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Examine the life of the Turkish and Mongol nomadic tribes. How did they adjust to their environments?

Examine the rise of the Ottoman Turks. How did they benefit from other conquerors who came before them? Analyse the significance of Constantinople to the success of the Ottoman.

Nomadic peoples drove their Nomadic peoples and their animals herds and flocks to land with abundant grass and then moved them along as the animals thinned the vegetation. They followed migratory cycles that took account of the seasons and local climatic conditions. They lived off meat, milk, and hides of their animals. They used animal bones for tools and animal dung as fuel for fire. They used wool in the big tents yurts. They had a alcoholic drink from animal products by fermenting mare's milk into a potent concoction known as kumiss as early as classical era brisk Nomadic and Settled peoples trade linked nomadic and settled societies. This took place on a small scale as nomads sought agricultural products and manufactured goods to satisfy their immediate needs. Nomads also participate in long distance trade networks.Because of their

mobility and their familiarity with large regions of central Asia, nomadic people were suited to organize and lead caravans that crossed central Asia and linked settled societies from china to the Mediterranean basin. During the postclassical era and later, turkish peoples were especially prominent on the caravan routes of central Asia. Nomadic Society two classes, nobles and commoners. Nobles did little governing. Clans and tribes looked after their own affairs. Leaders passed status to heirs. Commoners could win recognition as nobles by outstanding conduct. The earliest religion of the Nomadic Religion Turkish peoples were around Shamans-religious specialists who possessed supernatural powers. They communicated with the gods and nature spirits, invoked divine aid on behalf of their communities and informed their companions of their god's will. By the sixth century CE, many Turks had converted to Buddhism,

Nestorian Christianity, or Manichaeism. Turkish conversion to Islam In tenth century Turks living near Abbasid empire began to turn Islam. When Turkish peoples migrate into settled societies in large numbers, they helped spread Islam to new lands, Particularly Anatolia and northern India. Khan means rulers. Khans Military Organization rarely ruled directly but they ruled through leaders of allied tribes. Nomadic peoples wielded massive military power due mostly to their outstanding cavalry forces. They learned how to ride horses as children and they had superior equestrian skills. Their arrows flew with deadly accuracy when launched from backs of horses. From about the mid-eighth to Saljuq Turks and the Abbasid Empire the mid- tenth centry, Turkish peoples lived mostly on the borders of the abbasid realm, which offered abundant opportunities for trade. By the mid to late tenth century, large numbers of Saljuq Turks served in Abbasid armies and lived in

the Abbasid realm. By mid eleventh century the Saljuqs overshadowed the Abbasid caliphs. In 1055, the caliph recognized the Saljuq leader Tughril Beg as Sultan (chieftain). Tughril hold the Abbasid capital at Baghdad and he and his successors extended Turks rule to syria, palestine, and other parts of realm. Caliphs served a figureheads of authority while the actual governance lay in the hands of the Turkish Sultans. After Turkish peoples Saljuq Turks and the Byzantine Empire established themselves in Abbasid Persia, other turned their attention to the rich land of Anatolia, breadbasket of Byzantine. Led by Saljuqs, Turkish peoples began migrating into Anatolia in large numbers in the early 11th century. 1071, Saljuq forces inflicted a defeat on the Byzantine army at Manzikert in eastern Anatolia and even took the Byzantine emperor captive. Turkish groups displaced Byzantine authorities and set up their own political

and social institutions. 1453, when ottoman Turks captured the Byzantine capital at Constantinople, byzantine and Christian Anatolia became a turkish and islamic land. Mahmud of Ghazni led the Ghaznavid Turks and the Sultanate of Delhi Turkish Ghaznavids of Afghanistan in raids on lucrative sites in north India. Ghaznavids began their campaigns in early eleventh century, their principle goal was plunder. They became more interested in permanent rule later. They asserted their authority first over the Punjab and then over Gujarat and Bengal. By 13th century, the Turkish sultanate of Delhi claimed authority over all north India. Several of the Delhi Sultans planed to conquer south India and extend Muslim rules there. But they faced constant challenges. The unifier of the Mongols was Chinggis Khan's Rise to Power Temujin, born about 1167 into a noble family. His father was a warrior who forged an alliance between several Mongol clans and seemed likely to become a

powerful leader. When Temujin was 10, rivals poisoned his father and destroyed alliance. After that, Temunjin lived in poverty and a rival once captured him and imprisoned him in a wooden cage, but Temunjin made a daring midnight escape and regained his freedom. In late twelfth Century, Temujin made an alliance with a prominent Mongol clan leader. He mastered the art of steppe diplomacy. He eventually brought all the Mongol tribes into a single confederation and in 1206 an assembly of Mongol leaders recognized Temujin's supremacy by claiming him Chinggis Khan.(universal ruler) Mongol Political Organization Because of Khan's personal experiences, he organized new military units and broke up tribal affiliations; Chose high officials based on talent and loyalty; Established capital at Karakorum present day Han Horin. Chinggis Khan extended Mongol Conquest of Northern China Mongol rule to northern china dominated by nomadic jurchen

people since 1127ce. Mongols raided the Jurchen in north China beginning in 1211; By 1215 Mongols have captured the Jurchen capital near modern Beijing. Mongols controlled north China by 1220; South China was still ruled by the Song dynasty Chinggis Khan tried to open Mongol Conquest of Persia trade and diplomatic relations with Saljuq leader Khwarazm shah, the ruler of Persia, 1218; Upon being rejected, Chinggis Khan led force to pursue the Khwarazm; Mongol forces destroyed Persian cities and qanat; Chinggis died in 1227, laid foundation for a mighty empire Ghengis Khan's grandson who Khubilai Khan consolidated Mongol rule in China. Worked to improve cultural matters in China and guarded welfare of subjects. Promoted Buddhism and provided support for Daoists, Muslims, and Christians in his realm. Named Khan in 1260 but fought contenders for the next for years (hence the question mark on his reign). Attacked Song dynasty from

his base at Khanbaliq, conquered in 1276, and in three years he eventually conquering all of China. In 1279, he proclaimed hmself emperor and established the Yuan Dynasty who ruled china until 1368. Not a successful conqueror after this, failing to conquer Japan due to typhoons The golden horde Group of Mongols overran Russia between 1237 and 1241; Further overran Poland, Hungary, and eastern Germany, 1241-1242; Maintained hegemony in Russia until the mid-fifteenth century The Ilkhanate of Persia Hleg, Khubilai's brother taking Mongol rule in Persia. in 1258 he captured the Abbasid capital of Baghdad. More conquers than governors and lost control eventually. Mongol Rule in Persia Persians served as ministers, governors, and local officials; Mongols only cared about taxes and order; Ilkhan Ghazan converted to Islam, 1295; massacres of Christians and

Jews followed Mongol rule in China outlawed intermarriage b/w Mongols and Chinese, forbade Chinese from learning Mongol language, brought foreign adminstrators into China and put them in charge, dismissed Confucian scholars, tolerated all cultural and relgious traditions in China Many ruling elite became The Mongols and Buddhism enchanted with the Lamaist school of Buddhism that developed in Tibet. Lamaist Buddhism made a place for magic and supernatural powers and it resembled Mongols' shamanism. They also recognized the Mongols as legitimate rulers and went out their way to court the Mongol's favor. The Mongol khans frequently The Mongols and Trade fought among themselves,but they maintained reasonably good order within their realms and allowed merchants to travel safely. So, long distance travel became less risky. Lands as far as China and western Europe became linked. The four Mongol empires

Diplomatic Missions

maintained close diplomatic communications; Established diplomatic relations with Korea, Vietnam, India, western Europe. Diplomats also traveled to west: Rabban Sauma, a Nestorian Christian monk born in Khanbaliq visited Italy and France as a representative of the Persian ilkhan Like silk roads, Eurasia routes

Missionary Efforts

also served a highways for missionaries as well as merchants and diplomats.Sufi missionaries helped popularize Islam among Turkish people in central asia, while Lamaist Buddhism from Tibet attracted interests from Mongols. Nestorian Christians and Roman Catholic Christians also monted missionary campaigns in China. Another Mongol policy that

Resettlement

encouraged Eurasian integration was the practice or resettling peoples in new lands. They had limited amount of artisans and educated individuals, but the more their empire expanded, the more they needed the

service of craft workers and literate administrators. Mongols overlords recruited the talents they need from their allies and conqured people. They often moved to far sites to best use their services. Most important allies of the Mongols are the Uighur Turks. Uighur Turks lived in the oasis cities along the silk roads. They were literate and highly educated. After 1230s the Mongols often took censuses of the lands they conquered, partly to levy taxes and conscript military forces and to locate talented individuals. The Parisian goldsmith Guillaume Boucher was only one among thousands of foureign born individuals who became permanent residents of the Mongol capital at Karakorum because of their special talents. After the reign of Khubilai Collapse of the Ilkhanate Khan, the Mongols encountered serious difficulties governing Persia and China. In persian excessive spending strained the treasury and

overexploitation of the peasantry led to reduced revenues. In 1290s the ilkhan tried to resolve his financial difficulties by introducing paper money and ordering all subjects to accept it for payment of all debts. the purpose is the drive precious metals into the hands of the government but this policy was a failure. Merchants closed their shops and factional struggles continued until Ilkhan Ghazan died in 1304. When last Mongol ruler died without heir in 1335 ilkhanate collapsed. The Mongols used paper Decline of the yuan dynasty money that the Chinese had introduced in Tang and Song dynasties, but they did not maintain adequate reserves of the bullion that backed up paper notes. The general population soon lost confidence in paper money. Beginning in the 1320s power struggles, imperial assassinations, and civil war convulsed the Mongol regime in China. Mongol rulers of china faced an

Bubonic Plague

onslaught of epidemic disease. During the 1330s plague erupted in southwestern china. in late 1340s it had reached southwest asia and europe, where it became known as the black death. Bubonic plague killed half or more of an exposed population. it disrupted the economies and societies throughout most of Eurasia. the khanate of Chaghatai

Surviving Mongol Khanates

continued and the Golden Horde survived until the mid sixteenth century. Mongols in Russia continues to threaten until the eighteenth century and the Mongols who had settled in Crimean peninsula retained their identity until Josef Stalin forcibly moved them to toher parts of the Soviet Union. While the native dynasty filled

The Lame Conqueror

the vacuum in China, a self made Turkish conqueror named Timur moved on to Persia. Because he walked with a limp, contemporaries refered to him as Timur-i lang-- "Timur the Lame". He was born in 1336 near Samarkand. He took

Chinggis Khan as his model. Timur came from a minor noble family and had to make his own way to power. He was a courageous warrior and a charismatic leader. By 1370 he had extended his authority throughout the khanaate of chaghatai and begun build a capital in samarkand. First conquered Persia and Tamerlane's Conquests Afghanistan.Next attacked the Golden Horde by 1390s he severely weakened it. At the end of thecentury, invaded northern India and subjected Delhi to a ferocious sack.Ruled the empire through tribal leaders who relied on existing bureaucrats to collect taxes. he 1404 he began preparations for an invasion of china and he was leading his army east when he fell ill and died in 1405. Tamerlane was a conqueror not governor. Tamerlane's sons and Tamerlane's Heirs grandsons engaged in a long series of conflict that resulted in the constraction of his empire and its division into four main regions. For a century after Tamerlane's

death, they maintained control over the region from persia to afghanistan. In early sixteenth century, the Mughal, Safavid, and Ottoman empires that replaced it all clearly reflected the Turkish Muslim legacy of th elame ruler. Osman during the late Osman thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries carved a small state for himself in northwestern Anatolia. In 1299, he declared independence from Saljuq sultan and launched campaign to build a state at the expense of the Byzantine empire. He become known as Osmanlis or Ottomans. established foothold across the Ottoman Conquests Dardanelles at Gallipoli in Balkans in 1350s, By 1380s they captured Constantinople ,rename of Constantinople, and absorbed Byzantine empire. In 1402 Tamerlane forces crushed the Ottoman empire. After Tamerlane died, Ottoman leaders had to reestablish their rule in their own realm. By 1440s they had recovered and begun to expand in the

Byzantine empire. The campaign culminated in The Capture of Constantinople 1453 when Sultan Mehmed II, known as Mehmed the Conqueror, captured the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. He made the city his own capital and named it Istanbul. By 1480s they controlled all of Greece and the Balkan region. They continued to expand throughout most of the sixteenth century, extending their rule to southwest Asia, southeastern Europe, Egypt, and North Africa.