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2 Turbopump feed system Although turbopumps have various fields of applications, they have the reputation for mainly being used with rockets, replacing the place of the heavy pressurized tanks. So, the term "rocket turbopump" is common in this field of literature. Using turbopumps in rocket engines greatly improved the engine performance as would be shown later in section ( 1.3 ). But the continous demand on attaining higher engine performance has imposed more sophistications on turbopump design. Therefore, turbopumps with efficiencies greater than 80% are rare and for this reason, more than 55% of the engine cost is ascribed to the area of designing the turbopump to get the optimum performance (1). On contrast to the gas pressurization feed system, the turbopump feed system suits high thrust engines with comparetively longer burning durations. Therefore, it the choice when long range missiles are the subject. Generally, it gains the following benefits over the pressurization system: 1. Lighter weight. 2. Smaller occupied volume. 3. Higher pressure production. All the above points are considered to be the most important requirements for any flight hardware. It is worth mentioning that the first two points are to some extent encountered by the fact that the turbopump utilises the same propellant onboard the missile Generally speaking, a turbopump is simply composed of a pumping unit ( two pumps ) and a driving unit. The two units may both be mounted on the same shaft or coupled via a reduction gearbox. Also the driving unit may be composed of one turbine or two turbines . These variances (see figure 2) are dictated by the following considerations:-

Type of propellant used. The engine cycle Field of application. Mechanical design arrangement for reliability and weight.

For example, pumps for engines using fuel and oxidizer of almost similar densities and similar discharge pressure requirements will typically be optimum at approximately the same speed. This permits the fuel and oxidizer pumps to be placed on a common shaft. Unfortunately, although both the propellants used in any liquid rocket engine are physically in the liquid phase, still they are found in wide density ranges and wide thermal properties. The variations in density lead to different pump head rise requirements and large differences in volumetric flow. For example, lower density propellants require a much higher head rise to develop the same discharge pressure. See equation (?). This is why the two pumps mounting is affected by the types of propellant used. To evaluate the effect of engine cycle on turbopump configuration see section (1.2.3). .

The following arrangements of turbine and pumps are commonly used in rocket turbopumps(3): 1. Two pumps - direct drive with outboard turbine (figure 1.2.a.). The two pumps are mounted on the same shaft close to each other with the turbine outboard. The turbine shaft goes through the fuel pump inlet. 2. Two pumps - direct drive with turbine in middle (figure 1.2.b ). The two pumps are mounted on the same shaft but with the turbine placed in the middle. The common shaft goes through the turbine discharge manifold. 3. Gear drive (figure 1.2.c .). The two pumps are driven by a gearbox each with a separate shaft . The gearbox is driven by the turbine.

4. Two pumps two turbines (figure 1.2.d). The two pumps each is driven by a separate turbine. The driving gas either flows in parallel or in series. 5. Four pumps four turbines (figure 1.2.e). Here there are two main pumps and two booster pumps each with its own driving turbine.

(a)Two pumps-direct drive with turbine outward

(b)Two pumps - direct drive with turbine in middle

P P (c) Gear drive

(d) Two pumps two turbines P T T P

(d) Four pumps Four turbines

Both centrifugal and axial pumps are used in rocket turbopumps but centrifugal pumps have proven to be the best choice for rocket applications due to their ability to generate higher discharge head in one stage. The high discharge head is a significant factor in selecting pumps for rocket engines. Nevertheless; axial pumps are also used in some rocket turbopumps as pumping units ( ? ), but they are commonly used as 'inducers' for centrifugal pumps (1) to suppress cavitation which is expected to occur in the suction side of the pumping line.. Cavitation is the main problem that limits pump speed and therefore its avoidance is considered to be the pumping system key parameter in the design level. The pump speed (N) is the independent variable to which the head rise (H) is dirctly related ( see equation ?). H N2 Other methods used to suppress cavitation in the suction side also exist, such as using independent boosting pumps before the main pump and slightly pressurizing the propellant tanks(typically 2 atmosphere) (1,3) . Gas turbines of the radial in-flow type are commonly used in the power generation side of the turbopump. Table (1.1) compares the probable benefits and drawbacks of the different arrangements:

Geometrical arrangement

comments Benefits Drawbacks Higher suction performance requirements due to the shaft penetrating through the fuel pump inlet The shaft penetrating through the turbine discharge manifold is liable to high thermal stresses and so are the bearings.

Two pumps - Smaller envelope direct drive, outboard turbine Two pumps - Smaller envelope direct drive, in middle turbine

Gear drive

Turbine can run faster and the A very powerful and light two pumps are allowed to have weight gearbox is required. different speeds which lead to better performance.

Two pumps two turbines Four pumps The use of booster pumps Increased turbopump four turbines allows lower tank pressure and components and thus, lower provides adequate suction engine reliability. pressure to the main pumps.

Table 1.1 Benefits and drawbacks of different geometrical arrangement of turbopumps.