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4K vizualizări27 paginiThis book has been written for those who need a solid understanding of the seismic exploration method without difficult mathematics. It is presented in a format that allows one to naturally progress from the underlying physical principles to the actual seismic method. The mathematics needed for the subject is kept as simple as possible; students only need high school physics and mathematics to thoroughly grasp the principles covered. Dr. Stark has developed this text and honed its content with feedback from hundreds of students over nearly two decades of teaching seismic exploration geophysics. This textbook will teach students the principles for the detection of geologic structures, earthquake zones and hazards, resource exploration, and geotechnical engineering.

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This book has been written for those who need a solid understanding of the seismic exploration method without difficult mathematics. It is presented in a format that allows one to naturally progress from the underlying physical principles to the actual seismic method. The mathematics needed for the subject is kept as simple as possible; students only need high school physics and mathematics to thoroughly grasp the principles covered. Dr. Stark has developed this text and honed its content with feedback from hundreds of students over nearly two decades of teaching seismic exploration geophysics. This textbook will teach students the principles for the detection of geologic structures, earthquake zones and hazards, resource exploration, and geotechnical engineering.

© All Rights Reserved

4K vizualizări

6060 voturi pozitive11 vot negativ

This book has been written for those who need a solid understanding of the seismic exploration method without difficult mathematics. It is presented in a format that allows one to naturally progress from the underlying physical principles to the actual seismic method. The mathematics needed for the subject is kept as simple as possible; students only need high school physics and mathematics to thoroughly grasp the principles covered. Dr. Stark has developed this text and honed its content with feedback from hundreds of students over nearly two decades of teaching seismic exploration geophysics. This textbook will teach students the principles for the detection of geologic structures, earthquake zones and hazards, resource exploration, and geotechnical engineering.

© All Rights Reserved

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Applications:

A Guide for the Detection of Geologic

Structures, Earthquake Zones and Hazards,

Resource Exploration, and Geotechnical

Engineering

Andreas Stark

BrownWalker Press

Boca Raton

Seismic Methods and Applications:

A Guide for the Detection of Geologic Structures, Earthquake Zones and

Hazards, Resource Exploration, and Geotechnical Engineering

All rights reserved. No Part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval

system, or transcribed in any

recording, without the prior permission of the author.

BrownWalker Press

Boca Raton, Florida – USA

2008

ISBN-13: 978-1-59942-441-5 (hardcover)

ISBN-13: 978-159942-442-2 (ebook)

www.brownwalker.com

Seismic methods and applications: a guide for the detection of geologic

structures, earthquake zones and hazards, resource exploration, and

geotechnical engineering / Andreas Stark. -- 1st ed.

p. cm.

ISBN-13: 978-1-59942-441-5 (hardcover : alk. paper)

ISBN-10: 1-59942-441-X (hardcover : alk. paper)

ISBN-13: 978-1-59942-443-9 (pbk. : alk. paper)

ISBN-10: 1-59942-443-6 (pbk. : alk. paper)

1. Seismic prospecting--Methodology. I. Title.

TN269.8.S72 2008

622'.1592--dc22

2008003217

This book is dedicated to my wife Regina

Contents

Introduction ix

Acknowledgements xi

Chapter 2 Optics and Spectra 29

Chapter 3 Electromagnetic Waves 59

Chapter 4 Electrical Circuits 72

Chapter 5 Geophones and Arrays 97

Chapter 6 Seismic Instrumentation and Sources 147

Chapter 7 Seismic Field Design: 2D-3D-4D 187

Chapter 8 Rocks and Rock Physics 235

Chapter 9 Well Logs 246

Chapter 10 Seismic Waves and Velocities 273

Chapter 11 Seismic Refraction and the Near Surface 292

Chapter 12 Seismic Processing - Pre-Stack 304

Chapter 13 Seismic Processing - Post-Stack 353

Chapter 14 Acoustic Inversions and AVO 387

Chapter 15 Amplitudes, Resolution, Shear Waves and Anisotropy 427

LEEE Contents

Chapter 16 Seismic Interpretation 459

Chapter 17 Seismic Attributes 479

Chapter 18 Statistics, Mapping and Contouring Principles 493

Index 571

Introduction

This book has been written for those who need a solid understanding of the seis-

mic method without the in-depth mathematical treatment that is normally required.

It is laid out in a format that allows one to naturally progress from the underlying

physical principles to the actual seismic method.

The mathematics needed for the topics is kept as simple as possible. High school

physics and mathematics are all that are required. The book starts out with the

elementary treatment of sound waves, light waves, optics, spectra and electromag-

netic wave principles. It will then progress into the principles of electrical circuits

and geophone design, geophone arrays and recording instrumentation design and

behavior, before treating the seismic shooting method itself. In this way we lay a

solid foundation for the understanding of the processes at work, which are waves

and their behavior, instruments and their behavior and the subsequent recording,

processing and interpretation principles of the geophysical waveforms.

The book essentially consist of seven divisions:

1. Basic physics

2. Geophones and instrumentation

3. Seismic field design

4. Rocks, rock physics and well logs

5. The seismic method

6. Seismic interpretation and geology

7. Probability, statistics and mapping

Many geoscientists believe that formalism aids in the understanding of the subject

matter, therefore texts treating this topic are usually too advanced, too mathematical

and too specialized, and they also make the assumption that many of the underlying

Physics concepts have already been mastered. On the other hand they can treat the

subject in such a simplified manner that there is absolutely no understanding or

even a foundation. I believe that when one starts out learning this subject this same

formalism prevents many students from understanding the concepts and therefore

drives them away from this science.

N Introduction

Audience

This book is aimed at those who are first or second year technical school or univer-

sity students who need to learn about the seismic method. This book can be used

for teaching a one or two semester course. As geoscientists we rely greatly on our

technicians and technologists. It is therefore important that they have a solid un-

derstanding of what we do and what we expect them to know.

Another group who might find this book very useful are seismic field personal

such as observers and party managers, geological and geophysical technicians,

geologists, engineers and financial people who need a more in depth understand-

ing of the subject without having to learn the advanced mathematical treatment.

I trust this book fills the gap that has existed for so long.

Andreas Stark

Calgary, Alberta, Canada

November, 2007

Acknowledgements

First of all I would like to thank my wife Regina who has been my inspiration

throughout our life together. Without her encouragement I would never have started

my thesis and have written this book. She has been my emotional support and my

best reviewer and critic through all my struggles in trying to create this book and

all of my course materials. I thank her for her unwavering support and for putting

up with me over the years.

I would also like to thank my thesis advisor at Rushmore University, Professor

Donald Mitchell for all his enthusiasm, direction and helpful advice and comments

for improvement. I trust that his suggestions for additions and changes have made

this a better book that will now have appeal to a much broader audience. I would

also like to thank my Rushmore University editor Ms. Laurel Barley for her efforts

and dedication in trying to understand the science and to help me write in proper

English without the use of technical jargon for as much as possible.

I have used the public domain provided seismic data and the SU software, also

known as SeismicUn*x, from the Center for Wave Phenomena at the Colorado

school of Mines, to create the processing examples. The mathematical pictures

and graphs were created in Mathematica© from Wolfram Research. All maps and

interpretation examples were created in WinPICS© from Divestco Inc. and in

Surfer© from Golden Software Inc. The stacked seismic data is from public domain

data that was provided with previous versions of WinPICS©, such as the Stratton

data set from the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. The inversion pictures were

created with the Hampson Russell HR© software. All log data is public domain.

All photo’s of field examples and equipment are my own and were taken many

years ago.

The material and structure of the book evolved from over seventeen years of

teaching this material at the technical school level and through giving private

industry courses, so I like to thank all my students for their feedback and suggestions.

The large list of references given on the last few pages all had some part in the

final development of this book and should be used for more in-depth information.

The responsibility for any errors in this book resides solely with the author. The

reader is encouraged to report any errors of fact or of typographical nature to:

info@clasinaterra.com

PART - ONE

THE PHYSICS

Chapter

Waves and Sound

" Seismic Methods and Applications

To be able to understand the procedures and the principles behind the seismic

method, it is necessary to understand some of the basic principles of waves. The

first three chapters will provide the basics of waves, optics and electromagnetic

waves respectively. We will then combine the different aspects to give the student

a clear understanding of the basic seismic wave principles.

We will now start with a short introduction to the concept of vector and then

treat the laws that are fundamental to it all: the laws of motion.

Remember that we induce motion into the subsurface to create waves that will

travel through the various geologic layers. They will be altered by the responses

of these layers and these altered waves will be recorded at the surface.

Definitions

Scalars

Scalars are measurable quantities that have only magnitude and sign. Some

examples of scalar quantities are length, mass, volume, area, etc. All conventional

algebraic rules can be applied to perform mathematical operations on these

quantities. It is assumed that the student is already familiar with the handling of

scalar quantities.

Vectors

Vectors are measurable quantities that have both

magnitude and direction with respect to a

reference plane. An example of a vector

quantity is shown in figure 1.1 in which the

magnitude of the gravitational force experi-

enced by the body is indicated by the length of

the segment joining the center of the body with

the arrowhead and the direction of the force is

indicated by the way the arrow points with

respect to an arbitrary set of coordinates x, x¢

and y, y¢. Fig. 1.1 Vector quantity

Addition of Vectors

Vectors in general do not obey ordinary algebraic rules, therefore a set of

mathematical operations suitable for vector operations must be developed. For

instance if we want to represent the sum of two vectors, we may write R = A +

B , which means that the resultant is equal to the vectorial sum of vector A and

vector B . The resultant will also be a vector quantity.

With reference to figure 1.2 the sum of two vectors may be stated as follows:

Starting at any arbitrary point and using any convenient scale draw a vector A1

equal and parallel to A and pointing in the same direction. At the head of vector

Waves and Sound #

A1 start the tail of vector B1 and draw it equal and parallel to B and in the same

direction. Then to find the sum of vectors A and B draw a vector from the origin

or tail of A1 to the end or head of B 1 . This vector R is the sum of A and B as

is shown. The order in which the sum is performed is irrelevant as long as the

same origin is used and the original direction and magnitude of the vectors have

not been changed.

If the addition of more than two vectors is required then neither the triangle

nor the parallelogram method is suitable. We then have to apply the polygon

method.

Again starting from some arbitrary origin we redraw the vectors in sequence and

place them from head to tail. The sum of these vectors is a single vector drawn

from the origin to the head of the last vector in order to form a closed polygon, as

is shown in figure 1.3.

$ Seismic Methods and Applications

Subtraction of Vectors

By using the same rules as those for addition, vectors can be subtracted by

employing the following relation:

R = A – B = A + -B c h

When the sign of a vector is changed from plus to minus (or vice versa) its

magnitude remains the same although its direction is reversed. Figure 1.4 below

shows the diagrammatic sum and subtraction of two given vectors.

Resolution of Vectors

Since a single vector R is formed by adding together any number of vectors, any

vector can be split into any number of components. A useful method is to split a

vector into its rectangular components which will then permit the use of the

Cartesian coordinate system and the application of the rules of the rectangular

triangle.

Referring to figure 1.5 below we notice that vector A forms a right-angled

triangle with the horizontal projection of A , the vector A x and the vertical

segment that joins the arrow heads of A and A x . Of course this vertical segment

A y is the projection of A on the y-axis. By using the properties of right angles

we can establish the following relationship:

Waves and Sound %

R| A = A * cos(q ) Þ cos(q ) =

Ax

|| x

A

|S A = A * sin(q ) Þ sin(q ) =

Ay

||

y

A

|| A y

=

= A * sin(q )

sin(q )

= tan(q )

TA

x = A * cos(q ) cos(q )

Another very useful relationship can be obtained by using the Pythagorean

2 2 2 2

theorem A = A x + A y or, solving for A x and A y Ax = A - A y and

2 2

A y = A - A x . These properties of vectors are fundamental in the study of

physics and they should be thoroughly understood since they will be used

extensively in this and subsequent sections.

When a vector is multiplied by a positive scalar, the result is still a vector. The

new vector points in the same direction as the old one, but its magnitude is the

product of the scalar and the magnitude of the old vector. Therefore, any vector

quantity can be expressed mathematically as its absolute magnitude A , which is

always a positive scalar multiplied by an unit vector u pointing in the same

direction as A . Thus we have A = |A| ◊ u . | A| in this expression is also called

the modulus of vector u .

When a vector is multiplied by the value –1, the result is a vector of the same

absolute magnitude but pointing in the opposite direction. The division of a vector

1

by a scalar a is equivalent to multiplication by the scalar . The result of this

a

operation is always a vector quantity.

General

When we say that an object is at rest, we mean that it is at rest with respect to a

reference frame such as the earth or the walls of a room. When we speak of the

motion of a car or a train, we mean the relative motion of the object with respect

to the earth or some other frame of reference. The frame of reference usually

takes the form of a set of coordinates such as North–South–East–West.

The definition of motion is the distance the body travels along a straight line in

equal time intervals. The speed of a body is defined as the distance traveled

divided by the elapsed time: i.e. speed = distance/time

s

If symbols are substituted we get: v =

t

When numbers are substituted for symbols, they must be accompanied by their

proper units; therefore in the equation above we would have units of m/sec, ft/sec,

& Seismic Methods and Applications

etc. If both speed and direction of a body are specified we use the term velocity,

which is defined as follows: the velocity of a body which is in uniform motion in

a straight line is the displacement divided by the time during which this

s

displacement occurred or in symbols v =

t

The arrows above the symbols are used because both velocity and displacement

are vector quantities. If the displacement is not uniform in relation to time, the

equation must be modified to accommodate the variations; thus V avge

( s - s1 )

= 2 , where V avge is the average velocity over the interval s2 - s1 and is

( t2 - t1 )

defined as the vector displacement divided by the time difference t2 - t1 .

The equation can be written in a more compact form by replacing s2 - s1

and t2 - t1 with the Greek letter D (delta).

This is usually referred to as the increment of

the variable which it precedes. Hence we can

Ds

write V avge = , where D s represents an

Dt

average displacement interval and not the

actual path s1 to s2, unless the path itself

follows a straight line. However, if s1 and s2

move toward a fixed point P on the curve, then

D s coincides more with the actual path along

Ds

the curve. The limit which the ratio can

Dt

reach, if it converges on P, is the value referred Fig. 1.6a Average and instan-

to as the instantaneous velocity. taneous velocity

Ds f t + Dt - f t ds

vinstantaneous = lim = lim = = f ¢ t . This is equal to

Dt

Dt ® 0 D t ® 0 Dt dt

the value of the tangent at that point and can be found by letting the independent

variable Dt approach 0 as a limit. The limit can be defined as that constant value

which is approached by a sequence of values of the average velocity, also called

the derivative with respect to t. Figure 1.6a shows the Representation of Average

and Instantaneous Velocity

In 1687 Sir Isaac Newton (1643–1727) published for the first time the three

fundamental laws of mechanics, which marked a new era in physics.

The three laws can be stated as follows:

1. A body remains at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line as long as no net

force acts on it (conditions of equilibrium–Galileo’s principle of inertia).

Waves and Sound '

2. If a net force acts on a body, the body will be accelerated. The magnitude of

the acceleration is proportional to the magnitude of the force and the

direction of the acceleration is in the direction of the force. (action principle

– fundamental law of dynamics)

3. When one body exerts a force on a second body, the latter exerts a force

equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body. Another way

of stating this law is: (to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

– reaction principle)

These laws are fundamental to the sections that follow. They are important in

seismic exploration as we induce forces into the earth and therefore we create

reactive forces. It is the interaction of these forces that we will need to understand.

Newton’s first law is often referred to as the law of inertia because of the

reluctance of a body to change its state of rest or motion. When a body is said to

be in equilibrium this does not mean that there are no forces acting on it; what is

meant is that the resultant of all the vector forces acting on the body are equal to

0, or expressed as vectors R = A + B + C + D + K = 0 where R is the

resultant of the vectors A , B , C , D etc. Sometimes it is more convenient to

express these vector quantities in a 3-dimensional coordinate system with

mutually perpendicular coordinates x, y and z, thus splitting R into its three

components:

R x = Ax + B x + C x + Dx + L = 0

Ry = Ay + By + C y + Dy + L = 0

R z = A z + B z + C z + Dz + L = 0

If any of these three equations gives a resultant other than zero, then the body

will be accelerated in accordance with Newton’s second law.

A body is said to be accelerated when its velocity varies with respect to time. The

average acceleration is given by the change in velocity divided by the time in

Dv

which the change takes place - or in symbols: a avge = Instantaneous

Dt

acceleration is found by taking the limit of the ratio Dv/Dt in the same manner as

dv

we defined instantaneous velocity: i.e. a instantaneous = , or

dt

Dv f t + Dt - f t dv d 2s

a = lim = lim = &

= = 2

v

Dt ® 0 Dt Dt ® 0 Dt dt dt

We are now able to write Newton’s second law in the form of an equation:

F = k × a , where F is the magnitude and direction of the force and k is a

Seismic Methods and Applications

which depends on the system of units

used and the properties of the body.

Thus it follows that k = U * M, where

U is the system of units used and M

represents the properties of the body. M

is the symbol of mass, which is the

quantitative measurement of inertia in a

body.

If the SI system is used then U = 1,

and M is expressed in kilograms (kg),

and acceleration is measured in meters

per second2 (m/sec2 ). Hence the equation

can be written in terms of the SI units: Fig. 1.6b Average and instantaneous

–2

F = k ◊ a = kg m sec = N = kg m s , –2 acceleration

where N is the symbol for Newton.

The last law states that a single isolated force is a physical impossibility. Each

force is always met by another equal in magnitude and exerted in the opposite

direction. These forces are known as action and reaction. A typical example is

found in seismic work, either with Vibroseis® or the older gas exploding

Dinoseis®, where a force F is impressed into the ground. The reaction of the

ground to the force from the seismic source is countered by a force acting on the

truck which is sitting over it. This is often called the reaction mass. This is pointed

out in the following diagram.

Force

Force

Fig. 1.7 Vibrating force and reacting force indicated by the arrows

Vibrations of strings and tuning forks can be described by a simple experiment as

a function of time and amplitude. Let’s consider the vibration of a single point. In

Waves and Sound

this point H travel at a constant speed around the

circle, starting from point H0, we can determine the

position of H at any time by measuring the angle

HOH0, or j. The distance that the point H deviates

from point H0 is measured by the point P along the

axis DE and it is called the Amplitude.

If we now continue this process and continually

measure the angle and the position of the point P as

it moves up and down, then we can create a graph

that displays the vibration as a function of Fig. 1.8 Harmonic circular

amplitude and time as shown below in figure 1.9. motion

By the time we have completed one revolution

around the circle, or moved point P from O to D, to O, to E and back to O, we

have completed one wave form called l. The circle has been divided into twelve

equal arcs of equal time intervals, i.e. constant rotation to demonstrate this. Note

that this all happens in place and there is no lateral movement.

In the next picture, figure 1.10 we have marked 13 points, or twelve equal

intervals on a string. This indicates a traveling transverse harmonic vibration.

The first point started vibrating upwards from H0, the leading edge of the wave

train, and returns back to its original state after T seconds. The second point is a

Seismic Methods and Applications

1

distance of l removed from point one. It will start vibrating when point one

12

1

has vibrated for T sec., as that is the time needed to go from the first point to

12

1 1

the second point, a distance of l. The second particle is then T - T sec in

12 12

vibration. The phase difference between particle one and particle two is therefore

æ 1 ö

çè T - T ÷ø 11

12

= . With the aid of the circle we see that the vector or radius A has

T 12

11

traveled the arc H0QH, or ´ 360 ° = 330°, and particle two is therefore at

12

position 2¢. This procedure is followed for all the remaining particles. It can be

seen that one vibration of particle one has created one peak and one trough, and is

currently at the particle 13 position. The remaining part of the string is still at rest.

Note: If we have one point that vibrates in place, it is in a different position at

different times, we get figure 1.9. If we have vibrations of several different points

at the same moment in time, we get figure 1.10.

In figure 1.11 we have indicated the traveling LONGITUDINAL HARMONIC

VIBRATION.

Again, as in the previous example for transverse waves, the first longitudinal

particle starts moving, in this case to the right as indicated. The process is exactly

the same as for the transverse motion, except that the particles in this case move

in the direction of propagation. The bottom part indicates the particle displace-

ment, and the top part shows the resulting waveform.

Periodic Motion

When the resultant force acting on a body is not constant but repeats itself at

regular time intervals T (period), the body is said to move with periodic or

harmonic motion; i.e., if a body at time t is found in a given position, provided its

motion is periodic, it will return to the same position after a time t + T.

Waves and Sound 13

a spring or the oscillation of a pendulum. The words quasi periodic are used since

the amplitude of successive oscillations decreases because of frictional forces

acting on both systems. These types of oscillations are often called aperiodic.

Harmonic motion can be plotted on Cartesian coordinates to give an idea of

how the amplitude varies as a function of time, as was demonstrated above. The

figure 1.12 below shows a fairly complex harmonic motion in (a) and the simplest

one in (b), which is also called a sine or cosine curve because it can be described

by the sine and cosine functions.

Fig. 1.12 Complex harmonic motion (a) and simple harmonic motion (b)

aperiodic event can be described by the combination of sine or cosine functions.

As already mentioned, periodic motion can be represented by sine or cosine

functions. For this purpose, the reference circle can be used to explain how two

functions can describe periodic motion.

14 Seismic Methods and Applications

(omega). Now, suppose that the vector at each complete revolution per unit of

time returns to position a. The angular position of this vector at subsequent time

t is given by angle f such that f = w t + f. Therefore, the position of the vector in

terms of x and y coordinates is given by

x = A cos(w t + f)

y = A sin(w t + f)

f in the equations is called the phase angle and is defined as the fractional part of

a period through which the independent variable (t, in our case) has advanced

from our arbitrary origin.

By plotting the various values of sine and cosine as a function of the angular

position on Cartesian coordinates, we obtain two simple harmonic functions.

Although the shape of these two functions is the same, the phase of the cosine

function is displaced by p /2 with respect to the sine function if both are plotted

on the same axis.

2p A

The constant circular velocity is written as w = , or w = 2pf A .

T

A body or mass which is elastic possesses the property of recovering its original

form when a distorting or constraining force is applied. Perhaps one of the most

descriptive examples of this is a coil spring, but the characteristic is also found in

seemingly rigid matter such as ROCK or METAL. Because fluids and gasses are

not elastic, the transverse waves will not propagate through fluids and gases.

Remember this when we discuss AVO and Rock Physics in later chapters.

Robert Hooke (English scientist and mathematician, 1635–1703) discovered

that elastic displacement in many materials is directly proportional to the force

exerted upon them. In other words, the recovering force is proportional to the

distorting or constraining force. This relationship can be expressed mathe-

matically as: F = –k x , where F is the elastic force exerted by the deformed

body and x is the displacement. The constant of proportionality k (also called

stiffness of the material) has the dimensions of force per unit. This is illustrated in

figure 1.14.

When an object obeying Hooke’s law is displaced from its equilibrium position

and released, the subsequent motion is periodic. This property can be used to

explain the transfer of mechanical energy from one point to another in an elastic

medium. This phenomenon is called mechanical wave propagation, and is the

basis of seismic exploration.

Waves and Sound 15

WAVE ENERGY

Although energy can take many forms in nature, waves are perhaps the most

important since in wave form energy can be transferred from place to place. Some

waves, such as heat, light and acoustic or sound waves, are discernible by human

senses while others, such as ultrasonic waves, radio waves, etc. are not.

A physical example of how waves are propagated is given by throwing a

pebble into a pool. Where the pebble breaks the surface of the water a series of

ripples begins to spread outward in the form of concentric circles. If a floating

object encounters these ripples, it tends to move up and down in synchrony with

the peaks and troughs of the ripples that were created.

Wave energy can be divided into two broad classes, viz. mechanical and

electromagnetic; the former can propagate in a medium only, whereas the latter is

able to also propagate in a vacuum. Mechanical waves can be generated by

applying a force or a set of forces simultaneously at a point in a medium. Then,

according to Newton’s second law, the equilibrium of particles at that point is

disrupted and as a result they receive acceleration in the direction of the applied

force(s). The accelerated particles collide with neighboring particles delivering

energy to them and then return toward their original equilibrium location but,

owing to inertia (Newton’s first law), each particle overshoots. The motion of the

particles is then reversed by forces drawing them toward equilibrium, but again

they overshoot, and so on.

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