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I. 1.broadest 2.characterize 3.artefact 4.growth 5.increasgly 6.term 7.of 8.tasks 9.actual 10.most 11.recognition 12.

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II. Early CPUs were custom designed as a part of a larger, sometimes one of a kind, computer. However, this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has largely given way to the development of mass-produced processors that are made for one or many purposes. This standardisation trend generally began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the IC. Transistorized CPUs no longer had to be built out of bulky, unreliable, and fragile switching elements like vacuum tubes and electrical relays. With this improved more complex and reliable CPUs were built onto one several printed circuit boards containing discrete components. During this period, a method of manufacturing many transistors in a compact space gained popularity. The IC allowed a large number of transistors to be manufactured on a single semiconductor-based die, or "chip". At first only very basic non-specialised digital circuits such as NOR gates were miniaturised into ICs. CPUs based upon these "building block" ICs, are generally referred to as SSI devices.


Inceputul procesoare personalizat au fost concepute ca parte a unui mai mare, uneori unul dintre un fel, calculator. Cu toate acestea, aceast metod costisitoare de proiectare procesoare personalizate pentru o anumit aplicaie a dat n mare msur la fel de dezvoltare de produse n mas procesoare care sunt fcute pentru unul sau mai multe scopuri. Aceast tendin de standardizare, n general, a nceput n epoca de mainframe-uri i minicalculatoare tranzistoare discrete i a accelerat rapid cu popularizarea IC. Tranzistori procesoare nu mai trebuia s fie construit din elemente voluminoase, de ncredere, i fragil, de comutare, cum ar fi tuburi vidate i relee electrice. Cu acest procesoare mbuntit mult mai complex i de ncredere au fost construite pe una placi de circuite imprimate care conin mai multe componente discrete. n aceast perioad, o metod de fabricare a multor tranzistori intr-un spatiu compact ctigat popularitate.IC a permis unui numr mare de tranzistori care urmeaz s fie fabricate pe un singur semiconductor pe baz de mor, sau "cip". La nceput, doar foarte de baz non-specializate, circuite digitale, cum ar fi, NICI portile au fost miniaturizat n ICS. Procesoarele bazate pe acestea "bloc de construcie", circuite integrate, sunt n general cunoscute ca dispozitive de SSI.

III. Una din directiile de cercetare in privinta masinilor instruibile este modelarea neuronala. Modelarea neuronala dezvolta sisteme instruibile pentru scopuri generale, care pornesc cu o cantitate mica de cunostinte initiale. Astfel de sisteme se numesc retele neuronale, sisteme cu autoorganizare sau sisteme conexioniste. One of directions of research in machine learning is about neural modeling. Modeling neural develop training systems for general purposes, which start with a small amount of initial knowledge. Such systems are called neural networks, self organizing systems or connectionist systems.

IV. SSI - Server Side Include IC- Integrated Circuit CPU-Central Processing Unit KDD- Knowledge Discovery In Databases ApAI- Applied Artificial Intelligence

V. Spectrum- colors, continuum, distribution, range, sequence, series, sphere Traits- characteristic, attribute, feature, peculiarity, sign, trace, character, indication, property, singularity, trait, distinction, mark, quality

To increment - increase, ontogenesis, gain, growth, emergence, growing, addition, ontogeny, development, maturation, increment, outgrowth, step-up stall - kiosk, stalling, booth, cubicle, carrel, carrell, stand, sales booth estimation - approximation, appraisal, estimation, idea, estimate, assessment