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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Translation is an operation performed on languages: a process of substituting a text in one language for a text in another (Catford, 1965: 1). In translating the text, translator does not simply translate a word from source language into target language but also the cultural context. The reason is that because translation consists of studying lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation and cultural context of source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing the similar meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the target language and its cultural context (Larson, 1997). In that process there is some loss or gained information. To know what information are loss or gained, it can be used componential analysis. Componential analysis in translation is the basic comparison of a source language (SL) word with a target language (TL) word which has a similar meaning, but not an obvious one-to-one equivalent, by demonstrating first their common and then their differing sense components (Newmark, 1988:115). Since in translating the text, translator does not simply translate a word from a source language into a target language but also the cultural context, componential analysis can be used to translate cultural terms that the reader is unlikely to understand. Term is a specific word that contains detail meaning

compared to generic word. The example of term is foal. The generic word of foal is horse, but the term foal contains the meaning young, so foal is a young horse. Balinese language also have some terms that contain the meaning young, for example: kucit is a young pig, kuluk is a young dog, memeri a young duck, etc. The specific word or term can occurred because of the frequency of human contact with something, for example: contact with nature. Balinese culture is an agrarian culture, so Balinese culture have a lot of terms related with nature, farming, and plantation, for example: coconut tree. Balinese people have very detailed specific word related with coconut tree, such as: kuud refers to young coconut fruit, nyuh refers to old coconut fruit, busung refers to young coconut leaves, slepan refers to old coconut leaves, danyuh refers to old and dry coconut leaves, etc. But the only componential analysis is not enough to represent all the concepts of the term. The features which are used in componential analysis are just a base to develop human knowledge in understanding the meaning. To solve the problem can be used Knowledge Based Theory. This theory not just views the semantic feature as the detail of a word but also try to see the essence and context of a term. Based on the reason that componential analysis is not enough to get the essence and context of a word, especially related to cultural term, so this thesis discuss about componential analysis and the explanation based on etic and emic point of view in the translation of Balinese cultural terms in the short story

compilation entitled Mandi Api (2006) as Source Language (SL) and their translation in Ordeal by Fire (2008) as Target Language (TL). Another reason why this study is conducted because the previous studies about Balinese cultural term translation have discussed about the terms and their componential analysis, but in acquiring the essence and the context of the terms, the detail explanations are needed. One way to get it is by asking the information from the native speaker who utter the language in SL to get the emic point of view and also by asking the foreign language speaker into which the SL is translated to get the etic point of view. By asking them who have more concepts about the essence and context of the words or terms, the detail differentiation of the words or terms can be clearly distinguished. By those backgrounds that have been mentioned above, this study are usable for the people in common and for the translator in specific as a consideration related with Balinese cultural terms. 1.2 Problems of the Study Related to the background of the study that has been mentioned above, there are three problems proposed in this study related to the translation process in Mandi Api (2006) as the SL and Ordeal by Fire (2008) as the TL. They are: 1. What are the categorizations and the functions of the cultural terms found in Mandi Api as SL and their translation in Ordeal by Fire as TL? 2 What are the translation procedures and the componential analysis of the terms? 3 What are the etic and emic points of view of the terms?

1.3 Aims of the Study The aims of this study are divided into two, those are: general aim and specific aims.

1.3.1

General Aim The general aim of this study is to analyze the Balinese cultural terms found in Mandi Api (2006) as SL and their translation in Ordeal by Fire (2008) as TL and also to add the vocabularies in Balinese cultural terms and their translation in English so that the translator or the reader has more diction that they can used in translating Balinese cultural term based on the consideration of the procedure that are used and the acceptability in TL based on the information from the informants.

1.3.2

Specific Aims The specific aims of this study are:

1. To identify the categorizations and the functions of cultural terms which are found in Mandi Api (2006) as SL and their translation in Ordeal by Fire (2008) as TL. 2. To show the translation procedures and the componential analysis of those cultural terms. 3. To present the explanations of etic and emic point of view of the terms based on the componential analysis.

1.4 Significances of the Study The endeavor tries to show the significances of the study. There are two significances of this study, namely: academic significance and practical significances.

1.4.1

Academic Significance The academic significance of this study is to give an addition contribution

of the cultural terms especially related to the Balinese culture for the translation studies. Since translation is not just a grammatical structure but also about cultural context, so this study can be used as the consideration for the further study about Balinese cultural context. In this study, there are more cultural point of view based on the native point of view and from the foreigner point of view, so it gives more comprehension about the terms in detail and the essence of the concepts.

1.4.2

Practical Significances The practical significances of this study is to give an etic and emic point of

view related to the Balinese cultural terms, specifically those are found in Mandi Api and their translation in Ordeal by Fire based on people knowledge and concept as an addition source for the further research related with the translation study. The point of view of one to another, especially for those who live in different culture and different language are a very crucial matter to avoid misperception and misunderstanding. For a general point of view there will be not

such a big problem when a term is translated into a term which has a similar meaning, but in a specific point of view, there are always loss or gained information, and an specific explanation of the native point of view in which they will have deeper concepts about the terms themselves. To explain the essence of the meaning related to the Balinese cultural term based on the native point of view that see the culture from the inside compare with the point of view of the foreigner that see the Balinese culture from the outside, this study can be used as a consideration. This thesis is also useful for the translator in specific or for the people in general who would like to translate the text, especially the text which contains Balinese cultural terms.

1.5 Scope of the Study This study scrutinize the terms that can be categorized as cultural terms which are found in SL and its translation in TL. The scopes of the terms are the words and phrases. Those terms are analyzed then by applying componential analysis. After the componential analyses are done, the explanations based on the etic and emic point of view are done.

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEWS, CONCEPTS, THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS AND RESEARCH MODEL

2.1 Literature reviews A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. (Dellinger, 2007) The first thesis that is reviewed is Puspanis thesis entitled The Semantic Features of the Terms Related to Balinese Culture in the novel Sukreni Gadis Bali and their translation in The Rape of Sukreni. In the Thesis which discusses about the terms related to Balinese culture and their semantic components analysis, Puspani used the theories from Larson (1997) about meaning based translation, Nida (1975) concerning the principles of translation, and Wierzbicka (1992) about NSM (Natural Semantic Metalanguage). In her thesis, Puspani analyzed about the terms related to Balinese culture but not all the analyzed data were Balinese cultural terms. Some of them are in Bahasa Indonesia. For example: tungku, kedai, lampu minyak tanah, peti uang, dapur terbuat dari semen, pusaka orang tua, air kelapa, minuman babi, tukang panjat kelapa, bekerja rodi, etc. The cultural categorizations in her thesis have not based on any theory yet. She merely based the classification of the data based on general knowledge.

Her thesis is relevant with this thesis. As the development of her thesis, this thesis categorize the Balinese cultural term based on the theory proposed by Newmark, all the data which are analyzed are Balinese Language, and the information of the informants are clear whether it comes from the outside or from the inside of the Balinese culture. The information also based on the development of the componential analysis of the Balinese cultural term. The second thesis that is reviewed is Wijayantis thesis entitled Semantic Equivalence of Cultural Terms in the Short Story Mega Hitam Pulau Khayangan and their translation in Storm Cloud over the Island of Paradise. In her thesis Wijayanti used the theory from Newmark (1988) about Componential Analysis, Larson (1988) about concept, Vinay and Darlbenet ( in Venuti, 2000) about translation procedures, and the last one from Nida (1975) about loss or skewing in meaning. In her thesis, she explains that the translation from SL to TL has tried to find the closest equivalent of meaning in the target language, but the meaning and concepts are not the same. In her study, Wijayanti has explained about the Balinese cultural term in an emic way, but there is less information from the etic point of view. The third thesis that is reviewed is Utamis thesis entitled Semantic Features of Balinese Cultural Terms Equivalence in the Short Story Tukang Gambar translated into Painter. In her thesis, Utami used the theories from Newmark (1988) about cultural aspect, Larson (1977) about semantic features of cultural terms, Nababan (2003) about how to elaborate the equivalence strategies

applied in the translation, and the last one from Nida(1975) about loss and gain of information.She found that loss and gained of information occur almost in every transfer of SL cultural terms into the TL. Utamis thesis is relevant in this study because in her thesis Utami analyzes the terms in detail by using a componential analysis theory from Newmark, and also explained the Balinese cultural terms specifically, but there is no specific information from the etic point of view, the knowledge of the foreigner who sees Balinese from the outside. The fourth thesis that is reviewed is Pratamas thesis entitled The Balinese Cultural Terms with Indonesian and English Translations Found in the Book Entitled Tiga Satua Bali. In the thesis Pratama discusses about the Balinese cultural terms and their translations into Bahasa Indonesia and English. Pratama compares those three languages by using componential analysis. There are also informations from the informant, but it is not clear whether the information came from the emic point of view or etic point of view. The explanation about the terms and their translation are also not related with the componential analysis, as Dardjowidjojo says that componential analysis give a detail concept about the terms, but if the meaning essence of the term need to be gotten through human knowledge, so the feature of those terms can be used as a basic to develop human knowledge about word meaning. The fifth thesis that is reviewed is Parthamas thesis entitled The Translation of Balinese Religious Terms in the Article Series Mengapa Bali Disebut Pulau Dewata into The Island of Thousand Temple.

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In his thesis, Parthama discusses about Balinese cultural terms. He tends to discuss the procedures which are used in the translation process. There are explanation based on native point of view and there are some explanations based on the dictionary. There is no explanation based on the target language point of view. Since in translating the text does not only involve the source language culture but also target language culture, so that the explanation of the target language speaker is needed. There is also one international journal which was written by Marvin Harris entitled History and Significance of the Emic/Etic Distinction. In the journal he discussed about the terms etic and emic, how to get inside peoples heads, and the relation between etic and emic and cross culture comparison. This journal is relevant with this study because it also discussed about etic and emic and their use of informants. All theses and journal which are reviewed as literature review analyzed about cultural terms, especially about Balinese cultural term. This thesis is a further research based on those theses. In the previous theses that were reviewed, there have been explained about the meanings of the word in SL and their translation in TL, but in some theses it seem that the explanation of the words and the componential analysis which is conducted are not in correlation. As Dardjowidjojo proposed that the componential analysis can be used to as the basic to explain the essence of the words meaning.

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The study about the Balinese cultural terms translation can give a contribution for the translator who would like to translate the text especially related to the Balinese cultural term.

2.2 Concepts

2.2.1

Etic Etic point of view is the point of view in which the behavioral events are

described in terms of catagories and relatioships that arise from the observers strategic criteria of similarity, difference, and significance (Harris, 2009).

2.2.2

Emic Emic point of view is the point of view in which the behavioral events are

described in terms of criteria elicited from an informant of the native culture being observed by the observer (Harris, 2009).

2.2.3

Culture in Translation Words are fundamentally symbols for features of the culture. Accordingly,

the cultural situation in both languages must be known in translating, and the words which designate the closest equivalence must be employed (Nida, 1975).

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2.2.4

Knowledge Someone knowledge can be known by get inside of peoples heads and

talk with them, ask question about what they think and feel, information, understanding, and skill that they gain through education or experience (Harris, 2009).

2.3 Theoretical Framework Etic and Emic are part of the tagmemic theory that is the theory that distinguishes the concept of etic and emic. The tagmemic theory originally is a linguistic theory that comprises three models: phonology, lexicon, and grammar. The basic grammatical unit consists of functional slot within a construction frame, and a class of substitute items that can fill the slot. The main distinction of tagmemic theory is the etic approach and the emic approach. An etic approach is one where the physical patterns of language are described with a minimum of reference to their function within the language system. An emic approach by contrast takes full account of functional relationship, a setting up a closed system of abstract contrastive units as the basic of description (Crystal, 1997:134). Then those approaches are adopted in the anthropological studies. The explanation of etic and emic as part of anthropological studies are explained in the following chapters:

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2.3.1

Etic Besides used in Linguistic theory, etic is also a term used by

anthropologists and others in the social and behavioral sciences to refer to the kind of viewpoints. Particularly this term is used in cultural anthropology. The term etic is derived from the linguistic term phonetic. Linguistically, phonetic is the use of special symbols to represent each different speech sound. (Hornby, 2005:1133). Phonetic is related with the physical properties of speech sounds, their physiological perception, and neurophysiological status. The etic term which is used in this study tend to term which is first introduced by a linguist Pike (1954). Pike argued that Etic is a description of a culture by an observer or can be said the point of view of one culture by the other cultures. Related to the culture, an etic point of view is a view from the bridge, from the outside of the culture. In etic point of view, the observer generalizes the data, such as classifies systematically all comparable data of all cultures in the world into a single system. For example: the term ngaben in Balinese, the term kasou in Japanese, and the term Huzng in Chinese, all of those term can be translated into cremation in etic point of view even though each term have their own different features.

2.3.2

Emic As etic term, emic is also a term which is used in cultural anthropology

refer to the kind of viewpoint.

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The term emic is derived from the linguistic term phonemic. Phonemic is the adjectives form of phoneme. Phoneme is any one of the set of smallest units of speech in a language that distinguished one word from another. In English the /s/ in Sip and the /z/ in Zip represent two different phonemes (Hornby, 2005:1133). The term emic used in this study more to the cultural point of view. Just like etic term, emic term is also introduced by Pike (1954). He argued that emic point of view is a description of culture in terms meaningful to the actor or can be said that an emic point of view comes from a person within the culture. Almost anything from within the culture can be considered as an emic point of view. Related to the culture, an emic point of view is taken from within a culture, usually the authors own. In emic point of view the observer analyze the data more specifically and is in essence valid for only one culture at a time, relatively homogeneous and integrated behavior of people of one culture or culturally defined class of people. For example: the term ngaben is owned by a specific culture that is Balinese culture, and if the term needs to be analyzed in emic point of view, it has to be analyzed specifically and relate it with the behavior of the people of the culture where the concept of the term ngaben appears. The terminology of natives point of view was introduced by Malinowski (1922). He said that the purpose of the native point of view were to learn the organization of the tribe, the anatomy of the culture, the imponderabilia of actual life, and to collect ethnographic statement, characteristic narratives, typical utterances, items of folk-lore, and magical formulae. Malinowski also stated that

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in studying the institutions, feelings, customs, and codes or to study the behavior without the subjective desire of feeling by the way the people live, or realizing the substance of their happiness is to miss the greatest award which we can obtain from the study of the people.

2.3.3

Cultural Term Categorizations in Translation For the words those are universal, there will be no such a big problem to

translate it but when there are cultural focus in the word from SL, there will be a translation problems in translating it into TL because of the cultural gap or distance between the SL and TL. Most cultural words are easy to be detected since they are associated with a particular language and cannot be literally translated, but many cultural customs are described in ordinary language such as: topping out of building and mud in your eyes (Newmark, 1988: 95). Parameter which is used to determine the cultural terms in this thesis is the cultural categories which is proposed by Newmark (1998). He categorizes foreign cultural term as follow:

1. Ecology. For example: tegal, titiran, cicing belang, cempaka. 2. Material Culture (artifacts) a. Transport. For example: dokar, gedebeg b. Clothes. For example: subeng, tapisan, ulos, kain pagringsingan

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c. Houses and Towns. For example: bale wantilan, pura desa, balai desa, bale dauh, puri, griya, balai banjar. d. Food: kelepon, clengis, betutu, lawar e. Other material culture. For example: ruyung, surat pipil. 3. Social Culture work and leisure Nyidu, mebahan, magebagan, makemit 4. Organisations, customs, activities, procedures, concepts a. Political and administrative: klian, pekaseh, penyarikan b. Religious: dharma, karma, mangku, peranda. c. Artistic: pragina 5. Gestures and habits Nenggolong, negen, nyunggi, magayod

2.3.4

Translation Theory Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the

way that the author intended the text ( Newmark, 1988: 5). In Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary is written that the translation is the process of changing something that is written or spoken into another language (Hornby, 2005: 1632). Newmark (1988) proposed some methods of translation. Those are; word for word translation, adaptation, literal translation, free translation, faithful translation, idiomatic translation, semantic translation, communicative translation.

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1. Word for Word translation Word for word translation is a method of translation in which the text in SL is translated into TL in an interlineal way. In this method, the word order is preserved and the words in SL are translated one by one into TL by the most common meanings and out of context. The grammatical constructions in this method are not converted to their nearest TL equivalents. The main use of word for word translation is to understand the mechanics of the source language or to construct a difficult text as a pre-translation process (Newmark, 1988:46). 2. Literal translation Literal translation, just as word for word translation, is a method of translation in which the text in SL is translated into TL one by one, out of the context, but the grammatical constructions in SL are converted into their nearest equivalents in TL (Newmark, 1988:46). 3. Faithful Translation Faithful translation is a method of translation which tries to translate the accurate centextual meaning in SL but still within the constraints of the grammatical structures in TL. This method of translation translates cultural words from SL but preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical abnormality in the translation in TL. This method tries to be faithful to the original text an intentions of the SL writer (Newmark, 1988:46).

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4. Semantic Translation Semantic translation is just like a faithful translation but there are some distinctions. The distinctions between the faithful and semantic translation are that the faithful translation is promising and dogmatic, while the second one is more flexible, admits the creative exception to 100% fidelity and allows the translators intuitive empathy with the original (Newmark, 1988: 46). 5. Communicative Translation Communicative translation is a method of translation that tries to translate the contextual meaning of the SL into TL exactly in a particular way so that both the content and language are easily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership (Newmark, 1988: 47). 6. Idiomatic Translation Idiomatic translation is a method of translation that reproduces the massages from SL into TL but tends to distort the nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialism and idioms where these do not exist in SL (Newmark, 1988: 47). 7. Free Translation Free translation is a method of translation which reproduces the content of SL into TL but without the same form of the SL. This method usually paraphrase the text in TL much longer than SL (Newmark, 1988: 47). 8. Adaptation Translation Adaptation is the freest form of translation. This method translates the SL culture into TL culture and the text is rewritten and is usually used in

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translating plays and poetry in which the themes, characters, and plot in SL are usually preserved when they are translated into TL (Newmark, 1988: 47).

Besides the translation methods which are related to the whole text, Newmark in the same book page 81 also explained about translation procedures that are used for sentences and the smaller units of language as bellows: 1. Transference Transference is a procedures of translation in which the word in SL is transferred into TL and that process is recognized as translation procedure. The word then becomes loan word. Some of the words that are usually transferred are: a. The names of all living (except the Pope and one or two royals), and most dead people b. The names of geographical and topographical things including the newly independent countries such as Zaire, Malawi, unless they already have recognized translation. c. The names of periodicals and newspaper. d. The titles of distranslated literally works, plays, and films. e. Names of private companies and institutions. f. The names of public or nationalized institutions. g. The names of streets names, addresses, etc. (Newmark, 1988: 81).

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2. Naturalization Naturalization is the procedure of translation that adapts the SL word first into the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology (word-forms) of the TL (Newmark, 1988:82). For example: English into Indonesia Singapore Prague Computer Indonesia into English Kampung Keris 3. Cultural Equivalence Cultural Equivalence is a translation procedure in which cultural word in SL is translated into cultural word in TL. But the uses of this procedure are limited because of its inaccuracy. This procedure can be used to translate general text, publicity, and propaganda, and also for brief explanation to the readers who ignore the relevant of SL culture. Cultural equivalent is important in translating drama because it can make immediate effect (Newmark, 1988: 83). For example: Balinese into English Ngaben - cremation - kampong - kris - Singapura - Praha - komputer

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4. Functional Equivalent Functional Equivalent is a procedure of translation that is usually used to translate cultural words. It requires the use of a culture-free word, sometimes with a new specific term. This procedure, which is a cultural componential analysis, is the most accurate way of translating. This kind of procedures is also used when a SL technical word has no TL equivalent (Newmark, 1988:83). For example: From Balinese into English: Pecalang - traditional security guard Genjek 5. Synonymy Synonymy is the translation procedure which is used to translate the word from SL which has no clear one-to-one equivalent in TL, and the word is not important in the text, especially for adjectives or adverbs of quality. This procedure can be used when literal translation is impossible and when the word is not too important for componential analysis. In this case the economy is more important than the accuracy (Newmark, 1988: 84). For example: From English into Indonesian High price - harga mahal Short pant - celana pendek - a traditional singing circle originally from Karangasem

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6. Through Translation Through translation which is also known as calque or loan translation is a literal translation of common collocations, names of organization, the components of compound and perhaps phrases (Newmark, 1988:84). For example: UN IMF - PBB - Dana Moneter Internasional

7. Shifts or Transposition A shift (Catfords term) or transposition (Vinay and Darlbenet) is a translation procedure that changes the grammar from SL into TL. One type of shifts is required in the change from singular to plural. The second one, it is required when a SL grammatical structure does not exist in the TL. And the third type of shift is the one where literal translation is grammatically possible but may not accord with natural usage in the TL (Newmark, 1988: 85). For example: From English into Indonesian A pair of shoes Sepasang sepatu

2.3.5

Componential Analysis Theory Newmark proposed that in translation, the basic process of componential

analysis is to compare a SL word with a TL which has a similar meaning, but is

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not an obvious one-to-one equivalent, by demonstrating first their common and then their differing sense components (Newmark, 1988: 114). Sense components have in different way been called as semantic feature or semes. Seme, the smallest unit of meaning recognized in semantics, refers to a single characteristic of sememes. These characteristic are defined according to the differences between sememes. It can be used to determine the minimal elements of the meaning, which enables someone to describe words multilingualy (Newmark, 1988: 115). Componential analysis also called feature analysis or contrast analysis is a term that refers to the description of the meaning of words through structured set of semantics feature which are presented as present, absent, or indifference with reference to feature. Componential analysis is a method typical of structural semantics which analysis the structure of words meaning. Thus it reveals the culturally important features by which speakers of the language distinguish different words in the domain (Ottenheimer, 2006: 20). There are three fundamental classes of semantic features. Those are; (1) the common features, those are the features shared by all the meaning being compared, (2) the diagnostic features, those are the features which distinguish the meaning of any set, and (3) the supplementary features, those are the additional features which are important to describe all the aspect of meaning but which may not be strictly significant in contrasting a particular set of meaning (Nida, 1975:182).

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The four basic types of semantic features which are shared by the language being compared can be divided into: (1) object elements, (2) events elements, (3) relational elements, (4) Quality elements (Nida, 1975: 146). Related to the diagnostic features, a SL word may be distinguished from a TL word on the one hand in the composition, shape, size, and function of its referent, and on the other hand in its cultural context and connotations, as well as in its currency, period, social class usage, and its degree of formality (Newmark, 1988: 114). Componential analysis attempts to go far beyond bilingual dictionaries, all componential analyses are based on SL monolingual dictionary, the evidence of informants, and the translator understanding of his own language (Newmark, 1988: 115). In working with a language informant, it is essential to avoid asking, What does the term mean? If the lexical unit refers to entity or object, it is necessary to ask questions such as: What does it look like?, What does it sound like?, What does it feel like? and the other questions which are designed to elicit descriptions based on various sensory perceptions of the object in question. If the lexical unit refer to an active agent or a normal participant in an event, it is necessary to ask: What does it do?, Where does it live?, How does it act? etc If the lexical unit is an artifact, it is necessary to ask, How is it made?, What is it made of?, What it is used for? etc.

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If the lexical unit refers to event words, it is important to ask: Who does it?, How does he do it?, With what does he do it?, To whom does he do it?, Where does he do it? etc. (Nida, 1975: 170). The presence of the semantic feature in a word is usually marked by the + sign. The absence of the semantic feature in a word is usually marked by the - sign. And the indifference with reference to feature is usually marked by the +/- sign.

For example: the comparison between canap (furniture) and fauteuil (furniture). Diagram 2.1 The Componential Analysis of Canap and Fauteuil

SEMANTIC FEATURES For sitting on With back For one person

canap

fauteuil

+ + -

+ + +

(Newmark, 1988:117) From the table above, it can be seen that the semantic features which are compared are canap and fauteuil. In the table, the common semantic features are demonstrated first, those are for sitting on and with back semantic features, where both of the words, canap and fauteuil have features (marked by the + symbol). And then their differing semantic feature, for one person, where the

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word fauteuil has for one person semantic feature (marked by the symbol +) but the word canap doesnt have it (marked by the symbol -). From the table above can be said that both canap and fauteuil are furniture for sitting on, with back, but fauteuil can be sat on by one person only and canap can be sat on not only by one person. The sense components of a lexical unit may be referential and/or pragmatic. Comprehensively, a SL word may be distinguished from a TL word on one hand in the composition, shape, size, and function of its referent (Newmark, 1988: 114).

2.3.6

Knowledge based theory People get their language acquisition through a process. Starting from

when they are children in the age when they cannot differentiate the animal that has four legs. In the first time children see dog, the children absorb the features that are contained by the animal. First they see the color, shape, size, and the other features. The children comprehend and get the first concept that the shape like that, with two eyes, four legs, has a tail, and has a brown color, it is a dog. But as the time goes on, the children see the other animals with similar features; has two eyes, with four legs, has a tail, and has a brown color. But the bodys shape is smaller of their concept about dog. And they get knowledge that the animal is called cat. Until one day the child see a Pekingese dog whose features are similar with the cat, but he then knows that, even though some of the animal which has

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four legs has similar feature, but through the knowledge that they got, they can differentiate them by a concept that has already been formed in their mind. From the story above we can see that to make a comprehension about the dog it is not an easy matter. To answer such a problem like this, that is how people comprehend the meaning of the word that is proposed two theories: the feature theory and knowledge based theory. Even though the feature theory is very usable, but there are some problems that havent solved yet by this theory. In the feature of a concept, for example horse, this animal just has four color possibilities: black, white, brown, or mottle. But if one day there is some people who color the horse with green paint and the color of the horse turn into green, cannot this animal be called as a horse anymore? To solve this problem the knowledge based translation can be used. This theory still relies on to the feature theory, but it is widened. This theory not just tries to see the feature but also the essence and context of the words. Human not just absorb those feature but also see the essence. Cow for example, normally cow has four legs, and that feature already becomes a concept in human mind. But if there is a cow which has five legs because of genetic disorders and still alive, human knowledge will still considered that animal as cow even without the most common component of the cow that has four legs. Feature theory is not enough just to represent all the concepts. That feature just used as a background to develop our knowledge in explaining a concept of a word. The differentiation between feature theory and knowledge based translation

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is that in feature theory, feature determine the concept. In the knowledge based theory, feature doesnt determine the concept (Dardjowidjojo, 2010: 183).

2.4 Research Model The research model in this thesis is shown by a diagram in which in the diagram shows the abstraction and synthesis between the theory and the research problems.

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RESEARCH MODEL

Diagram 2.2 Emic and Etic Point of View Abstraction and Synthesis of the Balinese Cultural Terms Translation

2. The data source in Balinese as TL is observed to categorize which word that can be categorized into cultural terms categorizations. BALINESE (SL)

CULTURAL TERMS

CULTURAL TERMS CATAGORIES

1. Cultural terms categorizations derived from Newmarks theory which categorize the terms into five, those are: ecology, material culture, social culture, organizations, and gesture and habit.

ENGLISH (TL)

4. After the data are collected, then they are analyzed by using procedures of the translation theory which proposed by Newmark.

PROCEDURES OF TRANSLATION

3. The data source in English is observed to look for the translation from Balinese as SL into English as TL.

COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS OF THE CULTURAL TERMS

5. After the procedures of translation are known, the componential analysis of the terms is done to get the details of the semantic feature.

EMIC POINT OF VIEW

ETIC POINT OF VIEW

6. After the componential analysis is done and the details of the semantic feature are gotten, the emic and etic point of view analysis are done to get the essence of the terms meaning. Emic point of view is conducted by looking for the information from Balinese native speaker. The etic point of view is conducted by looking for the information from English native speaker. The knowledge based theory is proposed by Dardjowidjojo.

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The description of the diagram is as follow: The Balinese Cultural terms which are found in SL in Balinese and TL in English are categorized based on the theory that is proposed by Newmark (1988). Those terms are then analyzed by the methods and procedures of translation and componential analysis theories proposed by Newmark (1988). After the details of the terms are found, the last analyses are etic point of view based on English native speakers knowledge and emic point of view based on Balinese native speakers knowledge. The emic point of view analysis is conducted by looking for the informations from the Balinese native speaker. The etic point of view is conducted by looking for the information from the English native speaker. The knowledge is based on the theory proposed by Dardjowidjojo (2010).

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD

3.1

Data Source The data were taken from a short story compilation book entitled Mandi

Api (2006), written by Gde Aryantha Soethama and its translation entitled Ordeal by Fire (2008) translated by Vern Cork. The book in SL was used because it contains a lot of Balinese cultural terms and the writer himself is a native Balinese, so he sees the Balinese culture from the inside, he saw Bali from the Emic point of view. The other reason is that the translation of the book as TL was translated by a non native Balinese people, so he sees Bali from foreigner point of view and has an etic point of view of the Balinese cultural terms those are found in the book. Since the analysis in this thesis is about the comparison of etic and emic point of view, the data source which was used was very interesting and supporting.

3.2

Method and Technique of Collecting Data The data were collected by reading the SL texts in Bahasa Indonesia and

TL texts in English to find the cultural terms. The method and technique of collecting data in this thesis was documentation technique as a part of qualitative method. Document is the notes of the event which already passed. It can be in the form of writing, drawing, or monumental works of someone. The writing documents for example: diary, life histories, story, biography, regulation, or

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policy (Sugiyono, 2005:82). The form of the document that was scrutinized in this thesis is writing document specifically the short story. Since that data that was used in this thesis were the texts which are translated, so it can be said that the data in this thesis is parallel corpora, in specific unidirectional corpora in which the texts in source language A are translated into the target texts in language B. The data was collected by using note taking technique. The procedures were done by, first reading the SL novel that is Mandi Api and observed it carefully to obtain the Balinese cultural terms and note the words that can be classified as Balinese cultural terms. After that, the novel Ordeal by Fire as TL was read and scrutinized to look for the translation of the Balinese cultural terms from SL those are found in Ordeal by Fire as TL. Then after note taking was done, the collected data were analyzed.

3.3

Method and Technique of Analyzing Data The research method of this thesis is qualitative method. The collected

data were analyzed by applying the theory proposed by Newmark about cultural term, procedures of translation, and componential analysis. First, the data was analyzed by using the procedure of translation to know what kind of procedures of translation is applied in the data. For example: SL: Sekarang Sukra Kliwon Watugunung, hari Jumat, bulan Agustus, sasih Karo, saat baik buat ngaben. (Soethama, 2006: 167)

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TL: Sukra Kliwon Watugunung, Sasih Karo, is an auspicious time for a cremation. (Soethama, 2008: 5) The word ngaben in SL (page 167) is translated into cremation in TL (page 5). From this translation can be analyzed that the procedures applied in this translation is cultural equivalent since the word Ngaben is a cultural word in SL is translated into cultural world in TL Then the componential analysis was done to know the feature of the data in detail. For example: Diagram 3.1 Componential Analysis of Ngaben and Cremation SL ngaben SEMANTIC FEATURES Event Part of funeral ceremony Burn the dead body Use typically Balinese Hindu offering Done in cemetery + + +/+ +/+ + + TL cremation

After that, the knowledge based theory by Dardjowidjojo was used to analyze the essence and the context of the data in etic and emic point view. In applying the knowledge based theory, it was not merely using library research but also field research by interviewing some informants to get information and knowledge of the terms. The technique of the field research proposed by Sudaryanto (1993) said that the researcher involved in the interview with the

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informant by asking the information required supporting the data found in the data source. For example: In etic point of view, cremation is an event where someone especially the family burns the dead body as a part of funeral ceremony. Cremation process doesnt use any specific thing when someone would like to do it, someone only contact the cremation provider. It will process the cremation of the dead body until the corpse becomes ashes and give the ashes to the family. The cremation process is usually done in crematorium (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011). In emic point of view, for Balinese people who see the Balinese culture in emic way, ngaben is not only an event where someone burns the dead body of his family, but also related other aspects such as: belief aspect. In general, ngaben is done by burning the dead body but in some place in Bali, ngaben is not done by burning it, even it is forbidden. In Trunyan, Bangli regency, ngaben is not done by burnt the dead body but only put it on the earth under the tree. So do the ngaben procession in Kutuh and Perean village, ngaben is not done by burnt the dead body. Hindu people in Bali believe that the dead person who is burnt by ngaben ceremony will be expected to get heaven. Ngaben does not just burn the dead body in cremation place, but there are also other attributes which are used, such as lembu (lembu is a buffalo, but in ngaben, the term lembu does not refer to the real animal but to the symbolization of the animal made from wood with black or white color) or wadah (wadah is a tower made from wood to carry the dead body

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into the cemetery), and typically Balinese Hindu offerings, etc. Ngaben process is done in cemetery, and after the dead body is burnt, the ashes are spread into the sea or river (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011).

3.4

Method and Technique of Presenting the Analyzed Data The analyses were presented descriptively because the research uses

qualitative research. The table, +, -, and +/- symbol were used to do componential analysis. The + symbol was used in the table if the data show the presence of the semantic feature, the - symbol was used in the table if the data show the absence of the semantic feature, and the +/- symbol was used if the data showed the indifference with reference to feature. For example: as shown in diagram 3.1 (page 32)

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CHAPTER IV THE ETIC AND EMIC POINT OF VIEW OF THE BALINESE CULTURAL TERMS AND THEIR TRANSLATION

This chapter analyzed about the etic and emic point of view of the Balinese cultural terms and their translation which were found in the novel entitled Mandi Api as SL and its translation in the novel entitled Ordeal by Fire as TL. The analyses in this chapter used the theories from Newmark about cultural terms categorizations, translation procedures, and componential analysis, from Dardjowidjojo about knowledge, and from Pike about etic and emic point of view. The cultural terms categorization which were analyzed in this chapter divided into five, those are: 1. Ecology, 2. Material Culture, 3.Organization, 4. Religion, and 5. Art. The analyses were presented in paraphrase and matrix diagram. The paraphrase was used to explain the analyses in sentence based on the informants information and the matrix diagram was used to show the componential analysis by using table and + and symbol.

4.1 Cultural Terms Related with Ecology The data related with ecology in this thesis are: cempaka frangipani, sakapan rice fields, tegal the land, and titiran pigeon. All of those data can be categorize as the terms related with ecology because as it is stated by Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary page 485 that ecology is the relation of plants and living creature to each other and to their environment.

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In specific, the term related with plant is: cempaka frangipani, the terms related with environment are: sakapan rice fields and tegal the land; and the term related with living creature specifically animal is: titiran- pigeon. The first data related with ecology to be analyzed is cempaka which is translated into frangipani. The data can be found in SL (page 79) and its translation in TL (page 137). The uses of the data in sentences are as below:

[4-1] SL: Luh Sasih bersimpuh memeluk kaki Pedanda Pemogan. Isak tangisnya membuat pucuk-pucuk cempaka di halaman griya Pedungan petang itu menggigil. (Page 79) TL: Luh Sasih crouched, clasping the feet of high priest pemogan. The sound of her weeping that afternoon was making even the frangipani flowers in the priests courtyard wilt. (Page 137)

From the data above, it can be analyzed that the term cempaka can be categorized into cultural term related with ecology because the word cempaka is a term refers to the part of living creature that is plant in specific the flower that has a fragrant smell and often used in the daily life of Balinese people especially to make offerings. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. The translator tries to look for the equivalent of the word cempaka in English, but since the translators culture does not familiar with the word cempaka so the word frangipani which is more familiar in his culture is used. The componential analysis of the term cempaka and frangipani is as follow:

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Diagram 4.1 Componential Analysis of Cempaka and Frangipani SL cempaka SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Flower Has fragrance smell Has white or yellowish color Has religious function + + + + + + + + - /+ TL frangipani

cempaka

frangipani

In etic point of view, frangipani is a landscape tree which is often used to decorate the garden as an ornamental plant. Frangipani is a tropical tree that will grow well and produce flowers in the tropical area. Its flower has five petals and the diameter of the flower is no more than 8 cm. Frangipani spreads fragrant smell and has various colors. Frangipani does not just have white or yellowish color but also reddish, and oranges color. In etic point of view,

frangipani has no religious function (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011).

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In emic point of view, cempaka is a tree that often grows in the yard and has many functions. Since the cempaka flowers spread a very fragrance smell, therefore Balinese Hindu people often use the flower to make offering. The smell of the flower could make the people feel calm and relax by inhale it. Cempaka has white or yellowish color; there are three kind of cempaka three that can be found in Bali. The first one is the small white one; it is the smallest kind of cempaka tree. The smell of this small white flower is not too strong. The second one is the big white; the flower of this second cempaka is bigger than the first one. This flower has a strong fragrant smell. And the last one is the yellowish cempaka. This kind of cempaka has big flower and has strong fragrance smell. All kinds of cempaka can be used to make offering. This kind of flower is used by Balinese Hindu people to make canang offering (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011). From the analysis it is known that cempaka and frangipani are two different plants. It is better for the translator to use transference procedure so that the translation still has a Balinese nuance. The second data related with ecology to be analyzed is sakapan which is translated into rice fields. The data can be found in SL (page 88) and its translation in TL (page 93). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-2] SL: Werti kadang-kadang tidur di puri. Jika di puri ada upacara adat, seluruh waktunya tersita untuk puri. Maka tinggal suaminya sendiri yang mengerjakan sakapan itu. (Page 88) TL: Sometimes Werti slept at the puri. If there was a ceremony, all her time was taken up preparing for it and her husband had to work the rice fields by himself. (Page 93)

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From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word sakapan can be categorized into cultural term related with ecology because the word sakapan is a term refers to the land with specific characteristic as a part of environment and it is only used in Bali. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator tries to look for the equivalence of the word sakapan in Balinese into rice field in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the land owning of the term. The componential analysis of the term sakapan and rice fields is as follows: Diagram 4.2 Componential Analysis of Sakapan and Rice Fields SL SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Land For cultivating paddys plant Owned by the farmer who cultivate it sakapan + + + rice fields + + + -/+ TL

In etic point of view the rice fields is an object refers to the surface of earth in specific the land which has a function to cultivate paddy plant. The farmer who works on the rice field is also the owner of the land (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011).

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In emic point of view the sakapan is the rice field which is not owned directly by the farmer who cultivates it. The sakapan land is usually owned by the landowner who has no time to cultivate the rice field with the paddy plant. The landowner lets the farmer who cultivates it to use the land with profit share system. When the paddy have been harvested the profit are shared by the farmer who cultivate the land and the landowner (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011). The third data related with ecology to be analyzed is tegal which is translated into the land. The data can be found in SL (page 102) and its translation in TL (page 36). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-3] SL:Itupun menyudutkan perasaannya karena ia harus meminta buat makan sehari-hari. Semestinya tak kuserahkan seluruh hasil penjualan tegal itu, gumamnya. (102) TL: The fact that he lived with his second son and depended on him for everything, even for his daily meals, made him unhappy. I should never have handed over all the proceeds from the sale of the land, he thought regretfully. (36) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word tegal can be categorized into cultural term related with ecology because the word tegal is a term refers to the land as a part of environment with specific function. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the word tegal in Balinese into the land in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the function of the term. The componential analysis of the term tegal and the land is as follow:

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Diagram 4.3 Componential Analysis of Tegal and The Land SL SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Surface of the earth Dry land Has specific function tegal + + + + TL the land + + + -

tegal

the land

In etic point of view, the land refers to the surface on the ground that can be used for a specific purpose. The land contains building, etc. (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011). In emic point of view, the term tegal is the surface on the ground which has specific function that is to grow plant that can be consumed and can be used in Balinese people daily life. The plants that usually grow in tegal area are banana tree, jackfruit, coconut, and the other plant that related with Balinese people daily life. (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011

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The forth data related with ecology to be analyzed is titiran which is translated into pigeon. The data can be found in SL (page 156) and its translation in TL ( page 122). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-4] SL: Kantor kepala desa sudah tutup ketika Rinjin memasuki halaman art shop Pandawa. Burung titiran dalam sangkar berukir yang digantung di pohon jambu menyambutnya dengan bunyi yang agak serak dan pendekpendek. (Page 156) TL: The office of the head of the village was already closed when Rinjin entered the Pandawa art shop. A pigeon in a carved cage hanging in a rose apple tree greeted him with a short squawk. (Page 122) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word titiran can be categorized into cultural term related with ecology because the word titiran is a term refers to living creature that is bird and it is only used in Bali. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator tries to look for the equivalence of the word titiran in Balinese into pigeon in English however ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the function of the bird as pet. The componential analysis of the term titiran and pigeon is as follow: Diagram 4.4 Componential Analysis of Titiran and Pigeon

SL titiran SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Bird Has brownish colour Has function as pet + + + -

TL pigeon + + +

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titiran

pigeon

In etic point of view the pigeon is a bird that has white or black color. Pigeon not just has a function as pet; the most popular function of pigeon is as a racing bird. (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011) In emic point of view, titiran is the name of the bird that has brownish color sometimes put in the cage by the Balinese man as pet. The Balinese people like to take care of titiran bird in the cage to listen to its sound. In Bali, titiran bird has no function as racing bird. (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011)

4.2 Cultural Terms Related with Material Culture The terms in this subchapter can be categorized as material culture or artifact because the terms are the objects which are made by human as Hornby said in Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary page 72 that artifact is an object that is made by person, especially something of historical or cultural interest.

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The data in this section are: bale banjar village meeting hall, bale dauh pavilion, bale wantilan wantilan hall, griya priest courtyard, pura desa village temple, puri nobles home, beruk coconut shells, and ruyung sugar palm wood. The first data related with material culture to be analyzed is bale banjar which is translated into village meeting hall. The data can be found in SL (page 81) and its translation in TL ( page 19). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-5] SL: Karena lebih suka menutup diri, Wayan jarang muncul di bale banjar. Jika harus bertandang ke rumah kerabatnya untuk urusan upacara adat, ia datang secukupnya. Tak lagi ia membuang banyak waktu untuk ngobrol bersama kawan kawannya seperti ketika muda dulu. (page 81) TL: As he became more introverted, Wayan appeared at the village meeting hall less and less often. If he had to go to a friends house to fulfil a religious obligation, he did only the bare minimum. He didnt waste any more time than was absolutely necessary in chatting with people, as he had done when he was younger. (Page 19) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word bale banjar can be categorized into cultural term related with material culture because the word bale banjar is a term refers to the object made by human in specific a building which has its specific function. The translation procedure which is used is functional equivalent. It can be said so since the translation of phrase bale banjar in Balinese into village meeting hall in English use culture free word that is hall and the translation in English gives a new specific term. The componential analysis of the term bale banjar and Village Meeting Hall is as follow:

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Diagram 4.5 Componential Analysis of Bale Banjar and Village Meeting Hall

SL bale banjar SEMANTIC FEATURES Object as artifact Building Made collectively A place for meeting Consist of bench or chair Enclosed by walls + + + + -

TL meeting hall

+ + + + +

In the etic point of view meeting hall is a public space owned by the government and can be used as a place for social meeting or public gathering (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In emic point of view the bale banjar is public space but just limited to the banjars people who owned the bale banjar together. The function of the bale banjar not just for the meeting place, but also as a place for the banjars people to show the performance, and a place for social interaction and art performance. There are no benches or chairs in bale banjar to sit on; the people sit directly on the floor by cross legging (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011).

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The second data related with material culture to be analyzed is bale dauh which is translated into pavillion. The data can be found in SL ( page 111) and its translation in TL (page 63). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-6] SL: Pintu gerbang rumah Karpu masih terbuka. Soroh langsung masuk dan kaget ketika menyaksikan Karpu duduk menonton televisi di bale dauh. Soroh merasa Karpu pasti menunggunya sejak tadi. (Page 111) TL: The gate of Karpus house was still open. Soroh went straight in and was surprised to see Karpu sitting watching television in his pavilion. Soroh felt sure that Karpu had been waiting for him for some time. (Page 63) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word bale dauh can be categorized into cultural term related with material culture because the word bale dauh is a term refers to the object made by human in specific a building which has its specific function and way of making. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the word Bale Dauh in Balinese into Pavilion in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the specific function of the term. The componential analysis of the term bale dauh and pavilion is as follow:

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Diagram 4.6 Componential Analysis of Bale Dauh and Pavilion SL bale dauh SEMANTIC FEATURES Object as artifact Made by Balinese worker Made based on Asta Kosala-Kosali A place to entertain the guests A building as a place for sleeping Located in the west + + + + + + + + TL pavilion

bale dauh

pavilion

In etic point of view the pavilion building can be made by common worker, and does not base on any kind of specific rule in building it. The function of the pavilion just as a place for relaxing and has no reference to the place into where the pavilion is built (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011). In emic point of view the real bale dauh is made by Balinese worker who understand the asta kosala kosali because the bale dauh use the asta kosala kosali

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patron as the measure of the building. Asta kosala kosali is a Balinese traditional architecture measurement based on the measure of the Balinese workers body part, so that the measure of the every bale dauh is different depends on the measurement of the worker who measures it. Bale dauh has some functions for Balinese people; one of them is as a place to entertain the guest who comes to the house. The other function is as a place to sleep, usually used by the youths among family member who havent married yet (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011) The third data related with material culture to be analyzed is bale wantilan which is translated into wantilan hall. The data can be found in SL (page 33) and its translation in TL (page 17). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-7] SL: Sayup-sayup Mangku masih menangkap gending Gelagah Puwun dari bale wantilan. Ia menggeleng-geleng.Tak ada gunanya saya dan anakanak kemari. Tak ada gunanya! gumamnya. (Page 33) TL: Mangku shook his head sadly as he listened to the vague sounds of the Gelagah Puwun tune coming from the wantilan hall. it was pointless for me and the others to come here. No use at all! he muttered. (Page 17) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word bale wantilan can be categorized into cultural term related with material culture because the word bale wantilan is a term refers to an object made by human in specific a building which has its specific shape and function. The translation procedure used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator tries to look for the equivalence of the phrase bale wantilan into wantilan hall in English but ignore the relevant of SL, such as the shape and the function of the building.

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The componential analysis of the term bale wantilan and wantilan hall is as follow: Diagram 4.7 Componential Analysis of Bale Wantilan and Wantilan Hall

SL bale wantilan SEMANTIC FEATURES Object as artifact A place for meeting Has square or rectangle shape Enclosed by walls Consist of chairs or bench + + + -

TL wantilan hall + + +/+ +

bale wantilan

hall

In etic point of view, there is no concept about wantilan hall but only the hall which is an object in specific building made by human and consists of chair or bench as a place to sit. The shape of hall is not just square or rectangle but also round. Its function are as a place for meeting, doing social affair, conducted

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wedding ceremony, and other activities that need a large space to accommodate the people (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In emic point of view the shape of the Bale wantilan is usually in a square or in a rectangular shape with no wall or just with one wall in it. Bale wantilan consists of no chair, bench or anything to sit on, so if the people do activities in Bale Wantilan they will sit with the leg crossed on the floor. Bale wantilan is used as a place for meeting by the village people and sometimes it is also used as the stage for art performance (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011). The fourth data related with material culture to be analyzed is griya which is translated into priest courtyard. The data can be found in SL (page 79) and its translation in TL (page 137). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-8] SL: Luh Sasih bersimpuh memeluk kaki Pedanda Pemogan. Isak tangisnya membuat pucuk-pucuk cempaka di halaman griya Pedungan petang itu menggigil. (Page 79) TL: Luh Sasih crouched, clasping the feet of high priest pemogan. The sound of her weeping that afternoon was making even the frangipani flowers in the priests courtyard wilt. (Page 137) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word griya can be categorized into cultural term related with material culture because the word griya is a term refers to the object made by human in specific a building which has its specific function. The translation procedure which is used is functional equivalent. It can be said so since the translation of word griya uses the culture free word that is courtyard and the translation gives a new specific term.

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The componential analysis of the term griya and priests courtyard is as follow: Diagram 4.8 Componential Analysis of Griya and Priests Courtyard

SL griya SEMANTIC FEATURES Object A place for Balinese Hindu Priest and his family to live in. A place to ask for a good day or bad day in doing yadnya A complex of a building + + + +

TL priests courtyard + -

In etic point of view of priests courtyard, there is no clear concept about priests courtyard but just the courtyard. The word courtyard itself does not refer to the building but tend to the empty space that becomes the part of the whole building (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In emic point of view, the term griya is a house for Balinese Hindu Priest. Besides the typically building style which is usually decorated by the Balinese style carving, griya is the whole unit of house that consists of separated building. One of the special buildings in griya is the building called bale pawedan or bale pamiyosan. In addition to the physical shape of the building, griya has a specific function which differ it with the other houses in Bali. As a house for Balinese Hindu Priest, griya is a place for Balinese Hindu people to get the holly water and

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a place to ask for a good or bad day in doing yadnya (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011). The fifth data related with material culture to be analyzed is pura desa which is translated into village temple. The data can be found in SL (page 35) and its translation in TL (page 19). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-9] SL: Dengan bahan-bahan yang dihasilkan oleh desa sendiri, mereka bisa menabuh kalau ada upacara pujawali di pura desa. (Page 35) TL: they were played whenever there was a religious ceremony in the village temple. (Page 19) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word pura desa can be categorized into cultural term related with material culture because the word pura desa is a term refers to the object made by human in specific a complex shrines which have their specific function. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the word pura desa in Balinese into village temple in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the specific function, the shape, and composition. The componential analysis of the term pura desa and village temple is as follow:

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Diagram 4.9 Componential Analysis of Pura Desa and Village Temple SL pura desa SEMANTIC FEATURES Object A place for praying For the Balinese Hindu People Consist of shrine that have their own function + + + + + + + TL village temple

In etic point of view, village temple is refers to something old building related with the building uses by Hindu and Buddhist for the place of worshiping and praying. In etic point of view, there is no idea about the shrines that have their own function (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In emic point of view, Pura Desa is a place for praying for Balinese Hindu people in one village, so the people from the other village are rarely pray or worship in the Pura Desa which is not in their own territory. Pura Desa for Hindu religion in Bali is a part of three main temples in one village. Those three temples are Pura Desa, Pura Puseh, and Pura Dalem. Pura Desa is a compound of shrines that has their own function. Those shrines usually have their own name and function related with Balinese Hindu religion, some of them are: Gedong Bata shrine, Ratu Ketut Petung shrine, Lingga shrine, Padmasana shrine, Bale Agung shrine, and Bebaturan shrine (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011).

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The sixth data related with material culture to be analyzed is puri which is translated into nobles home. The data can be found in SL (page 1) and its translation in TL (page 83). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-10] SL: Banyak gadis iri ketika Kadek Sumerti dilamar keluarga Anak Agung Ngurah Parwata. Bagi mereka kebangsawanan selalu berarti puncak kehormatan, kekuasaan, dan toleransi pengampunan kalau berbuat salah. Enak ya tinggal puri, luas dan dibatasi tembok tinggi, celoteh gadisgadis itu. (Page 1) TL: Many young women were jealous when Kadek Sumerti was sought in marriage by the family of the young noble Anak Agung Ngurah Parwata. For them nobility always meant the height of respect, power and being readily forgiven if something went wrong. it would be nice to live in a nobles home, so much room and protected by high walls, the girls chattered. (Page 83) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word puri can be categorized into cultural term related with material culture because the word puri is a term refers to the object made by human in specific a building which has its specific function. The translation procedure which is used functional equivalence. It can be said so since the translation of word puri uses the culture free word that is home and the translation gives a new specific term. The componential analysis of the term puri and nobles home is as follow:

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Diagram 4.10 Componential Analysis of Puri and Nobles Home SL SEMANTIC FEATURES Object A place to live A place for the centre of art and culture A place for people to learn Balinese literature A complex of buildings + puri + + + + TL nobles home + + -

The etic point of view of nobles home refers to house of nobleman and there is no concept about its relation with Balinese social and culture (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In emic point of view, puri is not just refers a typically Balinese house but also to its function. Some function of puri such as a place for the centre of art and culture and a place for the Balinese people to learn Balinese literature. As the centre of art and culture, puri is often used by the people around the puri to do art and culture activities, such as a place for the youth to practice Balinese dance and a place for the people to play gamelan. In puri, people who want to know more about Balinese literature can also learn it because Puri is one of the places in Bali that kept a lot of Balinese literature references which is called lontar. Lontar is a Balinese literature written in Balinese letter. Puri does not just consist of one

building house but a complex of building that has their own name and their own function (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011).

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The seventh data related with material culture to be analyzed is beruk which is translated into coconut shell. The data can be found in SL (page 35) and its translation in TL (page 18). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-11] SL: Terompong beruk memang khas dan terlampau sederhana. Ia terbuat dari beruk sebagai resonator. (Page 35) TL: The coconut orchestra was very unusual and extremely simple: it was made from coconut shells which acted as resonators. (Page 18) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word beruk can be categorized into cultural term related with material culture because the word beruk is a term refering to an object made by human. The translation procedure which is used is functional equivalence because the translation of word beruk uses the culture free words, those are coconut and shell and gives a new specific term. The componential analysis of the term beruk and coconut shell is as follow: Diagram 4.11 Componential Analysis of Beruk and Coconut Shell

SL beruk SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Part of coconut fruit Look like a ball Has hole at the top Can be used to make musical instrument + + + + +

TL coconut shell + + +/-

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beruk

coconut shell

In etic point of view, the coconut shell is an object that is not too often to be found or to be sawn in daily life since the culture in etic point of view does not make a direct contact with the object coconut shell. The coconut shell in etic point of view is not in a shape like ball, but in an irregular shape. There is no idea about a coconut shell that can be used as musical instrument. The most common function of the coconut shell in etic point of view is as craft (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In emic point of view, beruk is familiar in the contemporary Balinese culture since it does contact with nature very often, especially in the Balinese village where the coconut trees are still grow well in the villagers land. But in the modern Balinese culture, the term beruk is not too familiar. This lack of knowledge about beruk because the differentiation in naming the object. The term beruk is commonly used in eastern Bali, especially in Karangasem regency. In the Middle and Southern Bali, the term which is used is kau. About the function, in middle and southern Bali, kau has several functions; most of them are related to

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the kitchen utensil, such as spoon and bowl. In the Eastern Bali, besides the function that has been mentioned, there is a typically function of the object, that is as a musical instrument. Beruk, in Eastern of Bali can be made as musical instrument called terompong beruk (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011). The eighth data related to material culture to be analyzed is ruyung which is translated into sugar palm wood. The data can be found in SL (page 35) and its translation in TL (page 19). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-12] SL: Sepertiga bagian atasnya dipenggal. Di atas lobang itu diletakkan bilah-bilah tipis ruyung. (Page 35) TL: The Upper third of the coconut was cut off and over the hole were placed thin slats of sugar palm wood. (Page 19) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the term ruyung can be categorized into cultural term related to material culture because the term ruyung is a term refers to an object made by human. The translation procedure used is functional equivalence. It can be said so since the translation of word ruyung uses the culture free word that is wood and gives a new specific term. The componential analysis of the term ruyung and sugar palm wood is as follow:

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Diagram 4.12 Componential Analysis of Ruyung and Sugar Palm Wood

SL SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Part of sugar palm tree Has a thin slice shape Can be made as musical instrument ruyung + + + +

TL sugar palm wood + + -

ruyung

sugar palm wood

In etic point of view, the sugar palm wood is a wood that derives from sugar palm tree. The shape of sugar palm wood is like a big tube as the sugar palm tree that has no branch. There is no idea about sugar palm wood that can be made as musical instrument (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011). In emic point of view, the term ruyung are well known in Eastern Bali. Ruyung is a wood of a plant called ental which is already formed into a thin slice. In Eastern Bali, especially in Karangasem regency there is a specific function of

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ruyung that is to make a musical instrument called terompong beruk (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011).

4.3 Cultural Terms Related with Organization There is one data related with organization that is subak local irrigation group. This data can be related with organization because the term of subak refers to a typically traditional irrigation organization in Bali. The data related with organization to be analyzed is subak which is translated into local irrigation group. The data can be found in SL (page 142) and its translation in TL (page 10). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-13] SL: Hanya lima puluh meter dari rumah ini kami membangun Pura Ulunsuwi, tempat suci untuk petani yang tergabung dalam kelompok petani subak. (Page 142) TL: Only fifty meters from this house stood the Pura Ulunsuwi temple, a whorshipping place for all the farmers who were involved in the local irrigation group. (Page 10) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word subak can be categorized into cultural term related with organizations because the word subak is a term refers to an organization which related to the specific Balinese culture. The translation procedure which is used is functional equivalence. It can be said so since the translation of word subak uses the culture free words that is group and the translation gives a new specific term. The componential analysis of the term subak and local irrigation group is as follow:

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Diagram 4.13 Componential Analysis of Subak and Local Irrigation Group

SL subak SEMANTIC FEATURES Object abstract A group Consist of typically officers Consist of typically subgroups + + + + + + -

TL local irrigation group

In etic point of view, there is no clear idea about the term local irrigation group but just group, a group of people which has a same purpose related to irrigation in somewhere. There is no idea about a system that consists a typically officer who has their own function (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In emic point of view, subak is known so well by the Balinese people, especially by the farmer in the village. Subak is a group of rice field irrigation system with their own rule and punishment and closely related with Hindu religion. Structurally subak consist of typically officer, those are Pekaseh (the leader of subak), Petajuh / Pangliman (the vice of subak leader), Penyarikan (the secretary), Petengen (the treasurer), Kesinoman (the messenger) and Pemangku (the priest). Besides the typically officers, subak also consists of typically subgroups that have their own function, those are: sekaa numbeg (the group who

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process the soil), sekaa jelinjingan (the group who process the water), sekaa sambang (the group who controlling and take care the water), sekaa mamulih/nandur (the group who plant the paddy), sekaa majukut (the group who weed the ricefield), and sekaa manyi (the group who harvest the paddy) (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011).

4.4 Cultural Terms Related with Religion The data in this subchapter related with religion. Hornby wrote in Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary page 1279 that religion is the belief in the existence of a god or gods and the activities that are connected with the worship of them. Based on that definition, all the data in this section can be related with religion because they are objects and events that become the part of Hinduism in Bali, in which Hindu is the identical religion and is being majority religion in Bali. The objects related with Hindu religion in Bali are: banten whole offering, lungsuran left overs, pedanda high priest, and tirta holly water. The events related with Hindu religion in Bali are: cuntaka ritual impurity, metatah tooth filling ceremony, natab the wedding ceremony, ngaben cremation, and pujawali religious ceremony. The first data related with religion to be analyzed is banten which is translated into whole offering. The data can be found in SL (page 55) and its translation in TL (page 129). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-14] SL: Tante Nyoman sendiri yang menyusun banten itu, khusus ditempatkan di atas meja tengah pekarangan, beralaskan kain loreng hitam putih seperti papan catur. (Page 55)

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TL: Aunt Nyoman herself had arranged the whole offering and specially placed it on the table in the center of courtyard on top of a black and white check cloth that looked like a chess board. (Page 129) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word banten can be categorized into cultural term related with religion because the word banten is a term refers to the offering related with Hindu religion. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the word Banten in Balinese into whole offering in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the specific function of the term. The componential analysis of the term banten and whole offering is as follow: Diagram 4.14 Componential Analysis of Banten and Whole Offering

SL banten SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Made by using natural unsure Has the Hinduism religion function + + +

TL whole offering + + -

In etic point of view, the idea about whole offering is just an object. There is a concept about offering related with something that is given to God as the symbol of worshipping but there is no idea about how the offering is made, what from the offering is made, and what the function of the offering is (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011).

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In emic point of view, the term banten is very close to the Balinese Hindu daily activities. Banten is usually made by women by using nature material such as: 1. Mataya that is the unsure of banten that derives from plant, for example; leaves, flower, fruit, etc. 2. Maharya that is the unsure of banten that derives from viviparous animal, such as; goat, cow, and buffalo. 3. Mantiga that is the unsure of banten that derives from oviparous animal include the egg, such as; chicken, duck, bird, and goose. 4. Metal, such as; silver, copper, iron, gold, and lead. 5. Water, 6. Fire and 7. Ether which is symbolized by the incent stick that burnt and produce fragrant smell (Personal communication with Kandri on August 2011). The second data related with religion to be analyzed is cuntaka which is translated into ritual impurity. The data can be found in SL (page 114) and its translation in TL (page 66). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-15] SL: Tak bisa, itu sama artinya dengan menggelarnya di sembarang tempat. Pertunjukan perdana ini harus di pura, karena untuk Hyang Widi, dan dilarang dilakukan orang cuntaka seperti saya. (Page 114) TL: Impossible: that would be the same as performing in any old place. The very first performance must be in the temple because it is especially for God, and it is forbidden to be performed by someone in the state of ritual impurity, as I am now. (Page 66) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word cuntaka can be categorized into cultural term related with religion because the word cuntaka is a term refers to a condition which is considered as impurity in Balinese Hindu religion. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the term cuntaka in

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Balinese into ritual impuirty in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the relation with Hindu religion. The componential analysis of the term cuntaka and ritual impurity is as follow: Diagram 4.15 Componential Analysis of Cuntaka and Ritual Impurity

SL cuntaka SEMANTIC FEATURES Event Experienced by Balinese Hindu people Related with Balinese Hindu Religion + + + + -

TL ritual impurity

From the etic point of view, the only concept of impurity is a condition where something is not pure or dirty. There is no exact concept about the phrase ritual impurity (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011) From the emic point of view, the term cuntaka does not only have the meaning of dirty in denotative meaning but also in connotative meaning. The condition of being cuntaka is experienced by the Balinese Hindu people both women or man and young or old. There are some causes of cuntaka, some of them are: 1.Death. When a Balinese Hindu people died, there is a state of being cuntaka experienced by the closest family and the people who drove the corpse into the cemetery. 2. Menstruations. When the a Balinese Hindu woman get her period,

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she is considered of being cuntaka and does not allowed to enter the temple. 3. Bear a child. When a Balinese Hindu woman bear a child, she and her husband are considered in a state of being cuntaka at least for 42 days. 4. Miscarriage. A state of being cuntaka of miscarriage is as same as bear a child. 5. Incest. When Balinese Hindu people do incest, he or she with his or her partner and the village where they stay are considered in a state of being cuntaka. Etc. When the Balinese Hindu people in the state of being cuntaka, they are forbidden to do the religious activity, to enter the temple, and to go to the place which is considered as sacred and holly place by Balinese Hindu people (Personal communication with Kandri on August 2011) The third data related with religion to be analyzed is lungsuran which is translated into left over. The data can be found in SL (page 55) and its translation in TL (page 129). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-16] SL: Kalau banten sudah dihaturkan kepada Hyang Widhi, ia sudah jadi lungsuran. Dan siapa saja boleh menyantapnya. (Page 55) TL: Once the offerings had been dedicated to Hyang Widhi, the Almighty, they were regarded as left over. And then anybody was allowed to eat them. (Page 129) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word lungsuran can be categorized into cultural term related with religion because the word lungsuran is a term refers to the object in specific the offering related with Hindu religion. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the term lungsuran in Balinese into left over in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the religious aspect of the term.

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The componential analysis of the term lungsuran and left over is as follow: Diagram 4.16 Componential Analysis of Lungsuran and Left Overs

SL lungsuran SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Edible Related with Balinese Hindu Religion + + + + +/-

TL left over

In etic point of view, the term left over is an object in specific uneaten edible remains of meal after the dinner is over (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011). In emic point of view, lungsuran is a set of edible meals such as fruit, cake, roasted chicken which has been presented to the God or the soul of ancestor as offerings. When lungsuran is presented to God, there is no concrete material that reduces when the process of the ceremony is over. The offering which has been used in the process of ritual can be considered as lungsuran when the whole process is finished (Personal communication with Kandri on August 2011)

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The fourth data related with religion to be analyzed is metatah which is translated into tooth filling. The data can be found in SL (page 4) and its translation in TL (page 86). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-17] SL: Keluarga Kadek akan melangsungkan upacara metatah. (Page 4) TL: Kadeks family were about to conduct a tooth filling ceremony. (Page 86) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word metatah can be categorized into cultural term related with religion because the word metatah is a term refers to an event related with Hinduism in Bali. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the word metatah in Balinese into tooth filling in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the religion aspect. The componential analysis of the term metatah and tooth filling is as follow: Diagram 4.17 Componential Analysis of Metatah and Tooth Filling SL metatah SEMANTIC FEATURES Event Done by Balinese Hindu people Done in a typically Balinese House Done with typically Balinese Hindu offerings Consist of Hinduism symbolization + + + + + + TL tooth filling ceremony

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In etic point of view, the term of tooth filling is an event which is done by the dentist in the dental hospital to their patients in a common standard of medical standardization. There is no specific idea related with any religion, any kind of offerings, or any kind symbolization in tooth filling process (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011) In emic point of view, metatah is an event done by the Balinese Hindu parents to their son or daughter who has been in puberty. In the process of metatah, the main procession where the teeth are scratched is done in a typically Balinese House called Bale Dauh. In metatah, there are some typically Balinese Hindu offerings which are used. Those are: the offering called sorohan, suci, pabhyakalan prayascita, peras daksina, ajuman, canang sari, and pangurip-urip. In the matatah process, there is some kind of symbolization which is used such as the scratching of six teeth symbolizes the six negative characteristics of human life. Those are kama (lust), lobha (greed), krodha (anger) , mada (drunkenness), moha (confusion), and matsarya (envy) (Personal communication with Kandri on August 2011). The fifth data related with religion to be analyzed is natab which is translated into wedding ceremony. The data can be found in SL (page 90) and its translation in TL (page 95). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-18] SL: Suara beberapa orang perempuan memanggil-manggil Sagung Mirah agar keluar. Sebentar lagi upacara pernikahan, natab sesaji akan dilangsungkan. (Page 90)

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TL: The voices of several women could be heard calling to Sagung Mirah to come outside. In a short time the wedding ceremony with all the offerings would be performed. (Page 95) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word natab can be categorized into cultural term related with religion because the word natab is a term refers to an event related with Balinese Hindu religion. The translation procedure which is used is functional equivalence. It can be said so since the translation of word natab uses the culture free words that is ceremony and the translation gives a new specific term. The componential analysis of the term natab and the wedding ceremony is as follow: Diagram 4.18 Componential Analysis of Natab and The Wedding Ceremony

SL natab SEMANTIC FEATURES Event Done by Balinese Hindu people Done with typically Balinese Hindu offering Done in special occasion + + + + + + -

TL the wedding ceremony

In etic point of view, the wedding ceremony is an event done by the bridge or the groom and their family celebrates the wedding procession. Wedding

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ceremony use no offering and can be done any time when the bridge and the groom ready to do that (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In emic point of view, the term natab is done by Balinese Hindu people as a part of typically Balinese Hindu ceremony especially the ceremonies related with human being. Such as the ceremonies when the baby gets his first teeth, natab biokaon, natab sayut, natab dapetan, sodan, etc. (Personal communication with Kandri on August 2011). The sixth data related with religion to be analyzed is ngaben which is translated into cremation. The data can be found in SL (page 167) and its translation in TL (page 5). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-19] SL: Sekarang Sukra Kliwon Watugunung, hari Jumat, bulan Agustus, sasih Karo, saat baik buat ngaben. (Page 167) TL: Sukra Kliwon Watugunung, Sasih Karo, is an auspicious time for a cremation. (Page 5) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word ngaben can be categorized into cultural term related with religion because the term ngaben is a term refers to an event related with the funeral in Balinese Hinduism. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. it can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the term ngaben into the word cremation in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the using of typically Balinese Hindu offering. The componential analysis of the term ngaben and cremation is as follow:

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Diagram 3.1 Componential Analysis of Ngaben and Cremation SL ngaben SEMANTIC FEATURES Event Part of funeral ceremony Burn the dead body Use typically Balinese Hindu offering Done in cemetery + + +/+ +/+ + + TL cremation

ngaben

cremation

In etic point of view, cremation is an event where someone especially the family burns the dead body as a part of funeral ceremony. Cremation process doesnt use any specific thing when someone would like to do it, someone just contact the cremation provider. It will process the cremation of the dead body until the dead body become ashes and give the ashes to the family. The cremation process is usually done in crematory (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011).

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In emic point of view, for Balinese people who see the Balinese culture in emic way, ngaben is not just an event where someone burns the dead body of his family, but also related other aspects such as: belief aspect. In general, ngaben is done by burnt the dead body but in some place in Bali, ngaben is not done by burnt the dead body even it is forbidden. In Trunyan, Bangli regency, ngaben is not done by burnt the dead body but just put the dead body on the earth under the tree. So do the ngaben procession in Kutuh and Perean village, ngaben is not done by burnt the dead body. Hindu people in Bali believe that the dead person who is burnt by ngaben ceremony will get heaven. Ngaben does not just burn the dead body in cremation place, but there are also other attributes which are used, such as lembu (lembu is a buffalo, but in ngaben, the term lembu does not refer to the real animal but to the symbolization of the animal made from wood with black or white color) or wadah (wadah is a tower made from wood to carry the dead body into the cemetery), and typically Balinese Hindu offerings, etc. Ngaben process is done in cemetery, and after the dead body is burnt, the ashes are spread into the sea or river (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011). The seventh data related with religion to be analyzed is pedanda which is translated into the high priest. The data can be found in SL (page 79) and its translation in TL (page 137). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-20] SL: Pedanda Pemogan mengelus-elus jenggotnya yang tergerai. Ia sadar tengah berhadapan dengan persoalan yang paling pelik selama memimpin umat. (Page 79) TL: The high priest stroked his long beard. He realized that he was confronting the trickiest situation hed ever had to handle as religious leader (Page 137)

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From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word pedanda can be categorized into cultural term related with religion because the word pedanda is a term refers to someone as a spiritual leader in Balinese Hindu religion. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the word pedanda in Balinese into High Priest in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the religion aspect. The componential analysis of the term pedanda and high priest is as follow: Diagram 4.20 Componential Analysis of Pedanda and High Priest

SL pedanda SEMANTIC FEATURES Object as participant Leads the religious ceremony for Balinese Hindu people Give spiritual guidance for Balinese Hindu people Stay in a typically Balinese House called Griya + + + +

TL high priest + +/-

+/-

+/-

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pedanda

high priest

In etic point of view, high priest is a spiritual leader in the Christ religion (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011). In emic point of view, pedanda is a Hindu religion leader in Bali, A person who has a special function in Balinese Hindu people. Pedanda leads the religious ceremony and gives spiritual guidance for Balinese Hindu people (Personal communication with Kandri on August 2011). The eighth data related with religion to be analyzed is pujawali which is translated into religious ceremony. The data can be found in SL (page 35) and its translation in TL (page 19). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-21] SL: Mangku sendiri yang kemudian mengangkat dirinya menjadi pimpinan kelompok itu. Menjelang pujawali, ia dengan disiplin ketat memaksa anak-anak berlatih. (Page 35) TL: Mangku himself became the leader of the group. As the time of a religous ceremony approached he made the young people practice hard. (Page 19) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word pujawali can be categorized into cultural term related with religion because the word pujawali is a term refers to an event related with Balinese Hindu religion

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The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalence. The componential analysis of the term pujawali and religious ceremony is as follow: Diagram 4.21 Componential Analysis of Pujawali and Religious Ceremony

SL pujawali SEMANTIC FEATURES Event Done by Balinese Hindu people Done by making offering and doing ritual Done as the thankful to God Done in Hindu temple + + + + +

TL religious ceremony + -

In etic point of view religious ceremony is some event that related with any religion (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011). In emic point of view, pujawali is a religious ceremony done by Balinese Hindu people by making offering and doing ritual and done in the temple. Pujawali is done every six month based on Balinese calendar (Personal communication with Kandri on August 2011). The ninth data related with religion to be analyzed is tirta which is translated into holy water. The data can be found in SL (page 163) and its translation in TL (page 1). The uses of the data in sentences are as bellow: [4-22] SL: Siang ini pendeta akan merestui sepasang pengantin. Seperti biasa ia akan melantunkan mantra-mantra, dengan api, dupa, tirta. (Page 163)

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TL: That day the priest was officiating at the wedding of a young couple who were getting married. As usual he chanted his mantras and used fire, incense, and holy water. (Page 1) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word tirta can be categorized into cultural term related with religion because the word tirta is a term refers to holly water in Balinese Hindu religion. Translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the word tirta in Balinese into holly water in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the religion aspect. The componential analysis of the term tirta and holly water is as follow: Diagram 4.22 Componential Analysis of Tirta and Holly Water

SL tirta SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Made from water and flower Has Hinduism religion function + + + + -

TL holly water

In etic point of view, holy water is water that related with the belief that the water can purify. Holly water is used by the priest to purify the symbol of something (Personal communication with Newitt on August 2011). In emic point of view, tirta is very close to the daily life of Balinese Hindu people. tirta is not a common water to be drunk, but more than that, tirta has a religion aspect which is believed to purify everything from the black, evil, or

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negative effect of daily life. In Hinduism in Bali there are some different kinds of tirtas functions; those are tirta panglukatan, tirta prayascita, tirta durmanggala, tirta pengentas, tirta penembak, etc. (Personal communication with Kandri on August 2011).

4.5 Cultural Terms Related With Art The data in this subchapter related with art. They can be categorized as the term related with art because those data are related with the use of human imagination in expressing their ideas of feelings. Those data are: dalang puppet master, ketengkong dalangs assistant, sekaa gamelan orchestra group, and wayang kulit - shadow puppet. The first data related with art to be analyzed is dalang which is translated into puppet master. The data can be found in SL (page 111) and its translation in TL (page 63). The uses of the data in sentences are as below: [4-23] SL: sama saja, sahut Karpu getir. Toh kita satu kampung. Yang penting sudah lahir dalang besar di Desa Geladag. (Page 111) TL: It doesnt matter, said Karpu briefly. We are from the same village. What matters is that a real puppet master has been born in Geladag Village. (Page 63) From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word dalang can be categorized into cultural term related with Art because the word dalang is a term refers to an artist in Indonesian especially in Java and Bali. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the word dalang in

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Balinese into puppet master in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the specific function of the term. The componential analysis of the term dalang and puppet master is as follow: Diagram 4.23 Componential Analysis of Dalang and Puppet Master

SL dalang SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Art Performer Perform wayang Use Balinese and old java language Follow the plot of typically Balinese Hinduism story + + + + +

TL puppet master + +
-

dalang

puppet master

In etic point of view, the term puppet master or known as puppeteer is a performer doesnt used wayang as an object that is performed. They used puppet

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which is quite different with the object wayang. In performing the puppet, the puppet master uses their own plot of the story and do not based on a specific story that already exists. So the puppet master is free to use their own idea about how the plot of the story will be performed. The story is usually a simple story about daily life or morality with a funny story since the audiences of the show are the children (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In the emic point of view, dalang is a performer who uses wayang as their object of performance. The language which is used by the dalang is Balinese and Old Java language so that the audiences who can enjoy and understand about the story are limited. In performing the wayang, dalang cannot freely make his own story because the plot of wayang story is limited by the Balinese Hindu story that already exist previously but sometimes in between the plot, dalang can make such jokes and insert his own ideas in his performance (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011) The second data related with art to be analyzed is ketengkong which is translated into dalangs assistant. The data can be found in SL (page 113) and its translation in TL (page 65). The uses of the data in sentences are as below:

[4-24] SL: Dan Nyoman Soroh yang biasanya menjadi pemimpin karawitan atau kadang-kadang menjadi ketengkong, asisten dalang, jika Wayan Karpu pentas, terlibat penuh dalam proyek itu. (Page 113) TL: And Nyoman Soroh who was the leader of the musicians, or sometimes acted as the dalangs assistant when wayan Karpu performed, was fully involved in the project. (Page 65)

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From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word ketengkong can be categorized into cultural term related with art because the word ketengkong is a term refers to an artist in Balinese culture. The translation procedure which is used is functional equivalence. It can be said so since the translation of word ketengkong uses the culture free words that is assistant and the translation gives a new specific term. The componential analysis of the term ketengkong and dalangs assistant is as follow: Diagram 4.24 Componential Analysis of Ketengkong and Dalangs Assistant

SL ketengkong SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Help the dalang Preparing the wayang + + +

TL dalangs assistant + + -

In etic point of view there is no clear knowledge about dalangs assistant but just assistant. The idea about assistant is to someone who helps somebody in doing something. There is no specific function about dalangs assistant in etic point of view (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In emic point of view, the function of ketengkong is to help the dalang in showing the wayang kulit performance. Not all the responsibilities in wayang kulit

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performance is helped by ketengkong but just the function to help dalang to prepare the wayang characters that will be showed by the dalang in the performance. So that, ketengkong must know the plot of wayang story in order to know the turn of the wayang that will be showed (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011). The third data related with art to be analyzed is sekaa gamelan which is translated into orchestra group. The data can be found in SL (page 34) and its translation in TL (page 18). The uses of the data in sentences are as below:

[4-25] SL: Sekaa gamelan terompong beruk itu dating dari tempat yang sangat jauh, dari dusun Bangle di kecamatan Abang, Karangasem, di ujung paling timur Bali. (Page 34) TL: The coconut orchestra group had come from the distant village of Bangle, Kecamatan Abang in Karangasem in the far east of Bali. (Page 18)

From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word sekaa gamelan can be categorized into cultural term related with art because the phrase sekaa gamelan is a term refers to a group of musician in Balinese art. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the word sekaa gamelan in Balinese into orchestra group in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the specific function of the term and the music instrument which used. The componential analysis of the term sekaa gamelan and orchestra group is as follow:

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Diagram 4.25 Componential Analysis of Sekaa Gamelan and Orchestra Group

SL sekaa gamelan SEMANTIC FEATURES Object Abstract Group Use typically Balinese music instrument + + + + + -

TL orchestra group

sekaa gamelan

orchestra group

In etic point of view, orchestra group is a group of people who play music instrument professionally. The music instrument which is used is modern music instrument such as flutes, violin, trumpets, drum, clarinet, xylophone, piano, organ, etc. (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011) In emic point view, sekaa gamelan is the group of people who play music instrument in a non profit purpose. The music instrument which is used is typically Balinese traditional music instrument such as gong, kempur, jegog, etc (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011).

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The fourth data related with art to be analyzed is wayang kulit which is translated into shadow puppet. The data can be found in SL (page 112) and its translation in TL (page 64). The uses of the data in sentences are as below:

[4-26] SL: Ketika murid-murid itu menggelar pertunjukan wayang kulit Bali di Jepang banyak orang kagum dan menyukainya. (Page 112) TL: When these students put on a performance of Balinese shadow puppets in Japan many people liked and admired them. (page 64)

From the data above, it can be analyzed that the word wayang kulit can be categorized into cultural term related with art because the word wayang kulit is a term refers to the object which is used to express ideas or feelings in a performance. The translation procedure which is used is cultural equivalent. It can be said so since the translator try to look for the equivalence of the phrase wayang kulit in Balinese into shadow puppet in English but ignore the relevant of SL culture, such as the specific function of the term. The componential analysis of the term wayang kulit and shadow puppet is as follow:

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Diagram 4.26 Componential Analysis of Wayang Kulit and Shadow Puppet

SL wayang kulit SEMANTIC FEATURES Object as artifact Has a performance function Has religious function Made from buffalos leather or cows leather The character based on Balinese Hinduism story + + + + + + + -

TL shadow puppet

wayang kulit

shadow puppet

In etic point of, there is no such clear idea about the term shadow puppet but merely puppet. Puppet has a performance function especially to entertain the children and usually perform in a public space. Puppet is made of cloth or wool in

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a three dimension shape. In etic point of view, puppet doesnt have any function that related to any religion (Personal communication with Allison on August 2011). In emic point of view, wayang kulit is an object that has a performance function. The person who performs it called dalang. The character of wayang kulit based on Mahabharata and Ramayana story with their specific function, shape, and colour. For the Balinese Hindu, wayang kulit also has a religious function. One of the religious functions of wayang kulit is to drive out the evil spirits. Besides that wayang also has the function related with Balinese Hindu religion. The functions of wayang in Balinese culture can be divided into three those are: 1. Wayang Wali that is the kind of wayang that become the main part of the ceremony which is held. For example: Wayang Sapuh Leger, 2. Wayang Bebalai that is the kind of wayang that become a supporting part of the ceremony procession not as the main part. For example: Wayang Lemah and Wayang Sudamala, and 3. Wayang Balih-balihan that is the kind wayang which has the main function as art and entertain performance. For example: Wayang ceng-blong. Wayang kulit has two dimension shapes and made of buffalos leather or cows leather by chiseled them. In Balinese wayang, the shapes of the characters are based on the Balinese Hinduism story. For example: the story of Mahabharata, Ramayana, Calonarang, Cupak, Gambuh, Arja, Tantri, and Babad (Personal communication with Puspa on August 2011).

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusions Translation process does not only involved two languages but also two cultures. In bridging those two different things there are some procedures of translation that can be used by the translator. The procedures that are used by the translator in this thesis are the cultural equivalence and the functional equivalence. In seeing the culture there are two point of view, those are the point of view from the source language culture known as emic point of view and the point of view from target language culture known as etic point of view. In giving their point of view to the culture, people will use their knowledge and experiences. One way that can used to develop people knowledge to get the essence of the word is by explain in detail the features of it in componential analysis. From the analysis that have been done in this thesis can be concluded that: 1. The analyzed data can be divided into 5 categorizations. Those catagorizations are cultural term related with ecology, cultural term related with material culture, cultural term related with organization, cultural term related with religion, and cultural term related with art. 2. The translation procedures which are mostly applied found in the data are the cultural equivalence and functional equivalence. From the

componential analysis, it was found that the two basic types of semantic features which are mostly shared by the data are; object and event.

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3. In this study, the etic point of view that is proposed by the informant tends to ignore the detail of the features which is owned by one term in source language. For example: the relation with Hinduism, function, shape, composition, and the way of making. The etic point of view looks like the blind men who touch the elephant. They tend to give point of view from the separated features not as a whole unit. In emic point of view, the explanation about the relation of the term with Hinduism, function, composition, shape, and the way of making have very much detail. It is occurred because the Balinese people who give the point of view about their culture have very much knowledge about it since they do contact very often and have direct experience with the culture. This matter looks like the normal men who see the elephant. They will not see an elephant only from the tusk, the ear, the foot, or just from the tail but the normal men will see an elephant as a whole animal.

5.2 Suggestions Even though it is possible for the translator to translate in detail the SL into TL, but this matter will reduce the efficiency of the language which is used and cause the translation become less economic and the effect that will be got become less immediately. Because the translator translates a literature work, so the procedures which are used already correct those are: the cultural equivalence and functional

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equivalence so that the translation becomes more accurate and the effect that is got by the TL readership more immediately. The suggestion is about the lack of nuance of Balinese culture in the translation. Since the TL is a literary work that focus on Balinese culture and the life of Balinese people, so its better for the translator to give Balinese culture nuance in translating the TL. For example: the term pedanda which is translated into high priest, since there is a concept in TL about phrase high priest, so the nuance of the translation is too close to the TL readerships culture. It is better to translate the pedanda into Balinese high priest.