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Dale Luck

Critical Perspectives Exam Notes

A2 Media Studies

Production Practices
Digital Technology
Panasonic HDC-SD60 Hardware video camera Used for filming both the AS film opening and A2 music video Much better for filming than cameras that use tape, but no audio input jack Also used to record the continuity and lipsyncing tasks at AS and A2 o AS Continuity Task Learnt how to get to grips with the basic functions of the camera o AS Film Opening Learnt about basic shot uses (close ups, wide shots, etc.) Camera automatically seperated different shots, unlike tape (+) Adobe Photoshop CS5 Software - image manipulation program Used for ancillary products and making the weblog more aesthetically pleasing Complicated to use, but very powerful once you get the hang of it o Magazine Advertisement Rule of Three + Two Fonts Images manipulated to be black and white and re-sized o Album Cover Rule of Three + Conventions of Information Placement Inspired by the album Revolutions: Live at Wembley by Biffy Clyro Colour scheme kept the same (red, black and white) Placement of cover content kept the same Photographs of band performing used Images manipulated to be black and white and re-sized Mode of Address same fonts used on both, style of photos kept the same House Style - black and white performance photos, juxtaposition of colours Adobe After Effects CS5 Software video editing program Used for the editing of both the AS and A2 main and induction tasks Complicated to use, good for special effects, bad for just normal editing o AS Continuity Task Learned the basics of how to edit videos together o AS Film Opening Learnt how to use special effects and addition of credits o A2 Lipsyncing and Music Video Learnt how to properly synchronise sound and colour grading Weblogs for audience feedback, Scribd and the like for uploading materials (Web 2.0)

Dale Luck

Critical Perspectives Exam Notes

A2 Media Studies

Creativity
AS Film Opening Inspiration: Reservoir Dogs ; American Psycho ; Dexter o Clothing formal attire (American Psycho ; Reservoir Dogs) o Colour Scheme starch white with bright red blood (American Psycho) o Music juxtaposition for atmosphere (American Psycho ; Reservoir Dogs) Conventions kept to whilst using original content Restricted by course specifications that forced use of special effects, etc. A2 Ancillary Products Digipak o Inspiration: Live at Wembley by Biffy Clyro Colour Scheme red w/ black and white photographs Content performance photographs Layout rule of three used by the cover Magazine advert o Inspiration: Live At Wembley + Santogolds Lights Out Colour Scheme low amount of colours (Santogold) Content performance photographs (Biffy Clyro) Layout rule of three, use of photographs (Santogold) Restricted by course specification to use conventions and inspiration A2 Music Video Inspiration: Death Cab For Cutie (Bixby Canyon Bridge), Elbow (Lippy Kids) o Content live performance, shots mirroring Elbow music video o Colour Scheme link to ancillary products o Costumes smart, but not too formal, mirroring Death Cab For Cutie Restricted by course specification to use lipsyncing in a majority of it ..+.. Bentley making of new, re-arranging of old (intertextuality) ..+.. David Gauntlett creating something new (created new content) ..- Technology eliminates all creativity (allowed me to make what I want) ..- Planning eliminates all creativity (was required to create the product) ..- Cant learn from studying old texts (conventions, intertextuality)

Dale Luck

Critical Perspectives Exam Notes

A2 Media Studies

Research and Planning


Types of research primary and secondary (personal research and found research) Pros and cons of sources cost, time spent, reliability, accuracy, usefulness Organisation of research blog use, research referencing, development over time Planning drafts and audience feedback gained Organisation of planning deadlines, production schedules, communication, pros and cons Presentation of planning use of creativity and digital technology How it informed the practical work how it all affected the final product AS Film Opening Conventions were researched into the genre used (secondary) Audience was formed from assumptions made (primary) Studied films for style, character stereotypes, use of sound and colour (primary) Films were time consuming to study, but useful for the end product Others were quick, though audience research had debatable usefulness Organization was done via Blogger, and convention research was referenced Storyboards, small drafts and ideas were posted, audience feedback achieved Audience feedback lead to simplification of plot and locations used Deadlines met, as were production schedules Small team of two, so good communication, but compromises had to be made Presented via YouTube for video and Scribd for storyboards Practical work was highly affected by all research, except for audience (?) A2 Ancillary Products Print conventions were researched and applied (secondary) rule of three Albums were studied personally and similar styles used in end product (primary) Style of certain bands linked to music choice was applied (primary) None of it was time consuming, but usefulness of style research is debatable Organization was done via Blogger, and convention research was referenced Prototypes were posted onto the blog and feedback was gained Lead to complete change of digipak and advert Solo work, much greater control over content but more time consuming Presented via uploading the prototypes straight to the blog, practical work affected A2 Music Video Music video conventions were researched and applied (secondary) Music videos and bands researched for style and inspiration (primary) Organization done via Blogger, convention research was referenced Information on band posted and feedback obtained, leading to complete change Two people in team, made research a lot quicker, but harder to come to decisions Presented research via YouTube, Scribd, etcetera. and feedback gained throughout Research had a big impact on the final product Elbow and Death Cab For Cutie

Dale Luck

Critical Perspectives Exam Notes

A2 Media Studies

Post-Production
AS Coursework Image Manipulation and Video Editing What Was Done: Photos of iPod and television were captured to replace shaky shots Special effects were created use of television and blurred vision Video files were cut together to match the storyboard set beforehand Music was added to keep to conventions of film openings (diegetic) Tools: Photoshop CS5 (+ powerful, - learning curve) After Effects CS5 (+ powerful, - not suitable for just cutting, - learning curve) Strengths and Weaknesses: ..+.. already proficient at using Photoshop, so less time consuming ..+.. had gotten to grips with the basics of After Effects already ..- but rendering the final video was a big learning process (difficulties) A2 Coursework Image Manipulation and Video Editing What Was Done: Advert photos edited, fonts downloaded, stars found and used Digipak photos edited, masks used, fonts downloaded, conventions used Video color grading, video cutting, lipsyncing, music synchronisation Tools: Photoshop CS5 (+ powerful, - learning curve) After Effects CS5 (+ powerful, - not suitable for just cutting, - learning curve) Strengths and Weaknesses: ..+.. already proficient at using Photoshop, so less time consuming ..+.. render difficulties already gotten over from last year Progression Photoshop skills got better o Image manipulation i.e. color balancing o Visual effects i.e. gradient usage, converting to black and white Video editing skills got better o Synchronisation of sound and video got better (not much thought to it at AS) o Creation of special effects (extended to color grading) o Handling rendering the video

Dale Luck

Critical Perspectives Exam Notes

A2 Media Studies

Media Conventions
Talk about how you encoded to create a preferred/open/closed meaning for the audience Stuart Hall preferred meanings are encoded, but different meaning can be decoded Umberto Eco open text has many meanings ; closed text has a very specific meaning Barthes images = polysemic, can have preferred meaning through anchorage (text/music) AS Film Opening Macro Analysis Pre-Production (what was done) To create a similar atmosphere to American Psycho (disconcerting) Planned to be from killers perspective Conventions of horror genre to be used to target specific audience Linear series of events to be split apart by film credits Production and Post-Production (how it was done) Juxtaposition of music and content to add to the atmosphere Use of indexical signs (Pierce) to connote meaning of content Perspective established by blocking view of victim early on Micro Elements (mode of address/persuasion) Mise-En-Scene costume intertextuality for audience targetting Camerawork close ups and slow-ish pace for horror conventions Editing perspective of killer for intellectual puzzle Sound juxtaposition of music and content for disconcerting atmosphere A2 Ancillary Products Macro Analysis Pre-Production (what was done) Conventions of print, specifically the rule of three and the placement of information on the page Types of shots that would be required (link to video) The review sites to mention and the ratings given to the band The store names to include The font to use for the band name (magazine + digipak) What program to use (Photoshop use of layers and effective tools) Production and Post-Production (how it was done) Juxtaposed photograph colour scheme with the information shown Arranged group photo in the middle as largest to draw focus Arranged the rest of them to be tiled around it for added interest Micro Elements (mode of address/persuasion) Mise-En-Scene style of band links to Death Cab For Cutie and audience Camerawork long shot for main photograph to draw focus, close shots else Editing black and white colour edit to contrast font and bright colours

Dale Luck

Critical Perspectives Exam Notes

A2 Media Studies

Media Concepts
Genre
Use of conventions (inc. deviations) Steve Neale genres are both repetititious and different from past genre texts Thomas Schatz order (male-dominant, individual, contested space) or integration Narrative structure (open/closed, ambiguous/linear) Representations used stereotypical to the genre Tom Ryall iconographies and representations Rick Altman emotional and visceral pleasures created by said iconographies Ideologies used from the genre Rick Altman intellectual puzzle created by hidden identity of murderer

Narrative
Describe the series of events in the film opening briefly Mise-en-scene costumes, intertextuality, camera work, colour scheme and music Propp false hero (somebody who thinks they are the hero) Barthes enigma / semantic / symbolic / cultural code Strauss binary oppositions (good and bad, rich and poor)

Representation
Who is being represented? Status upper-middle class Gender male How are they being represented? Media language Use of positive/negative stereotypes David Gilmore man the provider/protector/impregnator (provider Laura Mulvey male gaze (both are seen to be unwavering, classy, and organized) Why are they being represented in this way? Audience recognition and expectations of the genre and character types

Dale Luck

Critical Perspectives Exam Notes

A2 Media Studies

Audience
Define audiences location, consumption, size and subjectivity How did you attract your target audience (media language, representation, conventions)? How were audience theories incorporated? Adorno and Horkheimer Hypodermic Needle Model take in values/ideas/info shown McQuail Uses and Gratifications Model consumption motivated by individual needs Needs of audience: entertainment, empathy with content, gossip, information Avoids idea of a passive audience, enables thinking of them as active consumers Stuart Hall different perspectives to decode it by preferred, negotiated, oppositional Why was this specific audience targeted?

Media Language
Camera Editing Lighting Sound Mise-en-scene Special effects Pierce we only think in signs, which society attributes meaning to Icons to imitate something to some extent Indexes an observed or inferred link to something (e.g. smoke to fire) Symbols doesnt mean anything to the audience unless learnt (e.g. language, flags) Fiske denotations are what is photographed, connotations is how it is photographed Stuart Hall texts are encoded by producers, but meaning is decoded by audiences