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Culminating Activity Acid Rain

What is an Acid? An acid is a substance that has a pH level less than 7 when its in aqueous solution (aq). Substances that produce hydrogen ions and are made with non-metals. They are in solution (aq). *The more acidic the substance is, the lower the pH level will be. What is a Base? A base (a.k.a alkaline) is a substance that has a pH level greater than 7 when its in aqueous solution (aq). They are produced by hydroxide ions. Theyre formed with metal oxide. What is Neutral? Any substance with a pH level of 7 is neutral when its in aqueous solution (aq). What are some acid base indicators?

An acid-base indicator is any substance that changes colour in the presence of an acid or a base. One acidbase indicator that is known worldwide would be litmus paper. When the litmus paper is dipped in an acid, it will turn red. When the litmus paper is dipped into a base, it will turn blue. To determine the pH of a solution, you can compare your results to the standard colour chart. A universal indicator is a mixture of chemicals that change colour through a wide range of pH values. Properties of Acids and Bases Acids Bases Similarities Dissolves in water Can conduct electricity in aqueous solution Can irritate/burn skin Differences Tastes sour Tastes bitter Doesnt feel slippery Feels slippery Can corrode metals Doesnt corrode metals pH less than 7 pH greater than 7

Naming Acids: Binary Acids


Step 1. Start with the prefix hydro 2. Change the ending of the non-metal to ic then write the word acid afterwards. Examples HCL(aq) Hydro Hydrochloric acid HF(aq) Hydro Hydrofluoric acid

Naming Acids: Oxy Acids 1. Made with hydrogen ions and a polyatomic ion. 2. The names DO NOT start with the prefix hydrogen 3. If the polyatomic ion has the higher subscript (ate), it will end with -ic. If it has the lower subscript (ite), it will end with -ous. (i.e. Nitric Acid HNO3(aq), Chloric Acid HCL3(aq)) Submitted by: Maroly Chavez, Carmelle Baylon, & Christiane Canillo

*You can tell by the formula that its an oxy acid if it has a polyatomic ion (with oxygen). Naming Acids that have a Polyatomic Ion with an oxygen atom, & a name ending in ate.
Step 1. Start with the name of the element in the polyatomic ion that isnt oxygen. 2. Add the suffix ic and the word acid Examples H2SO4(aq) Sulphur Sulphuric Acid H3PO4(aq) Phosphorus Phosphoric acid

Naming Bases
Step 1. Write the name of the positively charged metallic ion that is at the beginning of the chemical formula. This step remains the same if the positively charged ion is a polyatomic ion. 2. Add the word hydroxide. Examples KOH(aq) Potassium NH4OH(aq) Ammonium

Potassium hydroxide

Ammonium hydroxide

Formulas, Chemical/Common name, Uses, & Classification of Acids & Bases


Chemical Formula H2SO4 NaOH(s) HCL(aq) Ca(OH)(s) Chemical/Common Name Sulphuric Acid/ batter acid Sodium Hydroxide/caustic soda Hydrochloric Acid/ stomach acid Calcium Hydroxide/hydrated lime Uses Car batteries Making soap Cleaning concrete Making baby formula Classification (acid or base) Acid Base Acid Base

What is Acid Rain? Acid rain may come in forms such as rain, snow, fog, or dew that has a pH level less than 5.6 (rain usually has a pH of approximately 5.6).

Submitted by: Maroly Chavez, Carmelle Baylon, & Christiane Canillo