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Children In Vehicles

Children Left In Unattended Vehicles... Raising Awareness for This Silent Killer Clinton R. Shelley Colleyville Fire Department

Children In Vehicles

CERTIFICATION STATEMENT I hereby certify that this paper constitutes my own product, that where the language of others is set forth, quotation marks so indicate, and that appropriate credit is given where I have used the language, ideas, expressions, or writings of another.

Signed: _________________________________________

Children In Vehicles Abstract Every year hundreds if not thousands of children under the age of five are left in unattended vehicles. Tragically, many of these children are seriously injured or die as a result of this error in judgment by their parent or caregiver. The problem is the Colleyville, Texas Fire Department has no program to raise awareness for this problem resulting in increased risk to the

children of Colleyville. The purpose of this action research was to identify if this problem exists in other communities, what programs are in place, and if vehicles can be made safe for children. Through literature review, experiments, and a nationwide survey, it was apparent that there is indeed a need for greater awareness in Colleyville and across the country.

Children In Vehicles Table of Contents Abstract.Page 3 Table of Contents. ....Page 4 Introduction...Page 5 Background & Significance..Page 6 Literature Review..Page 8

Procedures.Page 18 Results...Page 23 Discussion.Page 28 Recommendations.Page 33 Reference List...Page 37

Table of Figures Figure 1 ................................................................................................................................Page 11 Figure 2 ................................................................................................................................Page 27 Figure 3 ................................................................................................................................Page 28 Appendices Appendix A: Survey Document.......................................................................Page 39 Appendix B: Respondent Departments....................Page 41 Appendix C: Blank Experiment Documentation Form........................................Page 43 Appendix D: Experiment Documentation Forms ...........................Page 44 Appendix E: Program Components.....................................................................................Page 52

Children In Vehicles Children Left In Unattended Vehicles...Raising Awareness for This Silent Killer Introduction In the period between 1998 2006, 300 children have died across the United States due to

being left in unattended vehicles (Null, 2006). In the period between 1990 2005, there were 278 reported cases of children left in unattended vehicles in the state of Texas, of these, 92 children died as a result of this action. (Kids And Cars, 2005). In the period between 2000 2006, the Colleyville, Texas Fire Department has responded to 51 incidents of children being left in unattended vehicles resulting in two injuries and no deaths to date (Department Report, 2006). According to the United States Fire Administration (USFA), one of the largest at risk groups to injury or death from fire is children under the age of five. Ironically, most all of the deaths since 1990 are related to children being left in unattended vehicles and have been children under the age of five. The problem is the Colleyville, Texas Fire Department has no program in place to

educate the community on the hazards of leaving children in unattended vehicles; thereby increasing the risk of injury or death to the children of Colleyville, Texas. The purpose of this research is to identify current programs and issues related to children left in unattended vehicles and develop a program for the community of Colleyville, Texas. Utilizing action research, this researcher will address the following research questions in an effort to develop an effective community awareness program related to this topic: How does Colleyville, Texas compare to other communities with regard to the frequency of occurrence of children left in unattended vehicles? What current programs are being used to raise awareness about children left in unattended vehicles? What factors affect the rate of temperature rise within a vehicle?

Children In Vehicles What products are available to reduce the rate of temperature increase within parked vehicles?

How effective are the products at keeping temperatures within a safe temperature range for children to remain in the vehicle? Background & Significance The Colleyville Fire Department (CFD) is a sub-urban department located in the Mid-

Cities area between Dallas and Fort Worth, Texas. The Department is bordered on its eastern limits by Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Airport. The Department began more than 50 years ago as an all volunteer agency and has transitioned over the last 25 years to an all career staff of 30 personnel with five additional administrative staff. Shift staffing consists of ten personnel covering an engine, medic, and quint responding out of two stations. Colleyville is considered one of the most affluent communities in North Texas and is home to more than 21,000 people dispersed across more than 13 square miles. All Operations personnel work a standard three platoon rotation with one day on duty and two days off duty. Due to the demographics of the area, a large number of day care facilities and stay-at-home parents make their home in Colleyville. The median age of Colleyville residents is 37.8 (Council of Governments, 2006). This demographic lends itself to a large number of small children within the community. The presence of these two components also provides the necessary ingredients for response to children left in unattended vehicles. As mentioned previously, the CFD has responded to a total of 51 incidents of children being left unattended in vehicles between 2000 and 2006. At no time in the past has any effort to create awareness for this situation been conducted. It was not until the summer of 2005 that consideration was given to program development in this area. In May of 2005, the CFD responded to two separate incidents about three weeks apart where toddlers

Children In Vehicles between two and three years of age were left in their parents vehicles in the garage for 20-30 minutes before the parents remembered and went back to get the children out of the vehicle. In one of these incidents, the parent had left the keys in the car and locked the doors. Fire crews arrived on scene and had to break out the window to remove the child. Both children were treated and transported by CFD paramedics suffering from severe heat exhaustion and dehydration. Fortunately, in both instances the children made complete recoveries and suffered no long term adverse effects. According to Kids And Cars (2005), when the outside temperature is 90 degrees Fahrenheit, the inside temperature of a parked vehicle with the windows cracked can reach 125 degrees Fahrenheit in just 20 minutes and as much as 140 degrees Fahrenheit in 30 minutes. In both instances in Colleyville, the outside temperature was greater than 90 degrees Fahrenheit and the incidents were reported between 3:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. which is often considered the hottest time of the day. These sobering statistics only intensify the need for an effective awareness program related to this topic. It was at this point that this researcher was directed to pull reports related to this type of incident and the decision was then made that program development was to begin immediately based on the findings and the volume of incidents for such a small community. As with any fire service organization the mission directly involves preservation of life and property from all types of emergencies and disasters. The presence of this situation has created awareness within the organization of a significant gap in our prevention related efforts that must be corrected before a similar incident results in a less fortunate outcome. Although not directly related to reducing fire

death and injury statistics in the United States, the reduction in the number of children being left in unattended vehicles is of utmost importance and this task is likely to only be accomplished through

Children In Vehicles intense public awareness efforts beginning at the grass roots level. Successful creation and implementation of this program will likely yield positive long term results in the Colleyville area

related to the USFAs operational objective of reducing injury and death among children under the age of five. The central focus of the Leading Community Risk Reduction course is on the use and understanding of the Community Risk Reduction Model. The first step in this model is Getting Ready. One of the objectives within the Getting Ready component is taking responsibility for risk reduction through risk mitigation. The goal of this research is to reduce the risk related to children in unattended vehicles through program development and implementation community wide. Literature Review Research on childhood injuries and prevention measures is a field which has been studied and improved upon for many years. Injury and death statistics for children have been gathered for many years as well. Despite this research in many areas related to children, very little injury statistics were available related to children left in unattended vehicles. This research and statistics gathering only began in a more significant manner since 1990 (Kids And Cars, 2005). Data reporting on this topic has been under reported which statistically underscores the true significance of the problem nationwide. Another interesting point which substantiates the significance of incidents not reported is that the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) has no designated code to report motor vehicle heat related deaths, nor is there any United States national or state data source currently collecting this information (A Guard, SS Gallagher, 2005). According to a report released by the Center for Disease Control [CDC] (2002), of the various ways children have been killed in or around motor vehicles, excessive heat exposure was the most common; however, scientific literature examining the circumstances of these incidents is minimal. Background

Children In Vehicles information on these types of incidents from references such as books and magazines were minimal despite extensive library research efforts. The most prevalent form of information was found on the internet and through networking responses from other fire and EMS agencies. The literature review was developed from the five research questions being used for this research: (1) How does Colleyville, Texas compare to other communities with regard to the frequency of occurrence of children left in unattended vehicles? (2) What current programs are being used to raise awareness about children left in unattended vehicles? (3) What factors affect the rate of temperature rise within a vehicle? (4) What products are available to reduce the rate of temperature increase within parked vehicles? (5) How effective are the products at keeping temperatures within a safe temperature range for children to remain in the vehicle? The initial research question was to determine how Colleyville, Texas compares to other communities with regard to the frequency of children left in unattended vehicles. As stated previously, between 2000 2006, the CFD responded to 51 incidents involving children left in

unattended vehicles (Dept. Report, 2006). Of these 51 incidents, all were accidental circumstances and in no incident were the parents or responsible parties cited or prosecuted for their actions. As stated previously, the collection of data on the topic of children left in vehicles is relatively new with consistent data only being gathered over the last 15 or so years. As this researcher began to search through the various types of media available, it was apparent that community or fire department specific response statistics were going to be available in a limited quantity at best. Those specific statistics that were found have been included in this review, however, a multitude of data of this variety was provided during survey responses which will be presented later in the research.

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A report received from the Escondido, California Fire Department (EFD) showed that from July 19, 2004 to July 10, 2006 their Department responded to a total of 72 incidents involving children locked in vehicles. Of these, none resulted in injury or death to the child involved (EFD Report, 2006). According to a Las Vegas Sun Editorial (2005, October 5), the Las Vegas, Clark County, and North Las Vegas Fire Departments had been dispatched to a total of 2,171 incidents from January 2002 to October 2005 to aid children left unattended or accidentally locked in vehicles. Since 2001, seven children in the same area have died as a result of their entrapment (Las Vegas Sun, 2005, October 4). In 2003, Texas led the nation in the number of pediatric heat related car deaths (Texas Dept. of Family Protective Services, 2006). According to Kids And Cars (2006) more than 1,000 children have died in the United States since 1999 because they were left unattended in or around cars. Of these, about 25% or more than 250 of these deaths were the result of being left inside the car during hot weather. In another study, Guard & Gallagher (2005) found that between January 1995 and December 2002, a total of 233 deaths were recorded involving children left in parked motor vehicles. Although the focus of the study was on the United States, the researchers also identified six cases in Australia, four cases in Japan, two cases in England, two cases in Israel, one case in Italy, and one case in Malaysia. The study also identified no patterns to the number of deaths each year and throughout the course of the study deaths were recorded in 41 out of the 50 states across the United States.

Year 2006 2005

Fatalities 4 (as of 5/28/06) 42

Children In Vehicles 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 Total Figure 1. Number of Deaths Nationally Due to Car-Related Heat Stroke. The focus of the second research question was on current programs being used across the country to raise awareness on the dangers of leaving children unattended in motor vehicles. Several programs were discovered from various parts of the country ranging from simple brochures to regional media campaigns. Another major component of the prevention campaign found across the country was the growing number of states that are adopting legislation or enhancing current laws to make punishment for this behavior more severe. Despite the range in types of programs, the central focus was still on raising awareness for this growing killer of children across the country, and indeed the world. Bullet point pages related to this topic were found on several websites from across the 35 42 33 35 29 220

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nation. The Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD) (2006) and The University of Michigan Health Science Center (UMHSC) were two such pages. The LAFD website, made several suggestions for preventing this type of incident, they were: Put something youll need, like a cell phone, handbag, sunshade, lunch, or briefcase on the floor in the backseat so you have to open the back door of the vehicle. Keep a large teddy bear in the childs car seat when it is not occupied. This will remind you that when the teddy bear is in the seat next to you, the child is in the car seat.

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Make arrangements with your childs babysitter or daycare facility to call anytime your child will not be there.

If you see a child alone in a vehicle, get involved. Never leave your keys where a child can get to them. Make sure your car is locked so kids cannot get inside when un-supervised.

Do not underestimate the capabilities of your child.

UMHSC (2006) made similar suggestions, as well as a few additional health related facts and tips. Those suggestions were: Never leave the keys in the car. Children left in vehicles are at greater risk for abduction as well as heat related injuries. Teach your child the dangers of the car and the trunk. If your child gets locked in a car, call 911 immediately. Heat exhaustion and heat stroke can set in quickly in enclosed vehicles. On a 93 degree day, the interior of a vehicle can reach 125 degrees in as little as 20 minutes. Heat stroke can occur in a matter of minutes for infants and small children. Leaving the windows cracked is not effective for preventing heat related injuries.

Another bullet-pointed page in the form of a printable fact sheet was found on the website of the Texas Department of Family Protective Services (TDFPS). The points were much the same as the previous websites, but this website included links to prevention materials, handouts, and other awareness items to raise awareness. The program was titled Look Before You Leave

Children In Vehicles (TDFPS, 2006). According to this website, the goal was to raise awareness among daycare workers and childcare facilities. In an article found in the South Florida Sun Sentinel (July 8, 2006) a public safety

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announcement (PSA) is under development at Florida Atlantic University to address this growing epidemic. The PSA will depict two cars and a small, helpless baby in the back seat of one vehicle. The cars will carry on a conversation about how dangerous and sometimes deadly it is to leave a child unattended in a vehicle. The PSA will utilize cartoons to spread this message citing their research indicating it to be the most effective form of media for topics of this nature. The end goal of this project is to show the PSA on media outlets all across the state of Florida. An additional prevention campaign found at the fire department level was in San Diego, California. The program called EPIC Medics is nationally recognized for its efforts in raising awareness for child injury prevention throughout southern California. This program has a component directly related the dangers of leaving children unattended in vehicles. The poster is in the form of a decal affixed to the side of San Diego FD ambulances which reads: You wouldnt leave your groceries in the car, why would you leave me? with a picture of a little girl on the opposite end of the decal. This program was initiated following the death of a little girl named Kaitlyn Russell in August of 2000. The program is a component of 4 R Kids Sake which was started after Kaitlyns death. As a result of Kaitlyns death and the efforts to raise awareness, The California Legislature adopted Kaitlyns Law in 2002 which makes it a misdemeanor to leave a child unattended in a hot vehicle (4 R Kids Sake, 2006). According to the Chicago Sun Times (September 23, 2004), fewer than 25% of states had legislation making it a crime to leave a child unattended in a vehicle. In an article found in the Child Protection Law Report (August 12, 2004) only nine states across the United States had

Children In Vehicles enacted legislation to help prevent these incidents from happening. The same article also reports that of the states with current laws in place, Californias is the most comprehensive. According to the Texas Penal Code, Title 5, Chapter 22, Section 10 22.10: LEAVING A CHILD IN A VEHICLE. (a) A person commits an offense if he intentionally or knowingly leaves a child in a motor vehicle for longer than five

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minutes, knowing that the child is: (1) younger than seven years of age; and (2) not attended by an individual in the vehicle who is fourteen years of age or older. (b) An offense under this section is a Class C misdemeanor. Note: If the child is injured, the charge is then elevated to child endangerment, which is a felony. The penalties are six months to two years in jail and a fine up to $10,000.00. This law is representative of what has been adopted by other states across the country (Kids And Cars, 2005). As of November 2006, 11 states have legislation in place related to leaving kids in unattended vehicles and 15 states are currently considering proposed legislation on the subject (Kids And Cars, 2006). Of all the various forms of awareness campaigns and programs, the most in comprehensive by far was the organization Kids And Cars. This organization was started in the late 1990s and has grown to become the most thorough data collection point on all topics related to children injured or killed in or around vehicles. The website contains statistical data, legislative updates and even a model law draft to decrease the length of time needed to draft proposed legislation (KidsAndCars, 2006). In addition to the previously stated items, Kids And Cars provides a detailed list of various safety-related devices available for cars to decrease the likelihood of injury or death among children in or around vehicles. The Kids and Cars website also provides a variety of awareness campaign items to handout or provide during special events or gatherings such as

Children In Vehicles open houses, etc. There is a wide variety of awareness information available, and the level of

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awareness at the state legislative level is growing, what else is needed to reduce the occurrence of this tragedy in our society? The focus of the third research question was on determining which factors affect the rate of temperature rise within a vehicle. According to Null (2006) the atmosphere and windows of a vehicle are relatively transparent to the suns shortwave radiation, however, this shortwave radiation does warm the non-transparent items within the vehicle such as the seats, dashboard, or car seats for instance. These items in turn give off long wave radiation which is very efficient at warming the atmosphere within the vehicle. These steps make the interior warming of a vehicle a two step process. Null (2006) also conducted a study to measure the rate of rise of temperature in an enclosed car on 16 dates between May 16th and August 8th, 2002. The vehicle used was a dark blue midsized sedan with medium gray interior. The test was also done leaving the windows of the vehicle cracked. The findings of this study were as follows: Average elapsed time versus temperature rise o 10 minutes 19 degrees Fahrenheit o 20 minutes 29 degrees Fahrenheit o 30 minutes 34 degrees Fahrenheit o 60 minutes 43 degrees Fahrenheit o 1 to 2 hours 45-50 degrees Fahrenheit The study also concluded that leaving the windows cracked had little effect on the temperature rise and the vehicles interior color was probably the biggest temperature rise factor.

Children In Vehicles Faughn (2005) reported that while folding window shades can reduce the interior temperature of a vehicle, it does not make it safe for a child to be left inside. According to CDC

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(2002) during a one year study of children killed or injured in or around motor vehicles, excessive heat exposure while in a motor vehicle was the leading cause of death, however, scientific information examining the circumstances of such incidents was minimal. In a study conducted by General Motors (GM) in 2003 researchers found that a child could suffer serious injury in just a few minutes while exposed to dry heat conditions. A second study done showed that when the dry heat was replaced with a humid, hot scenario, the length of time to serious injury and/or death was cut in half. The GM study went on to suggest that a childs internal body temperature increases at a rate three to five times faster than that of an adult. The study went on to show that ambient temperatures as cool as 60 degrees Fahrenheit could prove lethal to small children (GM, 2004). In a study conducted by Stanford University in 2005, it was determined that cracking the windows had no impact on the rate of temperature rise, and that running the air conditioner in the vehicle momentarily prior to exiting only delayed the temperature rise by about five minutes (McLaren, Null, & Quinn, 2005). This same study also indicated that all temperature measurements were taken in the shade inside the vehicle and out of direct sunlight. The implications of the study suggest that if a child were exposed to direct sunlight, the rate of onset of symptoms would be more rapid and more devastating (McLaren, Null, & Quinn, 2005). As suggested by one source earlier, scientific data on the factors affecting the rate of temperature rise in parked vehicles is minimal. This researcher was unable to obtain any research data related to items such as the use of tinted windows, various types of window shades, fans, air conditioner left on with the vehicle running, or other possible variables. Due to this difficulty, this researcher conducted experiments

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utilizing some of the aforementioned factors to determine their viability as options to reduce threat potential. The fourth research question was directed at determining products available in the market place with the intention of reducing interior motor vehicle temperatures. Products aimed at reducing interior vehicle temperatures are plentiful in the marketplace, however, there were no products found despite extensive searching that indicated they could cool a vehicle significantly enough to leave a child in the vehicle. One such device was a Malaysian product called E-Vent. This device fits in the window of the vehicle and supplies forced outside fresh air in once the interior temperature exceeds 38 degrees Celsius. The marketing approach of this product was aimed at reducing workloads on vehicle air conditioners and minimizing heat damage to interior components rather than tenability for forgotten occupants (Financial Times, 2003). Various other types of folding window shades were found throughout a widespread internet search with no products advising safe conditions for children, these products only reduced interior temperatures to minimize UV damage to dashboards and upholstery. There were, however, several products identified in the marketplace that aim to reduce the likelihood of forgetting your children in the car. The organization Kids And Cars has developed a keychain attachment of childrens rattle toys to remind parents or caregivers of the presence of the baby in the car (Kids and Cars, 2006). Kids And Cars is also working in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop a car seat alarm which activates when the vehicle is shut off and an occupant remains in a car seat more than a few seconds. The device is called a Child Presence Sensor and NASA is looking for a corporate partner to further develop and market the product for widespread use (NASA, 2002). Finally, GM is developing an alarm system that will respond to the movement of a small child down to the

Children In Vehicles breathing of a sleeping infant that will alarm after only a few seconds if the child is not removed. This product is expected out later this decade (GM, 2005). The final research question was aimed at determining if any of the products identified in research question #4 were viable products for reducing the interior temperature to a safe enough range for children to remain in the vehicle. Since this researcher was unable to identify any

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products claiming to be able to reduce interior temperatures to acceptable ranges, determining their viability has become a mute point with no demonstrable value. Procedures Research for this applied research project was done utilizing action research. The end goal of this project is to develop an awareness program for use in Colleyville, Texas which will reduce the incidence of children being left unattended in motor vehicles hopefully averting potential injuries or death to one of our smaller citizens. Through this effort this researcher hoped to find out how Colleyville, Texas compared to other communities with regard to the frequency of this type of incident. Additionally, current awareness campaigns and programs were analyzed and evaluated. Finally, efforts were made to determine what factors affect the rate of temperature rise in motor vehicles, as well as, what products, if any, could cool vehicles effectively enough to make it tenable for small children, and if so how effective were these products at attaining satisfactory temperature levels. The first step in the research was to utilize the Learning Resource Center (LRC) at the National Fire Academy (NFA) in Emmitsburg, MD. A keyword search was done utilizing children, unattended, and vehicles. This search yielded only a few sources and further review in the LRC yielded one viable source for inclusion in this research. There were no past applied research projects related even vaguely to this topic.

Children In Vehicles Upon returning home to Fort Worth, Texas, this researcher continued my research at the Fort Worth and Hurst, Texas Public Libraries utilizing the same keywords. No books were identified with any information related to this topic, however, there were numerous internet

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resources which were identified and reviewed extensively. These resources provided the basis for the Literature Review of this research effort. As this researcher matched sources to research questions a pattern was determined. This pattern showed that there were no products which claimed to reduce interior vehicles satisfactorily enough for children to remain in the vehicles, and without these products, there would be no way to assess their viability or find past research which supported or condemned the claims of the products. The next step in the research process was to develop a survey for submission throughout the United States to determine the frequency of occurrence for these types of events within other jurisdictions. Secondly, the survey would provide information on the types of awareness programs being conducted throughout the country and the percentage of survey respondents who have awareness programs in place. The third component of the survey would identify injury and death statistics related to children left in vehicles for the survey group independent of national statistics identified previously in this research. According to Krejcie & Morgan (1970), a minimum of 379 respondents would be needed to provide a 95 percent confidence in the survey results. Unfortunately, despite the best efforts of this researcher, only 137 surveys were returned. Multiple surveys from the same fire department were confirmed for duplicity and disregarded; however, the survey respondents provided feedback from a cross section of the country based on location, climate, and population density. The respondents came from a total of 21 states and one additional country. A copy of the survey is available in Appendix A and a list of all respondent departments is available in Appendix B. As conducted in previous surveys, this researcher supplied the survey

Children In Vehicles request to the various Fire Chiefs Associations across the country and politely requested they

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disburse them throughout their email trees to multiply the potential for response above other likely means. The third step in this research process was to conduct field experiments related to the topic of determining rate of temperature rise in varying conditions, ambient temperatures, and types of vehicles. This portion of the research was conducted in the following manner: 1) Identify dates for conducting the experiment and a set time frame each day to maintain consistency. All experiments were conducted from 9:00 a.m. until 10:00 a.m. each date. The experiments were conducted starting on August 2nd and concluding on August 9th . August is typically the hottest month of the year in Texas and would provide the most extreme temperature conditions for consideration of effects on human beings. 2) Measure temperature changes each time utilizing the same machine and verifying calibration prior to the start of the experiment. During this experiment, the researcher utilized a Raynger heat sensing device carried on all fire apparatus within the Colleyville Fire Department. The calibration was verified prior to each experiment utilizing the manufacturers guidelines for calibration. 3) Identify benchmark times in advance and utilize the same benchmarks for each experiment. Based on the findings of sources identified within the Literature Review, the benchmark times established for this volley of experiments was 10 minutes, 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 40 minutes, and one hour. 4) Measure benchmark temperatures in the same manner and location of the vehicle each time to ensure consistency. The temperature was measured for ten seconds

Children In Vehicles each time it was taken and the seat cushion of the backseat in the middle of the seat was utilized each time. The temperature measurements were done in both direct and indirect sunlight to analyze certain aspects of Literature Review

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research which suggested differentiation based on this component. The windows of the vehicle were left down for 30 minutes prior to the start of the experiment to allow the interior of the vehicle to equalize with the ambient outside temperature. 5) Identify the list of variables to be tested and proceed through each one utilizing the process described. For this experiment, the variables utilized were the following: a. Direct and indirect sunlight. b. Parking the vehicle in the shade versus full sun. c. Windows completely sealed versus windows cracked 1.5 inches. d. Light interior cloth versus dark interior cloth. e. Folding window shade versus exposed front windshield. f. Light vehicle color versus dark vehicle color. The results of the experiment will be discussed later in this research. The individual findings, as well as a blank experiment documentation sheet are available in Appendix C. The final component of this research was to develop a program to raise awareness in Colleyville, Texas on the dangers of leaving children in unattended vehicles in hopes of avoiding the injury or death of a child within our community of responsibility. This program is a compilation of facts from the research reviewed and conducted and will be available in both English and Spanish. The components of the program are as follows:

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Bilingual fact sheet on the dangers of leaving children and suggestions for avoiding its occurrence.

Bumper stickers and window clings to be disbursed throughout the schools and daycare facilities of Colleyville, Texas.

Reminder key chains to lessen the likelihood of forgetting the little ones. The goal being to provide one to every parent in Colleyville.

Slide presentation to all daycare workers, school teachers, and as many parents as possible to ensure widespread coverage.

Possible future digital and video components to spread the information on an even more broad scale.

At the time of this writing, all components except for the digital and video portions have been developed. This researcher is in negotiations with local community groups to assist with funding and further development of this program. Limitations: The procedures used in this research were met by several limitations throughout the process. The first limitation is the relatively new nature of the topic in that statistics have only been being gathered for less than ten years. Secondly, products capable of reducing interior temperatures into a safe range for children have yet to be adequately developed despite the seriousness of the issue. Without products that change interior temperatures, there is no way to evaluate their effectiveness in doing so. Finally, despite the repeat efforts of this researcher, there was not an adequate enough response to the survey to ensure 95 percent confidence in the findings, even though the results provide some insight into the significance of the problem nationwide. Definition of Terms:

Children In Vehicles Heat Sensor device which sends out a laser guided signal to measure the temperature of the object on which the laser is aimed. This device is utilized frequently in the fire service for determining hot points within fire buildings. Results The initial research question addressed the comparison of Colleyville, Texas to other communities with regard to the frequency of occurrence of children being left or locked in unattended vehicles. A search of Departmental records found that 51 incidents of this type had occurred between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2005 (Dept. Report, 2006). Of these 51 incidents, only two resulted in injury to the occupants of the vehicle. In addition, the Colleyville Fire Department has no current program in place to heighten awareness for this type of incident.

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When all results from the nationwide survey were completed, a total of 137 surveys were returned. Duplicate department returns were checked for continuity and disregarded if the data was the same. The survey was comprised of eight questions. The only identifying questions within the survey were questions one and two which asked for the name of the Department and the State where the Department was located. The results of the survey are as follows on the next page :Question 3: Size of Population?
Data Type # of Respondents Percentage <10K 31 23% Size of Population 10K-50K 51K-100K 64 18 48% 14% 101K-500K 15 11% >500K 5 4% Total 133 100%

The CFD falls into the category of 10K-50K in population. The 48% of the results received in the survey came from communities of similar size to Colleyville. 85% of survey respondents came from communities with populations of less than 100,000. Only 15% of the results were derived from large, urban communities.

Children In Vehicles Question 4: In the period of 2001 2005, did your Department have any responses involving children left or locked in vehicles which were not running?
Responses to Kids in Vehicles Data Type Yes No # of Respondents 54 79 Percentage 41% 59% Total 133 100%

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As stated previously, the CFD has had responses of this nature thus prompting the research to be conducted. The survey results indicate that less than 50% of the survey respondent Departments has answered similar responses in the last five years. Question 5: If you answered yes, please complete the table below:
Year Responses Injuries Deaths Total Responses of All Survey Respondents 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 490 987 937 955 838 7 9 11 16 24 0 0 0 0 2 Total 4,207 67 2

The total response during the period of 2001 2005 for the CFD was 51. Of these, two incidents resulted in injuries and no deaths were reported. From the results reported we can surmise that roughly one in every sixty-two incidents reported on this survey resulted in an injury and unfortunately, two children lost their lives as a result of being left unattended in vehicles. Question 6: What type of injury was most prevalent among reported injuries?
Type of Injury # of Respondents Percentage Most Prevalent Injuries Hyperthermia Dehydration 15 14 38% 37% Trauma 0 0% Other 10 25%

In the two injuries reported in Colleyville, Texas, the injuries were both related to hyperthermia and dehydration. The survey results indicate that an almost equal percentage of respondents reporting injuries saw injuries in those same two areas. No reports of trauma were

Children In Vehicles noted and the ten other responses were delineated as two reports of cardiac arrest and eight reports of unconsciousness upon arrival of first responders. Question 7: Was outside temperature a factor in the cause of the injuries?
Outside Temperature A Factor Data Type Yes No # of Respondents 27 12 Percentage 69% 31%

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Of the respondents reporting injuries, more than two-thirds considered outside temperature to be a factor. In Colleyville, outside temperature, as well as being in the garage were factors in both reported injuries. However, almost one-third of respondents reporting injury did not see outside temperature as being a factor in the cause of injury. Question 8: Does your Department have an awareness program for the community related to this topic?
Awareness Program Data Type Yes # of Respondents 6 Percentage 5% No 125 95%

As mentioned before, the Colleyville Fire Department does not have a program in place that addresses this issue. The results of the survey show that 95% of respondent Departments do not have a program of this type in place either. Only six communities of those who responded to the survey report having a program in place. Of these six programs, all were based on hand-out materials and presentations among community groups in an effort to spread the word on this silent killer of small children. The ultimate goal of this research was to provide insight and ideas to this researcher in preparation for developing an effective program in Colleyville, Texas that will reduce the incidence of this type of emergency and provide awareness to the immediate community and potentially others as well. Utilizing the results of this research and the ideas discovered during the

Children In Vehicles Literature Review process, this researcher has developed the following program components to help spread the word and increase awareness in the community. This program is a

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compilation of facts from the research reviewed and conducted and will be available in both English and Spanish. The components of the program are as follows: Bilingual fact sheet on the dangers of leaving children and suggestions for avoiding its occurrence. Bumper stickers and window clings to be disbursed throughout the schools and daycare facilities of Colleyville, Texas. Reminder key chains to lessen the likelihood of forgetting the little ones. The goal being to provide one to every parent in Colleyville. Slide presentation to all daycare workers, school teachers, and as many parents as possible to ensure widespread coverage. Possible future digital and video components to spread the information on an even more broad scale. Program component copies are available in the Appendix E of this research document. The second component of this action research was conducting live experiments utilizing available vehicles and weather conditions applicable to Colleyville, Texas. The experiments were carried out over eight consecutive days between 9:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m.. The experiments were done using various options that were considered by this researcher to be possible variables to temperature tolerance. The results of the experiments are presented below and the findings of the experiments will be summarized following the table.
Time Full Sun Windows Closed 2002 Ford Expedition Red in Color, Light Grey Interior Full Sun Shade Windows Cracked Windows Closed

Shade Windows Cracked

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Exposed Windshield 9:00 9:10 9:20 9:30 9:40 10:00 Windshield Shade Exposed Windshield Windshield Shade

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91 - 93 91 - 106 91 - 121 91 - 127 92 - 133 92 - 139

90 - 92 90 - 104 91 - 114 91 - 123 91 - 128 91 - 134

90 - 93 90 - 101 90 - 112 90 - 119 90 - 123 90 - 129

91 - 91 91 - 99 91 - 106 92 - 114 92 - 119 92 - 126

Figure 2: Ford Expedition Experiment Results.

Time

Full Sun Windows Closed Exposed Windshield

2006 Chevrolet Pick-Up Burgundy in Color, Black Interior Full Sun Shade Windows Cracked Windows Closed Windshield Shade Exposed Windshield

Shade Windows Cracked Windshield Shade

9:00 9:10 9:20 9:30 9:40 10:00

91 - 92 91 - 105 92 - 120 92 - 127 92 - 135 93 - 140

91 - 93 91 - 103 91 - 112 92 - 119 92 - 125 92 - 131

90 - 92 90 - 99 91 - 110 91 - 116 91 - 121 91 - 128

91 - 91 91 - 97 91 - 104 91 - 111 91 - 117 91 - 123

Figure 3: Chevrolet Pick-Up Experiment Results. Ambient temperatures were in the range of 90 to 93 degrees Fahrenheit each day and the windows to the vehicle were rolled down and left down for 30 minutes prior to the start of the experiment to get the vehicle interior as close to the ambient air temperature as possible. The two vehicles used provided for one vehicle with light colored interior and one vehicle with dark colored interior. All other experiments were conducted the exact same way on both vehicles providing the yielded results seen in Figure 2 and Figure 3. The other variables measured were closed versus cracked windows which were lowered 1 . Full sun versus parking in a shaded area was measured. Lastly, the differentiation between an open front windshield and one blocked

Children In Vehicles with a folding sun shade was assessed. Further critique and discussion of the results of the experiment will be provided in the next section of the research. Discussion

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At the conclusion of the literature review related to this topic, the independent nationwide survey, and the on site experiments conducted on the topic, awareness on the dangers of leaving children in vehicles unattended is poor at best. Furthermore, fire departments across this nation are doing little as a whole to change this fact. The CDC (2002) identified excessive heat exposure as the leading cause of death among children left in motor vehicles unattended. Experimentation by this researcher concluded that there is no effective way to reduce interior temperatures to safe levels for occupation by small children with the vehicle not running. No products were found that were aimed at reducing internal vehicle temperatures to safe ranges for leaving children in the car, nor should there likely be such devices designed and marketed. Products are under development to reduce the likelihood of forgetting children, and legislation is being pressed significantly across the nation to limit the occurrence of this tragedy and make those who do so suffer accordingly for their errors in judgment or memory. Despite these efforts, not enough is being done, because children are still dying in this manner every year. Awareness of this growing epidemic of poor judgment is lacking significantly. If there is to be a change in the frequency of occurrence something has to be done to heighten awareness. According to Kids And Cars (2005), data collection on this topic only began in 1990 and even now the data collection is voluntary and mostly collected through nationwide media searches. There is no federal identifier given to these types of incidents when collecting injury statistics (Kids And Cars, 2005). Kids And Cars also has brochures, window clings, and other informational tools, as well as reminder items available to the public, yet until conducting this research, this researcher

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had never even heard of the organization in my 16 plus years of public safety service. Null (2006) acknowledged Kids And Cars as the nationwide leader in this type of data collection, yet it is not enough if the organization is not known to those who can help make a difference such as fire departments, which focus a large portion of their efforts on prevention and awareness. According to TDFPS (2006), Texas led the nation in fatalities from children being left or locked in unattended vehicles in 2003. This state agency recognized the need for a program and developed the Look Before You Leave program to raise awareness. Until this researcher began this project and researched current programs, there was no knowledge of this program. Here are two programs, one on a national level and one on a state level, which this researcher, who has been in public safety for more than sixteen years had no prior knowledge of these programs before conducting this research. Following the results of the nationwide survey, 95% of respondents to the survey admitted to no type of awareness program for this topic in their organizations. Only six organizations had programs in place to address this problem. This is a truly staggering statistic. If the results of this survey were extrapolated out over all of the fire departments in the United States, and the percentages of the survey did not change, less than of one percent of fire departments in this nation would be addressing this problem in some manner. Only 147 fire departments of the more than 30, 572 current agencies would be doing anything to keep these statistics from growing in their own communities. Only 41% of survey respondents reported responding to emergencies of this type. Could lack of response and complacency on the part of fire and EMS agencies be contributing to the lack of awareness effort? Based on this researchers experience and history within the fire department that workloads and span of capabilities in most fire agencies requires focus on the most likely

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problems in the community leading to exclusion of potential problems such as the topic discussed in this research. Lack of response should not deter efforts to raise awareness. This emergency can occur in any environment and it does not necessarily have to be excessively hot outside for injury or death to occur (Kids And Cars, 2005). However, 69% of survey respondents did report that outside temperature was a factor in the injuries to which they responded. According to a Las Vegas Sun Editorial (2005, October 5), the Las Vegas, Clark County, and North Las Vegas Fire Departments had responded to more than 2,100 incidents between January 2002 and October 2005 to assist children left or locked inside unattended vehicles. Several of these incidents resulted in fatalities, yet nowhere in the editorial did it mention any programs being used to thwart the growing epidemic in their area. Additional research did not identify any programs being used in the area either. Guard & Gallagher (2005) confirmed this researchers suspicions that this problem was not limited to the United States alone. Indeed, their research showed that this same type of event with the outcome being that of a fatality investigation had occurred 16 times across six other countries during their study period of 1995 - 2002. Despite my efforts, this researcher was unable to find any sources or information on awareness programs being done to address this issue in the countries identified by their study. One of the goals of this research was to identify products which reduce interior vehicle temperatures to acceptable levels for safe habitation by human beings. This research question proved to be one in which there were no supporting products even in development. Despite this researchers disappointment at not being able to find research material related to this question, I now realize the foolishness of developing such products. These products would encourage parents that it is alright to leave their children in the vehicle alone. If this type of behavior is rejected and

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not condoned, there will eventually be a reduction and let us all hope that someday and elimination of this tragedy. Several products were identified by this researcher, which are under development for alarming parents to forgetting the children, or reminding them in more subtle ways to check the backseat. NASA (2002) and GM (2005) both reported on development of alarm features to address this problem. The NASA alarm is engineered for attachment within the childs safety seat, and the GM product is geared at alarming parents if they exit the vehicle and move too far away in the seconds following exit. Despite the efforts of these two agencies, neither product is available as of this writing. Kids And Cars (2005) created a keychain attachment which looks like a set of baby rattles to remind parents of the presence of little ones in the vehicle. LAFD (2006) in its bulleted list of suggestions to prevent leaving your kids suggested keeping a large teddy bear in the car seat and placing in the front seat when the child is in the vehicle to remind of their presence. All of these tools are aimed at reducing the incidence of this emergency, but only work if they are implemented by the end-users. The final component of change in reducing these emergencies is the incorporation of state laws to punish those who do so despite what is expected of them. According to the Chicago Sun Times (September 23, 2004), fewer than 25% of states had legislation making it a crime to leave a child unattended in a vehicle. In an article found in the Child Protection Law Report (August 12, 2004) only nine states across the United States had enacted legislation to help prevent these incidents from happening. As of November 2006, 11 states have legislation in place related to leaving children in unattended vehicles and 15 states are currently considering proposed legislation on the subject (Kids And Cars, 2006).

Children In Vehicles Even though this is great progress, these statistics report that just more than half of the states in the United States are addressing this issue at the legal level. According to Guard &

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Gallagher (2005), during their study period deaths from being left in unattended vehicles occurred in 41 out of 50 states in the U.S. At the very least, why wouldnt all of these states address the problem at the legal level? If this did occur, more than 80% of states would have laws against this type of behavior. The final component of this research effort was to identify factors which affect the rate of temperature rise in vehicles. According (McLaren, Null, & Quinn, 2005) and Null (2006) both reported temperature increases within a vehicle of 19 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit in a period from ten minutes to one hour without the vehicle running. Experiments conducted by this researcher concur with these results. Experiment results showed temperature increases ranging from six degrees Fahrenheit after ten minutes to 48 degrees Fahrenheit after one hour. However, this researchers experiments also showed that use of a folding window shade in conjunction with parking in the shade and cracking windows 1 reduced the one hour temperature increase to 32 degrees Fahrenheit. This 32 degree increase in temperature still resulted in an interior temperature of 123 degrees Fahrenheit, which is still extremely dangerous for any human being especially children. This finding also concurs with Faughn (2005) which suggests that use of folding window shades does not make a vehicle tenable for small children. According to (McLaren, Null, & Quinn, 2005), leaving the windows cracked had little effect on interior temperatures, however, this researchers experiments showed a temperature reduction range of five degrees Fahrenheit while parked in the shade, and nine degrees Fahrenheit while parked in direct sunlight. Regardless of variance, the final result of on site experiments and those conducted by sources within the Literature Review revealed a common thread in that

Children In Vehicles vehicles regardless of type, color, interior, or other cooling factors are no place to leave children unattended.

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Recommendations At the conclusion of this research project, examination of the literature review, results of a nationwide survey, and results of independent experiments conducted by this researcher have made it quite evident that the following steps need to be taken within the CFD to move forward with the program developed as part of this research are: Obtain the full support of the Colleyville Fire Department Administration and City Management to proceed with the implementation of this program across the City and potentially the area. Incorporate this prevention program as a component of the Departments overall community risk reduction efforts and create buy-in from the Operations personnel as to the validity and necessity of the program. Establish a financial backing for the program through utilization of community stakeholders such as: o The Lions Club o Rotary Club o Colleyville Womens Club o Colleyville Chamber of Commerce Monitor the progress of the program by continuing to collect statistical data checking for reductions or increases in this type of emergency.

Children In Vehicles As a result of the research, this researcher believes that changes in the Fire Service need to occur such as: More involvement on the part of the American Fire Service in injury prevention efforts specific to this topic. Just because your community is not responding to

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hundreds of these calls a year, does not make the situation any less important in the protection of our smallest treasures. Better record-keeping for statistical tracking of trends or changes needed in the program. Continue to pressure automakers to install safety systems specific to this topic with a goal of eliminating children left in vehicles altogether. Heavy utilization of the media to bring more attention on the gravity of this matter.

If we can all work together to make these changes, I believe the following outcomes are possible: Eventual elimination of the problem. Significant reduction in the number of incidents each year involving children left in vehicles. Parents who are more aware of where their children are at all times. An involved Fire Service committed to reducing the frequency of this problem.

These changes will take time and commitment on the part of everyone involved. Without commitment and follow-up, this program will fail before it gets started. The goal of this researcher is to continue to monitor the program as it spreads with the following commitments: Quarterly statistical assessment of incident occurrence. Semi-annual outreach statistics for gauging the programs spread through the community and abroad.

Children In Vehicles Annual assessment of handouts and presentation materials with augmentation of new ideas, stats, etc. as they become available. For any other researcher wishing to explore this topic more deeply, this researcher would recommend the following considerations as you prepare for your journey:

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Do not be surprised by the lack of information specific to this topic that is available. Utilization of the various State Fire Chiefs Associations seem to be fairly effective in getting the survey out to a broad spectrum of departments and communities.

Plan to search much deeper than the LRC at the NFA will allow. The relative newness of this topic makes it difficult to gather very much information from sources other than the internet.

Get involved. If you see a child in a vehicle, dont ignore it, or assume that someone else will do it, fix the problem before the problem grows and someone is hurt or killed.

Utilize the temperature experiments to determine the temperature ranges specific to your community. The resource experiment was conducted in California. The variation to my experiment in Texas was minimal, but there was variation.

Be thorough as the research you conduct will likely be shedding needed insight onto a topic of great importance.

Children In Vehicles Reference List 4 R Kids Sake (2006). Kaitlyns Law. Retrieved July 12, 2006 from http://www.4rkidssake.org/Kaitlynslaw.html Center for Disease Control: MMWR Weekly (2002). Injuries and Deaths Among Children Left

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Unattended in or Around Motor Vehicles---United States, July 2000-June 2001. Retrieved July 12, 2006 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrrhtml/mm512a3.htm. Colleyville Fire Department (2006). Retrieved from departmental records database. Accessible by public record request, (817) 488-6277. Escondido, California Fire Department (2006). Incidents Involving Children Locked in Vehicles. Retrieved via email request: www.ci.escondido.ca.us/fire. Gallagher, S.S. & Guard, A (2005). Heat related deaths to young children in parked cars: an analysis of 171 fatalities in the United States, 1995-2002. Injury Prevention, 11, 33-37. Kids And Cars (2005) (2006). Kids And Cars National Database 1990-Present. Retrieved July 12, 2006 from http://www.kidsandcars.org. Koch, E. (2005, October 4). Deadly lapse of memory. Las Vegas Sun, Retrieved July 24, 2006 from http://www.lasvegassun.com/editorial. Krejcie, R.V. & Morgan D. W. Determining sample size for research activities. Educational Psychological Measurement, 1970, 30, 607-610. LAFD News and Information: Children, Hot Weather, & Cars = Danger! (2006). Retrieved July 24, 2006 from http://lafd.blogspot.com/2006/07/children-hot-weather-cars-danger.html. Mahmod, C.T.H. (2003). Brunei: Less heat in cars with E-Vent. Financial Times. 12.16 (October 4, 2003).

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McLaren, C. & Null, J. & Quinn, J. (2005). Heat stress from enclosed vehicles: moderate ambient temperatures cause significant temperature rise in enclosed vehicles. Pediatrics, 116.1 (July 2005). New law may help raise awareness of the danger of leaving children unattended. (2005, October 5). The Las Vegas Sun, Editorial: Holding adults accountable. New Research Shows Humidity Increases the Danger of Hot, Parked Vehicles to Young Children. Retrieved November 28, 2006 from http://www.gmability.com/safekids/. News Release NASA develops child car-seat safety device: Feb. 5, 2002. Langley Research Center: Hampton, Virginia: National Aeronautics & Space Administration. Null, J. (2006). Hyperthermia Deaths of Children in Vehicles. Retrieved July 12, 2006, from http://ggweather.com/heat/ Othon, N.L. (2006). Students aim to save babies FAU Animators creating film to stop neglect. South Florida Sun-Sentinel, Local Section, 3B. Texas Department of Family Protective Services (2006). Look Before You Leave Campaign Talking Points. Retrieved July 24, 2006 from http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/lookbeforeyouleave.HotCarsTalkingPoints.asp. UMHS Press Release: Kids in Cars. (2003). Retrieved July 12, 2006 from http://www.med.umich.edu/opm/newspage/2003/kidsincar.htm. We all have a role in child safety//A way to ensure the safety of our children is to make it a crime to leave children unattended in vehicles. (2004, September 23). Chicago Sun Times, Editorial. p. 38. Young children left alone in cars: an undiscovered form of abuse? (child abuse). Child Protection Law Report 30.16 (August 12, 2004): 125.

Children In Vehicles Appendix A Survey Document National Fire Academy Executive Fire Officer Program

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My name is Russell Shelley and I am a Battalion Chief with the Colleyville, Texas Fire Department. I am currently enrolled in the Executive Fire Officer Program at the National Fire Academy. I am doing my research project on developing a program to raise awareness for children left in unattended vehicles. Your completion of this survey is greatly appreciated. 1. 2. 3. Department Name: State: Size of Population: <10K 10K-50K 51K-100K

101K-500K 4.

>500K

In the period of 2001 2005, has your Department had any responses involving children left or locked inside vehicles which were not running? Yes No

5.

If you answered yes, please fill in the table below: Year 2001 Responses Injuries Deaths 2002 2003 2004 2005

6.

What type of injury was most prevalent among these incidents? Hyperthermia Dehydration Trauma Other:

Children In Vehicles 7. Was outside temperature a factor in the cause of the injuries? Yes No

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8. Does your Department have an awareness program for the community related to this issue? Yes No

If yes, please provide a description of the program or a copy of the program if possible. Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey. A copy of the results will be available by email upon completion of the project. Please copy and paste the completed survey into a new email and return to shelleyc@ci.colleyville.tx.us. You may also return the surveys by fax to (817) 488-2943 attention Russell Shelley. Thank you again for your assistance with this project.

Appendix B Departments Participating in Survey

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Little Rock Sonoma Valley Carlsbad La Habra Heights Sonoma County Sebastopol Woodside FPD Richmond Lompoc Garden Valley FPD Manteca San Marcos Kenwood Orange County San Manuel Escondido WSI/JPLFD Alhambra Rio Vista Los Angeles Orlando Forest Park Rockdale County Lumpkin County Gordon County Aberdeen/Springfield Jerome City Couer D Alene Twin Falls Pocatello Idaho Nat'l Laboratory Frankfort Fire Dist. Lake Zurich Algonquin Park Ridge Naperville Barrington Evanston Montrose Elgin Lisle Woodridge Mazon Johnson County St. George Zachary Turner's Falls Springfield Uxbridge Cotuit Roanoke AR CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA CA FL GA GA GA GA ID ID ID ID ID ID IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL IL KS LA LA MA MA MA MA TX Centerville Salem Chelmsford Sandwich Ashburnham Roseville Cottage Grove Stillwater Fridley Eden Prairie Maplewood Willmar St. Louis Park Bad Rock Park County FPD 1 Derry Morris Hamilton Twnshp Kearny Burlington Mosquero Tome-Adelino Los Alamos Rio Rancho New Zealand Fire Service Lumberton Lexington Pendleton McMinnville Astoria Keizer Hillsboro Forest Grove Jackson County Dist 5 Lowell Rural FPD Scio Rural FPD Medford Klamath County Dist. 1 Sheridan Sisters-Camp Sherman Lake Oswego Bend Hermiston Idanha-Detroit Scappoose Portland Junction City Roseburg Brentwood MA MA MA MA MA MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MN MT MT NH NJ NJ NJ NJ NM NM NM NM NZ NC NC OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR TN TN

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Southlake Lewisville Trophy Club Roy City Woodinville Vancouver Friday Harbor Olympia Lynnwood Pasco Yakima County Dist. 5 Grant County Dist 13 Clark County Dist. 11 Okanogan San Juan Island Kent Lake Stevens Redmond Tukwila Richland Longview Cottage Grove Mukwonago Two Rivers Waukesha Menomonee Falls Caledonia West Bend Green Bay Black River Falls Kenosha Watertown TX TX TX UT WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WA WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI WI

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Appendix C Experiment Documentation Form

Rate of Temperature Rise in Vehicles Experiment Documentation Form

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Date of Experiment: ___________

Location of Experiment: ___________________________

Data Recorder: _________________________________________________________________ Vehicle Description: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Special Circumstances or Equipment: _______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

Time 9:00 9:10 9:20 9:30 9:40 10:00

Ambient Temperature

Interior Temperature

I certify that the data collected here is true and correct to the best of my knowledge and ability. __________________________________________ Signature of Data Recorder Appendix D Completed Experiment Documentation Forms

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Children In Vehicles Appendix E Awareness Program Components Post Card Handout

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SAFETY SAM SAYS...


STOP...LOOK... LOOK...THEN LOCK

DONT FORGET THE KIDS!!!!

Safety Sam Mascot

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STOPLOOK LOOK THEN LOCK DONT FORGET THE KIDS!!!


Each year, hundreds of children across this country die as a result of being left or locked in an unattended vehicle.

Never leave the kids in the car unattended for any reason! Window shades and leaving windows cracked do not make it safe to leave the kids.

Be especially aware if you have infants who are likely to be sleeping when you reach your destination. Place a reminder in the front seat with you when your child is in the car seat such as a teddy bear, baby doll, or a diaper bag. Use a keychain reminder device on your key ring. Consider adding a reminder decal to your rear view mirror. STOP, LOOK, Then LOCK Dont Forget The Kids!!

Children In Vehicles Keychain & Bumper Sticker Design

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