Sunteți pe pagina 1din 20

Nicolae Grigorescu National College

Constantin Iulian Cozmin 9 Grade Teacher : Constantinescu Rodica

Content 1.The Tenses of the Indicative Mood page 3 a.The Present b.The Past c.The Future 2. Sequence of tensespage 12 a.After a verb at Past in the main sentence b.Temporal clauses 3. IF Clauses.page 13 4. The list of irregular verbspage 14

The Tenses of the Indicative Mood


a.The Present
1.Simple Present (prezent):
Simple Present is used for usual activities and routines . With Simple Present we often use time expressions such as : always , often , sometimes , never , ever, every day , usually , seldom , rarely etc. e.g.:I do my homework every day .
Affirmative form : Subject +verb (short infinitive) e.g. : Sg I.I go Pl I. We go II.You go II. You go III.He/She/It goes III. They go Negative form : Subject + dont/doesnt +verb (short infinitive) e.g. : Sg I.I dont go Pl I. We dont go II.You dont go II. You dont go III.He/She/It doesnt go III. They dont go Interrogative form : Do/Does + Subject +verb (short infinitive) e.g. : Sg I.Do I go ? Pl I.Do we go ? II.Do you go ? II. Do you go ? III.Does he/she/it go ? III. Do they go ?

The verbs `to be ` and `to have` have special forms at the present. To be
e.g. : Sg I.I am II.You are III.He/She/It is Pl I. We are II. You are III. They are

To have
e.g. : Sg I.I have II.You have III.He/She/It has Pl I. We have II. You have III. They have
3

2.Present Continuous(present) :
Present Continuous is used for something that is happening now , at this very moment . Is also used for annoying and repetead actions . e.g.:What are you doing now ?
Affirmative form : Subject + verb to be at present + verb-ing e.g. : Sg I.I am learning Pl I. We are learning II.You are learning II. You are learning III.He/She/It is learning III. They are learning Negative form : Subject + arent/isnt + verb-ing e.g. : Sg I.I am not learning Pl I. We arent learning II.You arent learning II. You arent learning III.He/She/It isnt learning III. They arent learning Interrogative form : Are/is +subject + verb-ing e.g. : Sg I.Am I learning ? Pl I.Are we learning ? II.Are you learning ? II. Are you learning ? III.Is he/she/it learning ? III. Are they learning ?

3.Present perfect continuous(prezent) :


Present Perfect Continuous is used for showing something that started in the past and has continued up until now . Since and for are adverbs which can be used with Present Perfect Continuous . e.g.:She has been playing tennis for three hours .
Affirmative form : I have been reading . You have been reading . He/She/It has been reading . We have been reading . You have been reading . They have been reading . Interrogative form: Have I been reading ? Have you been reading ? Has he/she/it been reading ? Have we been reading ? Have you been reading ?
4

Negative form : I have not/havent been reading . You have not been reading . He/She/It has not been reading . We have not been reading . You have not been readng . They have not been reading .

Have they been reading ?

b.The Past
1. Simple Past (perfect compus) :
Simple Past is used to describe actions and situations that happened in the past. These actions and situations were started and finished in the past. Yesterday Ago Last are adverbs which can be used with Past Simple . Form :
For regular verbs : Subject + verb + d/ed For irregular verbs see the list of the irregular verbs . Affirmative form(regular) : Affirmative form (irregular) : I finished. I wrote . You finished . You wrote . He/She/It finished . He/She/It wrote. We finished . We wrote. You finished . You wrote . They finished . They wrote . Negative form : Interrogative form : I did not / didnt finish. Did I write ? You did not finish . Did you write ? He/She/It did not finish . Did he/she/it write? We did not finish . Did we write? You did not finish . Did you write ? They did not finish . Did they write ?

2. Present Perfect Simple(perfect compus) :


Present Perfect Simple is used for a recently action in the past . Is often used with adverbs like : since , for , just , already , ever , never , this week , lately , recently , yet etc . Form : Subject + have/has + verb IIIrd form .
Affirmative form : I have done . You have done . He/She/It has done . We have done . You have done .
5

They have done . Negative form : I have not / havent done . You have not done . He/She/It has not done . We have not done .

You have not done . Interrogative form : Have I done ? Have you done ? Has he/she/it done ? Have we done ? Have you done ? Have they done ?

They have not done .

3. Past Tense Continuous (imperfect ) :


Past Continuous is used to say that someone was at the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation has already started before this time but hadn't finished yet. Form : Subject + was/were + verb-ing .
Affirmative form : I was hoping . You were hoping . He/She/It was hoping . We were hoping . You were hoping . They were hoping . Interrogative form : Was I hoping ? Were you hoping ? Was he/she/it hoping ? Were we hoping ? Were you hoping ? Were they hoping ? Negative form : I was not / wasnt hoping . You were not hoping . He/She/It was not hoping . We were not hoping . You were not hoping . They were not hoping .

4.

Past Perfect Simple(mai mult ca perfectul) :

Past Perfect is used to say that something had already happened before another action or specific time in the past , often with adverbs like untiland before. Form: Subject + had + verb IIIrd form .
Affirmative form : I had bet . You had bet . He/She/It had bet . We had bet. You had bet. They had bet .
6

Negative form : I had not / hadnt bet . You had not bet . He/She/It had not bet. We had not bet .

You had not bet . Interrogative form : Had Had Had Had Had Had I bet ? you bet ? he/she/it bet? we bet ? you bet ? they bet?

They had not bet .

5. Past Perfect Continuous (imperfect) :


Past Perfect Continuous is used to show that something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past. Form : Subject + had + been + verb-ing . Affirmative form : Negative form: I had been waiting . I had not been/hadnt been waiting . You had been waiting . You had not been waiting . He/She/It had been waiting . He/She/It had not been waiting . We had been waiting . We had not been waiting . You had been waiting . You had not been waiting . They had been waiting . They had not been waiting .

Interrogative form : Had I been waiting ? Had you been waiting ? Had he/she/it been waiting ? Had we been waiting ? Had you been waiting ? Had they been waiting ?

Future
1. Simple Future
Simple future is used for unmmentioned future activities . Form : Subject + will + verb (short infinitive) .
Affirmative form : I will been singing . You will been singing . He/She/It will been singing . We will been singing . You will been singing . They will been singing . Negative form : I will not / wont singing . You will not singing . He/She/It will not singing . We will not singing . You will not singing . They will not singing .

2. Future Continuous
Future Continuous is used for mentined activities . Form : Subject + will + been + verb-ing .
Affirmative form : I will been singing . You will been singing . He/She/It will been singing . We will been singing . You will been singing . They will been singing . Negative form : I will not / wont singing . You will not singing . He/She/It will not singing . We will not singing . You will not singing . They will not singing .

Interrogative form : Will I been singing ? Will you been singing ? Will he/she/it been singing ? Will we been singing ? Will you been singing ? Will they been singing ?

3. Going to Future (going to = a intentiona) :


Going to Future is used for intentions and planned actions in the future . I am going to have fun . Form : Subject + to be (present simple) + going to + verb (short infinitive)
Affirmative form : I am going to play . You are going to play . He/She/It is going to play . We are going to play . You are going to play . They are going to play . Interrogative form : Am I going to play ? Are you going to play ? Is he/she/it going to play ? Are we going to play ? Are you going to play ? Are they going to play ? Negative form : I am not going to play . You are not going to play . He/She/It is not going to play . We are not going to play . You are not going to play . They are not going to play .

4. To be Future (urmeaza sa) :


To be Future is used for a certain action that is going to happen in future .
Affirmative form : I am to wait . You are to wait. He/She/It is to wait . We are to wait . You are to wait . They are to wait. Interrogative form : Am I to wait ? Are you to wait ? Is he/she/it to wait ? Are we to wait ? Are you to wait? Are they to wait ? Negative form : I am not / Im not to wait. You are not to wait. He/She/It is not to wait . We are not to wait . You are not to wait . They are not to wait .

5. Future Perfect Simple :


The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.
Affirmative form : I will have taken . You will have taken . He/She/It will have taken . We will have taken . You will have taken . They will have taken . Interrogative form : Will I have taken ? Will you have taken ? Will he/she/it have taken ? Will we have taken ? Will you have taken ? Will they have taken ? Negative form : I will not / wont have taken . You will not have taken . He/She/It will not have taken . We will not have taken . You will not have taken . They will not have taken .

6. Future Perfect Continuous :


Future Perfect Continuous used to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. Example : James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia. Form : Subject + will + have + been + verb-ing .
Affirmative form : I will have been driving . You will have been driving . He/She/It will have been driving We will have been driving . You will have been driving . They will have been driving . Interrogative form : Will I have been driving ? Will you have been driving ? Will he/she/it have been driving ? Will we have been driving ?
10

Negative form : I will not / wont have been driving . You will not have been driving . He/She/It will not have been driving. We will not have been driving . You will not have been driving . They will not have been driving .

Will you have been driving ? Will they have been driving ?

7.

Present Continuous for Future :

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future. Im buying a house tomorrow .

8. Simple Present for Future :


Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well. The train leaves at 8 PM .

11

Sequence of tenses
After a verb at Past in the main sentence
1. Present Past I learn English. He said he learnt English . 2. Past time Past perfect We were here last time . They said there had been there last time . 3. Future Future in the Past She will go home . James said she would go home . 4. Imperative Infinitive Stay there ! He said me to stay there .

Temporal clauses
When After while Before As soon as Till Until

+ Present

12

If clauses
1. Type 1conditionals (real) : Type one conditionals imply a real condition and the reference is in the present or in the future . The action is highly possible . If clause Main clause Present Tense Present/Future/Imperative Example : If they invite me to thei wedding , I wont go as we are not in good terms . 2. Type 2 conditionals (possible) : Type two conditionals refer to an improbable or hypothetical condition , which contrradicts reality , but the action can be fullfilled in certain conditions . The reference is in the present and the action is possible . If clause Maine clause Past Tense Present Conditional ( Subject + would/ could/ might + verb) Example : If they were younger they could skate . 3. Type 3 conditionals (impossible) : Type three conditionals refer to a condition that can no longer be changed , so this action cant be fulfilled . The reference is in the past and the action is impossible . If clause Main clause Past Perfect Past Conditional ( Subject + would/ could/ might + have + verb IIIrd form) Example : If she had had time , she would have visited me .

13

The list of irregular verbs

Base Form Abide Alight Arise Awake Be Bear Beat Become Begin Behold Bend Bet Bid Bid Bind Bite Bleed Blow Break Breed Bring Broadcast Build

Past Simple Abode/Abided Alit/Alighted Arose Awoke Was/Were Bore Beat Became Began Beheld Bent Bet Bade Bid Bound Bit Bled Blew Broke Bred Brought Broadcast/Broadcasted Built

Past Participle Abode/Abided/Abidden Alit/Alighted Arisen Awoken Been Born/Borne Beaten Become Begun Beheld Bent Bet Bidden Bid Bound Bitten Bled Blown Broken Bred Brought Broadcast/Broadcasted Built

14

Burn Burst Bust Buy Cast Catch Choose Clap Cling Clothe Come Cost Creep Cut Dare Deal Dig Dive Do Draw Dream Drink Drive Dwell Eat Fall Feed Feel Fight Find Fit Flee Fling

Burnt/Burned Burst Bust Bought Cast Caught Chose Clapped/Clapt Clung Clad/Clothed Came Cost Crept Cut Dared/Durst Dealt Dug Dived/Dove Did Drew Dreamt/Dreamed Drank Drove Dwelt Ate Fell Fed Felt Fought Found Fit/Fitted Fled Flung

Burnt/Burned Burst Bust Bought Cast Caught Chosen Clapped/Clapt Clung Clad/Clothed Come Cost Crept Cut Dared Dealt Dug Dived Done Drawn Dreamt/Dreamed Drunk Driven Dwelt Eaten Fallen Fed Felt Fought Found Fit/Fitted Fled Flung

15

Fly Forbid Forecast Foresee Foretell Forget Forgive Forsake Freeze Frostbite Get Give Go Grind Grow Handwrite Hang Have Hear Hide Hit Hold Hurt Inlay Input Interlay Keep Kneel Knit Know Lay Lead Lean

Flew Forbade/Forbad Forecast/Forecasted Foresaw Foretold Forgot Forgave Forsook Froze Frostbit Got Gave Went Ground Grew Handwrote Hung/Hanged Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Inlaid Input/Inputted Interlaid Kept Knelt/Kneeled Knit/Knitted Knew Laid Led Leant/Leaned

Flown Forbidden Forecast/Forecasted Foreseen Foretold Forgotten Forgiven Forsaken Frozen Frostbitten Got/Gotten Given Gone/Been Ground Grown Handwritten Hung/Hanged Had Heard Hidden Hit Held Hurt Inlaid Input/Inputted Interlaid Kept Knelt/Kneeled Knit/Knitted Known Laid Led Leant/Leaned

16

Leap Learn Leave Lend Let Lie Light Lose Make Mean Meet Melt Mislead Mistake Misunderstand Miswed Mow Overdraw Overhear Overtake Pay Preset Prove Put Quit Re-prove Read Rid Ride Ring Rise Rive Run

Leapt/Leaped Learnt/Learned Left Lent Let Lay Lit Lost Made Meant Met Melted Misled Mistook Misunderstood Miswed/Miswedded Mowed Overdrew Overheard Overtook Paid Preset Proved Put Quit Re-proved Read Rid/Ridded Rode Rang Rose Rived Ran

Leapt/Leaped Learnt/Learned Left Lent Let Lain Lit Lost Made Meant Met Molten/Melted Misled Mistaken Misunderstood Miswed/Miswedded Mown Overdrawn Overheard Overtaken Paid Preset Proven/Proved Put Quit Re-proven/Re-proved Read Rid/Ridded Ridden Rung Risen Riven/Rived Run

17

Saw Say See Seek Sell Send Set Sew Shake Shave Shear Shed Shine Shoe Shoot Show Shrink Shut Sing Sink Sit Slay Sleep Slide Sling Slink Slit Smell Sneak Soothsay Sow Speak Speed

Sawed Said Saw Sought Sold Sent Set Sewed Shook Shaved Shore/Sheared Shed Shone Shod Shot Showed Shrank Shut Sang Sank Sat Slew Slept Slid Slung Slunk Slit Smelt/Smelled Sneaked/Snuck Soothsaid Sowed Spoke Sped/Speeded

Sawn/Sawed Said Seen Sought Sold Sent Set Sewn/Sewed Shaken Shaven/Shaved Shorn/Sheared Shed Shone Shod Shot Shown Shrunk Shut Sung Sunk Sat Slain Slept Slid/Slidden Slung Slunk Slit Smelt/Smelled Sneaked/Snuck Soothsaid Sown Spoken Sped/Speeded

18

Spell Spend Spill Spin Spit Split Spoil Spread Spring Stand Steal Stick Sting Stink Stride Strike String Strip Strive Sublet Sunburn Swear Sweat Sweep Swell Swim Swing Take Teach Tear Tell Think Thrive

Spelt/Spelled Spent Spilt/Spilled Span/Spun Spat/Spit Split Spoilt/Spoiled Spread Sprang Stood Stole Stuck Stung Stank Strode/Strided Struck Strung Stript/Stripped Strove Sublet Sunburned/Sunburnt Swore Sweat/Sweated Swept/Sweeped Swelled Swam Swung Took Taught Tore Told Thought Throve/Thrived

Spelt/Spelled Spent Spilt/Spilled Spun Spat/Spit Split Spoilt/Spoiled Spread Sprung Stood Stolen Stuck Stung Stunk Stridden Struck/Stricken Strung Stript/Stripped Striven Sublet Sunburned/Sunburnt Sworn Sweat/Sweated Swept/Sweeped Swollen Swum Swung Taken Taught Torn Told Thought Thriven/Thrived

19

Throw Thrust Tread Undergo Understand Undertake Upset Vex Wake Wear Weave Wed Weep Wend Wet Win Wind Withdraw Withhold Withstand Wring Write Zinc

Threw Thrust Trod Underwent Understood Undertook Upset Vext/Vexed Woke Wore Wove Wed/Wedded Wept Wended/Went Wet/Wetted Won Wound Withdrew Withheld Withstood Wrung Wrote Zinced/Zincked

Thrown Thrust Trodden Undergone Understood Undertaken Upset Vext/Vexed Woken Worn Woven Wed/Wedded Wept Wended/Went Wet/Wetted Won Wound Withdrawn Withheld Withstood Wrung Written Zinced/Zincked

20