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Atom

Created by Simon Mung simon.mung(at)gmail.com

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Elements

Can not be broken down into any simpler substance 五行: 金木水火土 (5 elements?)

Water → Hydrogen + Oxygen → Hydrogen + Oxygen Gold → Gold Which of the above is an element? (Water, Hydrogen, Oxygen, gold)

As of March 2010: 118 elements New elements waiting to be discovered…
As of March 2010: 118 elements
New elements waiting to be discovered…

Symbols of elements

Calcium

Ca

Chlorine

Cl

Hydrogen H Oxygen

O

Iron

Fe

Sodium

Na

Structure of atom

General term – particle

None - +
None
-
+

Scientific term (atom)

Inner compact nucleus = Neutron (neutral) and Proton (positive)

Outer cloud of electron (negative)

Nucleus

and P roton ( p ositive) ● Outer cloud of electron (negative) Nucleus What charge is

What charge is the nucleus of an atom?

Sub-atomic particles

Particle

Relative mass

Charge (+1, 0, -1)

Symbol

Neutron

1

N/a

Proton

1

N/a

Electron

Negligible

-

e

Terms to know

Atomic number / proton number (Z)

Number of protons

Mass number (A)

Number of protons + Number of neutrons

● Mass number (A) Number of protons + Number of neutrons Mg 12 ● - ●

Mg

12

- Note: There are the same number of electrons as atomic number for a neutral atom. E.g. the atomic number for Mg is 12 (i.e 12 protons), hence, for a neutral Mg, 12 electrons will be needed.

Therefore, number of neutrons =

Mass number (A) Atomic number (Z)

Symbol of element

Refer to periodic table

Periodic table is arranged in ascending proton number (Z)

periodic table ● Periodic table is arranged in ascending proton number (Z) What is the proton
periodic table ● Periodic table is arranged in ascending proton number (Z) What is the proton

What is the proton number for

Li

Be

Oxygen

A

Z = 8

Z

X

Calcium Z = 20

Chlorine Z = 17

Hydrogen Z = 1

Oxygen Z = 8

Isotope

●Atoms with same proton number but different mass number (i.e different number of protons) ●Note:
●Atoms with same proton number but different
mass number (i.e different number of protons)
●Note: Same element = Same proton number
●Examples: Chlorine, hydrogen and carbon
Mass number:
35
37
Proton number:
Cl
Cl
17
Mass number:

Which of the above atom is heavier? Why?

Proton number:

Mass of atom

Relative to

24 Mg is twice the mass of carbon-12 (i.e. 24 units)

12 C (One carbon-12 atom = 12 units)

12

6

24

C 12

Mg

1

1

H

What is the weight of hydrogen relative to carbon-12?

Relative atomic mass (RAM): Weighted average of the masses of the isotopes in natural proportions

RAM

35

37

Cl

Cl

Cl –35: 75% Cl –37: 25% 0.75 x 35 + 0.25 x 37 = 35.5 (see periodic table)

17

17

Pb-204: 1.5% Pb-206: 23.6% Pb-207: 22.6% Pb-208: 52.3%

What is the RAM of Pb (lead)? Show working out

Ans: 207.2

Electron arrangement

2 nd electron shell

Electron diagram for Ne

2 n d electron shell ● Electron diagram for Ne 10 protons, therefore, 10 electrons needed
2 n d electron shell ● Electron diagram for Ne 10 protons, therefore, 10 electrons needed
2 n d electron shell ● Electron diagram for Ne 10 protons, therefore, 10 electrons needed

10 protons, therefore, 10 electrons needed to ‘neutralize’ the positive charge

1

20

Ne

10

st electron shell

1 st electron shell: Hold 2 e - maximum (duplet rule) 2 nd and further electron shells: Each hold 8 e - maximum (octet rule)

http://www.clickandlearn.org/Gr9_Sci/atoms/ruther.gif

Draw electron diagram for K (Z = 19) Kr (Z = 36)

Draw electron diagram for K (Z = 19) Kr (Z = 36) K Kr

K

Kr

http://wiki.one-school.net/images/thumb/e/e0/DupletandOctet.png/600px-DupletandOctet.png

Any questions?