasing attention paid towards Retention is justified because of several reasons. Motivated employees come out with new ways of doing jobs. They are quality oriented. They are more productive.

Any technology needs motivated employees to adopt it successfully. Several approaches to Retention are available. Early theories are too simplistic in their approach towards Retention. For example, advocates of scientific Management believe that money is the motivating factor. The Human Relations Movement posits that social contacts will motivate workers. Mere knowledge about the theories of Retention will not help manage their subordinates. They need to have certain techniques that help them change the behavior of employees.One such technique is reward. Reward, particularly money, is a motivator according to need-based and process theories of Retention. For the behavioral scientists, however, money is not important as a motivator. Whatever may be the arguments, it can be stated that money can influence some people in certain circumstance. Being an outgrowth of Herzbergs, two factor theory of Retention, job enrichment is considered to be a powerful motivator. An enriched job has added

responsibilities. The makes the job interesting and rewarding. Job enlargement refers to adding a few more task elements horizontally. Task variety helps motivate job holders. Job rotation involves shifting an incumbent from one job to another.



1. Develop an attractive employee value proposition. An employee value proposition means that your company has something attractive to offer that is perceived as valuable to an employee. as an employer, you must understand what makes your organization attractive to potential recruits and current employees. Branding yourself as an employer of choice is not just a slick set of marketing tactics. The best advocates for an employers brand are its current employees. What messages do they send to others about their employer? Are they honestly saying and believing that, This is a great place to work.

2. Create a total reward structure that includes more than compensation. Every company should have all the normal compensation mechanisms common to their type of employment. yet, total rewards packages go far beyond money. While money might temporarily retain employees, it does not always equate with engagement. People want a chance to make a difference and realize themselves. That self-realization is multidimensional and different for each employee. The total reward structure should include, in addition to compensation, support for employees to attain their personal objectives aligned with the goals of their organization.

3. Give feedback on employee performance on a regular basis. Most managers and employees are not enamored with the performance appraisal process in their organization. yet, an effective performance management process serves many purposes. Ongoing performance feedback allows employees to better know where they stand, gives them a formal means to provide input, indicates that their managers

pay attention to them and that their performance matters. This feedback contributes to employee engagement and retention.

4. Be flexible in terms of work-life balance. Workers more and more value a balance between work and life. They want more flexible ways to engage with their employer. To attract and retain workers with different work and career expectations, organizations have to be more flexible in structuring work and its expectations. It calls for a different managerial mindset and practices that involve letting go of old ways of controlling workers time and attendance in favor of result criteria such as output, productivity and quality.

5. Create a culture of engagement. Employees have become more connected with others in the organization (and the broader supply-and-customer chain) through project-based team work and process management activities. Employees are shifting their loyalty to people, teams and projects and away from company loyalty. It is organizations that create the culture and climate that allow people, processes and projects to become fully connected and engaged with one another. Engaged employees are more likely to stay with their employer.

6. Train managers to be effective. Exit interviews consistently show that poor and bad management practices greatly contribute to an employees decision to leave a company. It is imperative to provide supervisors and managers with adequate tools to become effective managers since we cannot assume that these competencies are innate. Professor Patrick Connor, recently retired after teaching 25 years at the atkinson Graduate school of Management, is

famous among MBA students and alumni for his Connorisms.He told them, your employees do not work for you, they work for themselves. When I teach my students about managing organizations, I have them reflect on what really matters to employees and what they are constantly asking of their managers and their organizations. In the end, what employees expect of their managers is fairly simple: Can I trust you? are you committed to excellence? Do you care about me? What people constantly ask of their organization is: Do you tell the truth? Do you keep promises? Do you act fairly? Do you respect me? Managers and organizations that keep these questions in mind will have a competitive advantage over others in retaining their employees.

Human Resource Management


Personnel and Human Resource Management Ashwathapa K.K Human Resource Management


Kothari, C.R., Research Methodology

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