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Chapter 1 Introduction to Organic Analytical Chemistry Introduction Chemistry of carbon Analytical Chemistry Application

Chapter 1 Introduction to Organic Analytical Chemistry

Introduction Chemistry of carbon Analytical Chemistry Application Case Study

Organic Chemistry

•• OrganicOrganic isis thethe studystudy ofof mattermatter thatthat containscontains •• OrganicOrganic chemistschemists studystudy thethe structure,structure, function,function, synthesis,synthesis, andand identityidentity ofof carboncarbon compoundscompounds •• UsefulUseful inin petroleumpetroleum industry,industry, pharmaceuticals,pharmaceuticals, polymerspolymers

•• UsefulUseful inin petroleumpetroleum industry,industry, pharmaceuticals,pharmaceuticals, polymerspolymers
pharmaceuticals,pharmaceuticals, polymerspolymers Introduction Analytical Chemistry ••

Introduction

Analytical Chemistry

•• AnalyticalAnalytical chemistrychemistry isis thethe studystudy ofof highhigh precisionprecision measurementmeasurement •• FindFind compositioncomposition andand identityidentity ofof chemicalschemicals •• Forensics,Forensics, qualityquality control,control, medicalmedical teststests

ofof chemicalschemicals •• Forensics,Forensics, qualityquality control,control, medicalmedical teststests
ofof chemicalschemicals •• Forensics,Forensics, qualityquality control,control, medicalmedical teststests

Scientific Method

Scientific Method
Basic Questions Organic chemistry: What is it? •The study of molecules containing carbon Why all

Basic Questions

Organic chemistry: What is it? •The study of molecules containing carbon

Why all this fuss about carbon? •Carbon is unique in its ability to form stable
Why all this fuss about carbon?
•Carbon is unique in its ability to form stable chains and rings
CH 3
CH 3
Cholesterol
HO

•Carbon compounds basis for life (as we know it)

9

Properties of typical organic and inorganic compound

Property

Organic compound

Inorganic

compound

Bonding with

Usually covalent

Often ionic

molecule

Forces between

Generally weak

Quite strong

molecules

(Intermolecular force)

(Electrostatic force)

Normal physical

Gases, liquids or low- melting-point solids.

Usually high-

state

melting-point solids.

Flammability

Often flammable

Usually

nonflammable

Solubility in water

Insoluble

Soluble

Conductivity

Nonconductor

Conductor

Rate of chemical reaction

Slow and complex

Fast and simple

Chemistry of Carbon

Basic Questions

Why should I study organic chemistry? •Broadly applicable to other fields: biochemistry, pharmaceuticals, biology, etc.

•Skills learned useful elsewhere: information organization, critical/analytical thinking, etc.

How often should I study organic analytical chemistry? •Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, Sunda y

10

Position of Carbon

Position of Carbon
Information in the table 6 • Atomic number C • Name of the element •
Information in the table
6
• Atomic number
C
• Name of the element
• Elemental symbol
Carbon
• Atomic mass (weight)
12.01

Naturally Occurred Organic Compounds

Name Of Organic Compounds

Origin

Usage

Proteins

From animals

a) As a structural materials. b) As a biological catalyst

Example :

a) Enzymes

and regulators.

b) Hormones

Fats and Oils Example :

From animals

To store energy.

and vegetables

a) Triglyceride b) Paraffin Oils c) Almond Oils

Vitamins

From food

For healthy growth and functioning.

Example :

A,B Complex, C, D, E and K

 

Classifying of Organic Compounds

Importance of Carbon

Basic for all life

• Form stable covalent bonds to other carbon atoms – catenation

• Can form single, double, triple bonds

• Long carbon chain can be produced

• Will bond to many other element

• A huge number of chemicals are posibble

Synthetic Organic Compounds

Items

Examples

Usage

Plastics

Poly (ethene),

For packaging, plastic

Perspex.

bags, as a substitute for glass.

Medicines

Tranquilizer,

To treat tropical diseases

and

Analgesic and

such as Trypanosomiasis or

Drugs

Bactericide.

Sleeping Illness and Malaria.

Pesticides

Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane ( DDT )

To kill houseflies and other insects.

Dyes

Methylene blue

Give colour to the material.

Functional groups and Homologous Series

DEFINATION :

Functional groups:

is an atom or group of atom which determine the chemical and physical properties of an organic compound.

Homologous Series:

is a series of compounds where each member differs from the next member by a constant –CH 2 -

Classifying compounds by functional group

Functional group

Specific combination of atoms that gives a known type of behaviors

Hydrocarbons

Alkohols

Acids

Amines

Ketones

Aldehydes

C and H only

R - OH

R - COOH R – NH 2

R ( C = O ) R’

R – CHO

O H R - COOH R – NH 2 R ( C = O ) R’

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS are important for three reasons: TheyThey areare thethe unitsunits byby whichwhich wewe dividedivide

are important for three reasons:

TheyThey areare thethe unitsunits byby whichwhich wewe dividedivide organicorganic compoundscompounds intointo classes.classes.FUNCTIONAL GROUPS are important for three reasons: TheyThey areare sitessites ofof chemicalchemical reaction;reaction; aa

TheyThey areare sitessites ofof chemicalchemical reaction;reaction; aa particularparticular functionalfunctional group,group, inin whateverwhatever compoundcompound itit isis found,found, undergoesundergoes thethe samesame typestypes ofof chemicalchemical reactions.reactions. FunctionalFunctional groupsgroups serveserve asas aa basicbasic forfor namingnaming organicorganic compounds.compounds.areare thethe unitsunits byby whichwhich wewe dividedivide organicorganic compoundscompounds intointo classes.classes.

(C-C double bond) (C-C triple bond) (halogen) (hydroxyl) (alkoxy) (amino) (carbonyl) (carbonyl) (carboxyl)
(C-C double bond) (C-C triple bond)
(halogen)
(hydroxyl)
(alkoxy)
(amino)
(carbonyl)
(carbonyl)
(carboxyl)
(carboxylalkonxy)
(amide)
(carbonyl) (carboxyl) (carboxylalkonxy) (amide) HOMOLOGOUS SERIES General characteristic : All the

HOMOLOGOUS SERIES

General characteristic :

All the member of a particular homologous series have:

1. the same general formula eg : C n H 2n+1 OH

2. Same functional group : same chemical reactions. Eg : all alcohols contain –OH group.

3. each member differs from the next member by a constant –CH 2 .

4. As the molecular size increase, the boiling points increase.

Alkane Nomenclature

Alkane Nomenclature 24.2

24.2

Aliphatic

OPEN chains of Carbon atoms.

Unbranched or Branched

Contain Single, Double or Triple bonds. Example: ethane (CH 3 –CH 3 ) ethene / ethylene (CH 2 =CH 2 )

ethyne / acetylene (

Aromatic

HCHC

(CH 2 =CH 2 ) ethyne / acetylene ( Aromatic HCHC CHCH ● CLOSE rings of

CHCH

CLOSE rings of Carbon atoms.

Contain a benzene ring. Example: Benzene

)

HH

HH HH HH HH
HH
HH
HH
HH

HH

Alicyclic

CLOSE rings of Carbon Atoms.

Rings form the shape of POLYGON (triangle, square, rectangle or etc).

CC CC
CC
CC

Example: Epoxide

OO

Example: Epoxide OO

Classification of isomers

Classification of isomers
Classification of isomers
Classification of isomers
Classification of isomers
Isomers Structural isomers Stereoisomers Isomers are different compounds that have the same molecular formula.
Isomers Structural isomers Stereoisomers Isomers are different compounds that have the same molecular formula.

Isomers

Structural isomers

Stereoisomers

Isomers Structural isomers Stereoisomers Isomers are different compounds that have the same molecular formula.

Isomers are different compounds that have the same molecular formula.

Type of organic compound

Organic compound Aliphatic Aromatic Alicyclic Saturated Unsaturated
Organic compound
Aliphatic
Aromatic
Alicyclic
Saturated
Unsaturated

Saturated

Compound that contains only single bond. Example: alkane

HH HH HH CC CC HH ethane HH HH Unsaturated Compound that contains multiple bond.
HH
HH
HH
CC
CC
HH
ethane
HH
HH
Unsaturated
Compound that contains multiple bond.
Example: alkene, alkyne
HH
HH
HCHC
CHCH
CC
CC
ethyne
HH
HH

ethene

Structural isomers C 5 H 12 n-pentane 2-methylbutane 2,2-dimethylpropane
Structural isomers
C 5 H 12
n-pentane
2-methylbutane
2,2-dimethylpropane

5

Example C 6 H 14 CHCH 33 CHCH 22 CHCH 22 CHCH 22 CHCH 22
Example
C 6 H 14
CHCH 33 CHCH 22 CHCH 22 CHCH 22 CHCH 22 CHCH 33
n-n-hexanehexane
(CH(CH 33 CHCH 22 )) 22 CHCHCHCH 33
2-2-MethylpentaneMethylpentane
(CH(CH 33 CHCH 22 )) 22 CHCHCHCH 33
3-3-MethylpentaneMethylpentane
(CH(CH 33 )) 22 CHCH(CHCHCH(CH 33 )) 22
(CH(CH 33 )) 33 CCHCCH 22 CHCH 33
2,3-2,3-DimethylbutaneDimethylbutane
2,2-2,2-DimethylbutaneDimethylbutane

Naming of organic compound according to IUPAC system.

Step 1)

Find the longest continuous carbon chain and use the IUPAC name of the unbranched alkane as the basis.

Step 2)

Add name of substituent as a prefix. Use base name with yl ending. Use replicating prefixes (di-, tri-, tetra-, etc.) according to the number of substituents attached to the main chain.

Step 3)

Number the chain from the end nearest the substituent, and identify the carbon to which the substituent is attached by number.

Step 4)

ListList substituentssubstituents inin alphabeticalalphabetical order.order.

Example

Example Longest C chain has 4 carbon – used But All C and H with single

Longest C chain has 4 carbon – used

But

All C and H with single bonds –used

ane

Parent name : Butane

CH 3 – on 2 nd Carbon –

methyl

2 – methyl butane

Stereoisomer

Compound with the same molecular formula and structural formula but with different arrangement of their bond in space.

cis-2-butene

HH 33 CC CHCH 33 CC CC HH HH
HH 33 CC
CHCH 33
CC
CC
HH
HH

cis (large groups on same side)

trans-2-butene

HH 33 CC HH CC CC HH CHCH 33
HH 33 CC
HH
CC
CC
HH
CHCH 33

trans (large groups on opposite sides)

Base Names

prefix

Length of Carbon

Meth

1

Eth

2

Prop

3

But

4

Pent

5

Hex

6

Hept

7

Oct

8

Non

9

Dec

10

Example C 6 H 14 CHCH 33 CHCH 22 CHCH 22 CHCH 22 CHCH 22
Example
C 6 H 14
CHCH 33 CHCH 22 CHCH 22 CHCH 22 CHCH 22 CHCH 33
n-n-hexanehexane
(CH(CH 33 CHCH 22 )) 22 CHCHCHCH 33
2-2-MethylpentaneMethylpentane
(CH(CH 33 CHCH 22 )) 22 CHCHCHCH 33
3-3-MethylpentaneMethylpentane
(CH(CH 33 )) 22 CHCH(CHCHCH(CH 33 )) 22
(CH(CH 33 )) 33 CCHCCH 22 CHCH 33
2,3-2,3-DimethylbutaneDimethylbutane
2,2-2,2-DimethylbutaneDimethylbutane

Type of Reactions

Addition

• Two substances react together to form a single substance.

Addition of HBr to an alkene

Hydrogen bromide Ethene Bromoethane
Hydrogen bromide
Ethene
Bromoethane

Elimination

• Removal of atoms or groups of atoms from a saturated molecule to form an unsaturated molecule.

Dehydration of alcohol H 2 SO 4 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2
Dehydration of alcohol
H 2 SO 4
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 –OH
CH 3 CH 2 CH=CH 2 + H 2 O
Butanol
Butene
Type of Organic Reactions General Addition Substitution Elimination Rearrangement Specific Hydrogenation
Type of Organic Reactions
General
Addition
Substitution
Elimination
Rearrangement
Specific
Hydrogenation
Esterification
Oxidation
Hydrolysis

Substitution

• An atom or a group (leaving group) in a molecule is

replaced by another atom electrophile).

or group (nucleophile /

S N 2 reaction

Hydroxide ion (nucleophile) (leaving group) Bromobutane Butanol Bromide ion
Hydroxide ion (nucleophile)
(leaving group)
Bromobutane
Butanol
Bromide ion

Rearrangement

• Migration of an atom, a group of atoms or a bond from one atom to another within molecule to form its isomer.

Tautomerism of keto-enol CHCH 33 CC CHCH 22 CHCH 33 CCHCCH 33 OHOH OO Propenol
Tautomerism of keto-enol
CHCH 33 CC
CHCH 22
CHCH 33 CCHCCH 33
OHOH
OO
Propenol
Propanone

Hydrogenation

• Addition of hydrogen to a multiple bond to form a single bond substance.

Hydrogenation of alkane HH HH HH HH Pt CC CC ++ HH——HH HH CC CC
Hydrogenation of alkane
HH
HH
HH
HH
Pt
CC
CC
++
HH——HH
HH
CC
CC
HH
Hydrogen
HH
HH
HH
HH
Ethylene
Ethane

Esterification

• Acid-catalyzed ester formation between alcohol and carboxylic acid.

Fischer esterification OO OO HH 22 SOSO 44 ++ CHCH 33 COHCOH CHCH 33 CHCH
Fischer esterification
OO
OO
HH 22 SOSO 44
++
CHCH 33 COHCOH
CHCH 33 CHCH 22 OHOH
CHCH 33 COCHCOCH 22 CHCH 33 ++ HH 22 OO
reflux
Ethyl ethanoate
Ethanoic acid
Ethanol

Hydrolysis

• Chemical process in which a molecule is split into two parts by the addition
• Chemical process in which a molecule is split into
two parts by the addition of a molecule of water.
(CH 3 ) 3 C–Br + H 2 O
(CH(CH 33 )) 33 C–C–OHOH ++ HBrHBr
Hydrogen
tert-Butyl bromide
tert-Butyl alcoholalcohol
bromide

Specific Reaction

Oxidation

• An increase in the number of bonds between carbon and oxygen and/or a decrease in the number of carbon-hydrogen bonds.

Chlorination of methane CHCH ++ ClCl 22 CHCH 33 ClCl ++ HClHCl 44 Methane Chlorine
Chlorination of methane
CHCH
++
ClCl 22
CHCH 33 ClCl
++
HClHCl
44
Methane
Chlorine
Chloromethane Hydrogen
chloride

The Importance of Organic Chemistry

Many areas rely on organic chemistry :

Biology and Biochemistry Petroleum

Polymers

chemistry : Biology and Biochemistry Petroleum Polymers Genetic Engineering Agriculture Pharmacology Consumer

Genetic Engineering

Agriculture

Pharmacology

Consumer Products

chemistry : Biology and Biochemistry Petroleum Polymers Genetic Engineering Agriculture Pharmacology Consumer Products

Analytical Chemistry

The Art and Science of Chemical Analysis

Areas of Chemical Analysis and Questions They Answer

• Quantitation:

– How much of substance X is in the sample?

• Detection:

– Does the sample contain substance X?

• Identification:

– What is the identity of the substance in the sample?

• Separation:

– How can the species of interest be separated from the sample matrix for better quantitation and identification?

What do Chemical Analyst Do?

• Senior Analyst:

• Develops new measurement methods on existing principles to solve new analysis problems.

Introduction to Chemical Analysis

• Chemical analysis includes any aspect of the chemical characterization of a sample material.

• Analytical Chemistry?

– “Science of Chemical Measurements”

What do Chemical Analyst Do?

• Analyst:

• Applies known measurement techniques to well defined compositional or characterization questions.

• Research Analytical Chemist

What do Chemical Analyst Do?

• Research Analytical Chemist:

• Creates and /or investigates novel techniques or principles for chemical measurements.

• or

• Conducts fundamental studies of chemical/physical phenomena underlying chemical measurements.

What is Analytical Science?

• Analytical Chemistry provides the methods and tools needed for insight into our material world for answering four basic questions about a material sample?

• What?

• Where?

• How much?

• What arrangement, structure or form?

• Fresenius’ J. Anal. Chem. 343 (1992):812-813

Table 1: Methods of Analysis

Qualitative Method

Quantitative Method

Qualitative analysis:

Quantitative analysis :

•Is identification method •established the chemical identity of species in the samples •such analysis does not report the amount of substance

•determine the relative amount of these species or analyte, in numeral terms •undertaken when the identity of the component is already known and when it is important to also know the quantities of these

•Example:

Example:

Identify the present of sugar in soft drink

Analysis of soil reported that potassium concentration present is at 342 ppm

reported that potassium concentration present is at 342 ppm Qualitative analysis is what. Quantitative analysis is
reported that potassium concentration present is at 342 ppm Qualitative analysis is what. Quantitative analysis is
Qualitative analysis is what. Quantitative analysis is how much. ©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6th Ed.
Qualitative analysis is what.
Quantitative analysis is how much.
©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry,
6th Ed. (Wiley)
An analysis involves several
steps and operations which
depend on:
•the particular problem
• your expertise
• the apparatus or
equipment available.
The analyst should be
involved in every step.
©Gary Christian,
Analytical Chemistry,
6th Ed. (Wiley)

Fig. 1.1. Steps in an analysis

ClassificationClassification ofof AnalyticalAnalytical MethodsMethods

Classical Methods

ofof AnalyticalAnalytical MethodsMethods C l a s s i c a l M e t h
ofof AnalyticalAnalytical MethodsMethods C l a s s i c a l M e t h

Instrumental Methods

ofof AnalyticalAnalytical MethodsMethods C l a s s i c a l M e t h
ofof AnalyticalAnalytical MethodsMethods C l a s s i c a l M e t h
ofof AnalyticalAnalytical MethodsMethods C l a s s i c a l M e t h

Classical Methods

Classical Methods Analyte is separated from Sample by : precipitation, extraction or distillation. Qualitative

Analyte is separated from Sample by :

Analyte is separated from Sample by :

precipitation, extraction or distillation.

Qualitative analysis:

The analyte is then treated with reagents that yield product that could be recognised by Colour, melting point, solubilities, odours etc.

Example: Qualitative analysis of common ions ( Pb2+,Hg2+,Ag+)

Example: Qualitative analysis of common ions ( Pb2+,Hg2+,Ag+)

Quantitative analysis:

Amount of Analyte can be determined by gravimetric and titrametric method

SPECTROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS

SPECTROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS UV – VIS Spectrophotometer Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) FT – IR Spectrometer
SPECTROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS UV – VIS Spectrophotometer Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) FT – IR Spectrometer

UV – VIS Spectrophotometer

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)

SPECTROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS UV – VIS Spectrophotometer Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) FT – IR Spectrometer

FT – IR Spectrometer

CHROMATOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS

CHROMATOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS Gas Chromatography (GC) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
CHROMATOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS Gas Chromatography (GC) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

Gas Chromatography (GC)

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

Instrumental Method

Structural Features we can address Spectroscopically

• Molecular weight

• Chemical Formula

• Functional groups

• Skeletal Connectivity, structural isomers

• Spatial-geometric arrangements, stereoisomerism, symmetry

• Presence and location of chromophores

• Chirality issues

• Some of these are more central than others. Sometimes we can stop when the answer is fit to purpose.

Chromatographic Methods

What is Chromatography?

• Chromatography is one of the separation technique

• The main purpose of chromatography is to separate, to identify and to quantify the target sample in matrix

How can the separation be carried out? Figure: (a) Diagram showing the separation of a
How can the separation be carried out? Figure: (a) Diagram showing the separation of a

How can the separation be carried out?

How can the separation be carried out? Figure: (a) Diagram showing the separation of a mixture

Figure: (a) Diagram showing the separation of a mixture of component A and B by column elution chromatography. (b) The output of the signal detector at the various stages of elution in (a).

Different methods provide a range of precision, sensitivity, selectivity, and speed capabilities.

of precision, sensitivity, selectivity, and speed capabilities. ©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6th Ed. (Wiley)

©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry,

6th Ed. (Wiley)

PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHY

PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHY Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHY Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHY Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

Comparison between Analytical Methods

6th Ed. (Wiley) PLANAR CHROMATOGRAPHY Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) Comparison between Analytical Methods 12
Biology Chemistry Physics Geology A ALYTICAL Engineering CHEMISTRY Environmental Science Medicine Material
Biology
Chemistry
Physics
Geology
A ALYTICAL
Engineering
CHEMISTRY
Environmental Science
Medicine
Material Science
Agriculture
Social Science

Deer Kill

• Case Study # : Deer Kill

• Problem: Dead whitetail deer near pond in the Land Between the Lakes State Park in south central Kentucky.

• Chemist

state veterinary diagnostic

laboratory helped find the cause

Select Method

• Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC)

• Distillation of arsenic as arsine which is then determined by colorimetric measurements.

Case Study

Site Investigation

• Careful visual observation of a two acre area around the site:

• Observation: grass around nearby power- poles was wilted and discolored.

• Speculation: Herbicide used on grass.

• Ingredient: Arsenic in a variety of forms

– CH 3 AsO(OH) 2 very soluble in water.

Representative Sample

• Dissect both deer. Removed kidneys for analysis.

• Laboratory Sample. Preparation

• Cut kidney into pieces and blend in a high speed blender to homogenize the sample.

Defining Replicate Samples

• Three 10-g samples of the homogenized tissue were placed in porcelain curcibles and dry ashed. Dry ashing serves to free the analyte from organic material and convert the arsenic present to As 2 O 5 . Samples of the discolored grass were treated in a similar manner.

Eliminating Interferences

• Reactions to Eliminate Interferences:

• H 3 AsO 4 + SnCl 2 + 2HCl --> H 3 AsO 3 + SnCl 2 + H 2 O

• H 3 AsO 3 + 3Zn + 6HCl --> AsH 3(g) + 3ZnCl 2 + 3H 2 O

• Bubble gas into collectors with silver diethyldithiocarbamate to form a colored complex compound shown below.

Conc. Absorbanc ppm 0 0 5 0.16 10 0.28 15 0.41 20 0.595 25 0.7
Conc.
Absorbanc
ppm
0
0
5
0.16
10
0.28
15
0.41
20
0.595
25
0.7
deer 1
0.61
deer 2
0.43

Absorbance vs Concentration

y=0.0282x+0.005 0.8 R 2 =0.9961 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25
y=0.0282x+0.005
0.8
R
2 =0.9961
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Absorbanc e

Conc.,ppm

Dissolving the Samples

• The dry solid in each of the sample crucibles was dissolved in dilute HCl, which converted the As 2 O 5 to soluble

H 3 AsO 4.

Measuring the Amount of Analyte

• Spectrophotometer: Highly colored complex of arsenic was found to absorb light at a wavelength of 535 nm.

of Analyte • Spectrophotometer: Highly colored complex of arsenic was found to absorb light at a

Calculating the Concentration

• ppm = (Absorbance -.005)/0.0282

• Deer 1: (0.61 - 0.005)/0.0282 = 22 ppm

• Deer 2: (0.43 -0.005)/0.0282 = 15 ppm

• Arsenic in the kidney tissue of animals is toxic at levels above about 10 ppm.

• Grass Samples showed about 600 ppm arsenic.

Reliability of the Data

• The data from these experiments could be analyzed using the statistical methods

experiments could be analyzed using the statistical methods Where Do We Begin? • Review of Basic
experiments could be analyzed using the statistical methods Where Do We Begin? • Review of Basic

Where Do We Begin?

• Review of Basic Tools and Operations of Analytical Chemistry

– The Laboratory Notebook

– Analytical Balances, Volumetric Glassware

– Laboratory Safety

• Error Analysis

– Concepts

– Terminology

– Evaluation of Data

– Experimental Design

• Review of Solution Chemistry

– Units

– Concentration Calculations

– Stoichiometry

– Balanced Chemical Reactions

Laboratory safety is a must! Learn the rules. See Lab Manual for Detail.

is a must! Learn the rules. See Lab Manual for Detail. ©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6

©Gary Christian, Analytical Chemistry, 6 th Ed. (Wiley)