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Observing and classifying 2. Overview Living things are many and varied.

Human beings like you are living things. Cows, lizards, rats and butterflies are living things. Orange trees, and palm trees and other plants are living things. It is generally observed that all living things have certain characteristics common to them. Living things feed, respire, excrete, move, respond to external stimuli, grow and reproduce young ones. These are sometimes referred to as " life processes". There are so many living things that people try to sort them into some kind of order. 3. Purpose The purpose of this lesson is to make the students recognise those characteristics which all living things possess. Living things have been classified into two groups- plants and animals. 4. Objectives Students will be able to: i. List the characteristics of living things ii. Describe each of the characteristics iii. Give specific examples of living things exhibiting the characteristics. 5. Resources/materials The students should be involved in collecting a number of living things:

Plants of different types and sizes Animals-insects, toad/frog, fish in cup of water Charts of various animals.

6. Activities and Procedures The teacher should begin this lesson by drawing the attention of the students to some easily recognisable differences between living and non-living things. It is difficult to say that only one thing distinguishes living from non-living. We must use a number of distinguishing features, known as CHARACTERISTICS so as to be quite sure. The teacher could present the chart of different animals doing a number of things-feeding, walking, a plant being watered, going to the toilet, a hen with its chicks, etc. Although plants and animals are regarded as living things, there might be certain things which an animal can do but which a plant cannot do. It is here for instance that movement in

plants and animals can be distinguished. Locomotion as distinct from just movement should be explained. Animals perform locomotion while plants do not. Although also both plants and animals respire, only animals actually breathe. Both plants and animals take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide during respiration. While both plants and animals need food, green plants on their own manufacture the food which they need while most animals depend on plants and other animals for their food. The process by which green plants manufacture their food is known as PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The conditions under which photosynthesis takes place should be explained. All living things, both plants and animals reproduce themselves. The two forms of reproduction, asexual and sexual, should be explained. Also, both plants and animals respond to external stimuli. Plants in particular could be shown to respond to light. Living things excrete. People largely get rid of the materials not needed by the body in a toilet but plants put their waste into the leaves which drop off. 7. Tying it all together This lesson should bring out clearly to the student the differences between living and non-living things. The characteristics of living things vary slightly in the animal and plant world but in general, they both have similar characteristics. 8. Assessment The teacher should use practical sessions to assess the students. Some test items which could be answered through the usual paper and pencil could be introduced

Overview In its simplified form, a force is regarded as anything that can cause change on objects. There are different kinds of forces which have been described as "contact" and "noncontact" forces. These forces have very unique properties which can be put to advantage in both science and technology. 3. Purpose The purpose of this lesson is to provide information that can distinguish one type of force from the other. The contact forces are easier to notice than the non-contact forces. 4. Objectives Students will be able to: i. Define what is meant by a force ii. Distinguish between "contact" force and "non-contact" force. iii. Describe how forces have been useful to us. 5. Resources/materials

Plasticine, modelling clay, foam sponge Tennis ball and racket, screw driver Magnets, batteries and bulbs.

6. Activities and Procedures This lesson has a lot of implications in our daily lives. Forces affect our lives. The students would have experienced and applied forces before they undertake this formal study of forces. Forces should be simply defined first:

Forces cause change. Forces can change the shape of an object Forces can move or stop an object Forces can change the direction of a moving object.

The teacher can demonstrate and guide the students to experience all of the above. In the second part of the lesson, the teacher should introduce the terms-- "contact and noncontact" forces. The terms themselves appear self explanatory. Contact forces must touch an object before they can make something happen. The students are already familiar with what forces can do. The students should now be guided to give several examples of contact forces. These could be put under two broad groups-Push and Pull. When we apply a force away from our body, a push is said to have taken place. And when we apply a force towards our body, a pull is said to have taken place. One example of a contact force a bit remote but always in use when we walk is frictional force. This too is an example of a contact force. There are nevertheless some forces which can act from a distance. Such forces are called noncontact forces. The students may not be very familiar with non-contact forces. Examples of non-contact forces are gravity, electricity and magnetism. The teacher should now demonstrate non-contact forces. Both contact and non-contact forces are useful to us. Frictional force as a good example of contact force can be both bad and good. It is here that the teacher needs to explore with the students what is friction. The Poem on friction should be read to the students. Friction in moving engine parts could be harmful. On the other hand, without friction, walking on any

surface will be almost impossible. Force in the form of friction therefore could at times be good and at times be bad. Other uses of force that could be discussed are:

Roller coaster-free fall due to gravity Force of the wind to generate electricity-in a wind mill Force of water to generate electricity-in hydro-electric generators Force in various types of levers

A useful application of force in Integrated Science is to consider biological force-muscle force. The muscles of parts of the body are able to carry out certain functions by the contraction and expansion of the muscles. This extension of force to include biological force is a good point to emphasise. Movement of our body depends on two muscle sets at each joint. While one muscle contracts(shortens) to pull a bone, the other muscle relaxes. Muscles always work in pairs like this because they can only provide a pulling force. They never push. 7. Tying it all together Force is a very useful topic in science. It is perhaps important at this point to mention how force is measured. It is useful to draw attention to the fact that force is measured in newtons. A close look at a spring balance will show calibrations in newtons. That is why the weight of an object ( the gravitational force on an object) is given in the unit of force, the newton. Forces are useful to us. 8. Assessment The students should be asked to give simple every day examples of the use of force. 2. Overview The uses of electricity are very well known in many communities. Without electricity, life can be very difficult for many people. While large scale use of electricity is to be encouraged, there is need to draw attention to the dangers of electricity if not properly used. Depending on what is easily available in a country, its electricity can be generated from different sources. 3. Purpose Electricity has been described both as a friend and a foe. The distinction between electricity as a friend and as a foe depends on how electricity is used. The purpose of this lesson is to show how we can control electricity and not allow electricity to control us. 4. Objectives Students will be able to: i. Explain what electricity can do. ii. Demonstrate the presence of electricity iii. Explain the dangers of electricity iv. Discuss why then electricity is a friend and a foe. 5. Resources/materials

A torch cell, torch bulb, a piece of wire. A circuit board, pieces of wire.

6. Activities and Procedures Many of the students may come across electricity before they ever come to study and really understand what electricity is. That is why it is suggested here that the uses of electricity in the various homes and big cities be explored. Supply of household electricity to towns and villages is regarded as priority service by many African

governments. Household electricity is used for quite a number of activities-lighting, heating, cooking, ironing, etc. The students should be guided to make a comprehensive list of the uses of electricity in their community. The impact of electricity in every community is well felt. Some of the people who enjoy the services of electricity take un-necessary risks with electricity. The electricity generating companies which supply household electricity have gone to the extent of issuing warnings against careless handling of electricity transmitted through their high tension lines. It is necessary for the teacher to draw attention to these TEN guidelines so that the students can, if need be, pass them on especially to illiterate people in their community. They were ADAPTED from a standard school textbook and pamphlets issued by some electricity companies:


Many deaths have occurred to people who tamper with power lines. In Lesson 17 where forces were discussed, reference was made to non-contact forces. Electricity was listed as a non-contact force. The students should be introduced to the simple production of electricity using a torch cell, wire and an indicator torch bulb. Many new words will of necessity be introduced into the vocabulary of the students-circuits, conductors, insulators, current, voltage, switch, meter, fuse, plug, socket, etc. The teacher should introduce the students to symbols used in the study of electricity. Simple calculations on electricity may be introduced. The circuit board is an invaluable piece of equipment to have when teaching lessons on electricity. This lesson should draw attention to the fact that electricity can be of immense service to us. It can then be referred to as a good servant. However if we are not careful at home, and we do not control the use of electricity, it could be a bad master. The teacher should then along with the students draw up some guidelines especially for children at home to prevent electricity mishap. Finally the teacher should guide the students to list the sources of electricity; how electricity is generated and distributed for public use in their community. What is the name of the electricity company? How efficient is the company? What are the problems of public electricity supply in their community? 7. Tying it all together Electricity power supply is a very important aspect of national development. There is an opportunity in this lesson to discuss energy needs and supply in a given community. Remote villages in many African countries clamour for the supply of electricity.

8. Assessment Assessment should focus on both the supply and safe use of electricity 2. Overview Ability to do work is usually defined as energy. How then do we get energy? Here, a whole range of different kinds of energy are considered. Biological, chemical and physical forms of energy play a very important part in our every day living. There is need to consider very broadly both the sources and methods of conversion of energy. The sun still remains as our main source of energy. 3. Purpose Energy as a requirement for daily living should be seen holistically. The purpose therefore of this lesson is to treat in an integrated way, energy in our environment. Three aspects of energy are considered-generation, application and conservation. 4. Objectives Students will be able to: i. Discuss the concept of energy ii. Identify the sources of energy iii. Explain how energy is converted for use. iv. Discuss how energy is managed and conserved. 5. Resources/materials

Appliances used in the home- torch, electric kettle, pressing iron, electric fan, Gas cookers, air conditioners, refrigerators, lawn mower.

The teacher would have to rely on the availability and use of the above appliances. 6. Activities and Procedures This would be the third time that energy has been referred to in these series of lessons. The concept of energy in its holistic form is emphasised. Energy, the capacity to do work, is seen from both the biological and mechanical stand points. From the foods we eat, human beings derive energy. That is why in the discussion of balanced diet, energy giving food was emphasised. The seven forms of energy-Chemical, Potential, Kinetic, Electrical, Radiant, Heat and Sound energy could then be discussed. Appliances in our homes provide us with useful energy. But it is important while discussing the sources of energy, remind the students that the sun is indeed the ultimate source of energy. Plants need the sun's energy to manufacture their food. Animals feed on plants for energy. Human beings feed on animals. The sun also provides us with both heat and light energy. Simple electric cells and generators are sources of electrical energy. We know. Wind and water while in fast motion are also sources of energy. The teacher should ask the students to make a comprehensive list of all the sources of energy that they know of. Energy conversion is an important aspect of this lesson. There are different forms of conversion of energy:

Electrical energy to light energy Electrical energy to heat energy Potential energy to kinetic energy Light energy to heat energy

The teacher should encourage the students to collect more examples of energy conversions.

The management of energy is a vital issue to discuss with the students. Much as we all need to use energy, there is also that need and responsibility to manage the energy properly. The electricity that is supplied to our homes has to be used so that it is not wasted. In many towns and villages in Africa, some of the energy needed for cooking comes from burning firewood. Care has to be taken so that all the wood in and around si not cut down just for cooking fuel. The teacher should here introduce conservation of both the source and use of energy. Energy from fuel used for driving our cars has to be used judiciously. In most of the cases where the source of energy is not easily replenished, care must be taken to conserve and use it. 7. Tying it all together As the world's population increases and attempts are made to raise standards of living, the demand for energy grows. Scientists are looking for alternative sources of energy. The introduction of nuclear energy has its problems and the risks seem to outweigh its usefulness. What is still important to bear in mind is judicious use of energy. 8. Assessment Teacher made tests should be used to find out how students have comprehended the concept of energy. 2. Overview Magnets were first mentioned in this series under non-contact forces. Although there are different shapes of magnets, their properties are generally the same. Apart from their behaviour with "ferrous" materials, they create magnetic fields of different patterns. In industries, magnets are utilised in the fabrication of some machines. 3. Purpose The purpose of this lesson is to bring into focus, the importance of magnets in science and technology. The simple rule guiding the attraction and repulsion of magnets are to be established through different activities. 4. Objectives Students will be able to: i. Distinguish between a magnet and any other metallic object ii. Identify the poles of a magnet iii. Establish the rules of attraction and repulsion in magnets iv. Discuss how magnets are used in industries. 5. Resources/materials

Different shapes of magnets, iron filings.

6. Activities and Procedures The students would have handled magnets in their study of science. But start them off here with this poem: Magnet, magnet, where are you? I have got some work for you. Pick my pins, pick my blades Pick anything that has some iron But don't try to pick my books For I know that you will fail.

The students will be able to find out the things which a magnet can pick. Let them have fun with the different types of magnets. Now, the students should be guided in doing more sophisticated activities with magnets. First, let them determine the poles of a bar magnet. Magnets are labelled North and South. These are called the poles of the magnet. A North pole is that end of a bar magnet, which when freely suspended, points to the North. Thus a North pole is often referred to as the North seeking pole. The students are already familiar with the cardinal points. The opposite end of the North pole is the South pole. Based on the poles of the magnets, the rules of attraction and repulsion in magnets could be established. Here a suitable Poem on Poles of a Magnet should be introduced. Like poles repel, unlike poles attract. Magnetic force was mentioned in the Lesson on Forces at work [Lesson 17]. In this lesson, the teacher should guide the students in the series of activities with iron filings and magnets. Iron filings on a sheet of paper under which is a magnet will give rise to different arrangements of the iron filings. The term "magnetic fields" should here be introduced. The following magnetic fields should be investigated:

The magnetic field of a single magnet The magnetic field between two attracting magnets The magnetic field between two repelling magnets.

The patterns so formed should be drawn by the students. The teacher should make available known patterns for comparison. The vivid distinction between the patterns should be discussed. Magnets are used in many appliances and industrial machines. The teacher should guide the students to make a list of appliances in which magnets are used. These should include radios, clocks, refrigerators, motor cycles, cars, electric motor and generators. If it is possible, the magnet in a piece of appliance should be removed and shown to the students. 7. Tying it all together Simple magnets are very useful in our study of science. Because of their power to attract iron metals, magnets easily find use in experiments dealing with separation of iron from other substances. Big magnets are used in industries in the manufacture of appliances and industrial machines. 8. Assessment This lesson is activity packed. The teacher should assess the output of the students and class participation.

Earth Science
1. The source of energy for the Earth's water cycle is the A. wind B. sun's radiation C. Earth's radiation D. sun's gravity Answer: B 2. Which BEST describes the surface of the Earth over billions of years?

A. A flat surface is gradually pushed up into higher and higher mountains until the Earth is covered with mountains. B. High mountains gradually wear down until most of the Earth is at sea level. C. High mountains gradually wear down as new mountains are continuoualy being formed. D. High mountains and flat plains stay side by side for billions of years with little change. Answer: C 3. Fossil fuels were formed from A. uranium B. sea water C. sand and gravel D. dead plants and animals Answer: D 4. Air is made up of many gases. Which gas is found in the greatest amount? A. Nitrogen B. Oxygen C. Carbon dioxide D. Hydrogen Answer: A 5. The sun is bigger than the moon, but they appear to be about the same size when you look at them from the Earth. Why is this? Answer: Should mention that the sun is farther away than the moon. 6. Jane and Mario were discussing what it might be like to live on other planets. Their science teacher gave them data about the Earth and an imaginary planet, Athena. The table shows these data. EARTH ATHENA Atmospheric Conditions 21% oxygen 0.03% carbon dioxide 78% nitrogen ozone layer Distance from a star like the sun Rotation on axis 148,640,000 km 1 day 10% oxygen 80% carbon dioxide 5% nitrogen no ozone layer 103,600,000 km 200 days

Revolution around the sun 365 1/4 days 200 days Write down one important reason why it would be difficult for humans to live on Athena if it existed. Answer: The answer should include that it would be too hot on Athena because of the greenhouse effect caused by the high percentage of carbon dioxide. 7. Which statement explains why daylight and darkness occur on Earth? A. The Earth rotates on its axis.

B. The sun rotates on its axis. C. The Earth's axis is tilted. D. The Earth revolves around the sun. Answer: A 8. How long does it take light from the nearest star other than the sun to reach the Earth? A. Less than 1 second B. About 1 hour C. About 1 month D. About 4 years Answer: D 9. Write down one reason why the ozone layer is important for all living things on Earth. Answer: Should refer to protection against the UV rays of the sun.

Life Science
1. What is the BEST reason for including fruits and leafy vegetables in a healthy diet? A. They have a high water content. B. They are the best source of protein. C. They are rich in minerals and vitamins. D. They are the best source of carbohydrates. Answer: C 2. What features do all insects have? Number Number of Body of Legs Parts A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 4 2 3

D. 8 3 Answer: C 3. When you bend your arm at the elbow, the bones and muscles in your arm are acting as a system. What simple machine does this system represent? A. Inclined plane B. Pulley C. Wedge D. Lever Answer: D 4. AMOUNT OF OXYGEN PRODUCED IN A POND

Location Top Meter Second Meter Third Meter Bottom Meter

Oxygen Produced 4 grams/cubic meter 3 grams/cubic meter 1 gram/cubic meter

0 grams/cubic meter Which statement is consistent with the data in the table? A. More oxygen production occurs near the surface because there is more light there. B. More oxygen production occurs near the bottom because there are more plants there. C. The greater the water pressure, the more oxygen production occurs. D. The rate of oxygen productionis not related to depth. Answer: A 5. Which species have been on the Earth for the shortest amount of time. A. Humans B. Insects C. Fish D. Reptiles Answer: A 6. How are warm-blooded animals different from cold-blooded animals? A. Warm-blooded animals have a higher metabolism in warm weather. B. Warm-bloooded animals are more aggressive in captivity. C. Warm-blooded animals always have a higher blood temperature. D. Warm-blooded animals normally maintain a fairly constant internal temperature at all air temperatures. E. Warm-blooded animals are found only in warm climates. Answer: D 7. How could you find out how old a tree is after it is cut? Answer: Should include counting the rings in a trunk referring to one ring for each year. 8. The male insects in a population are treated to prevent sperm production. Would this reduce the insect population? A. No, because the insects would still mate. B. No, because it would not change the offspring mutation rate. C. Yes, because it would sharply decrease the reproduction rate. D. Yes, because the males would die. Answer: C

9. Which is made with the help of bacteria? A. Yogurt B. Cream C. Soap D. Cooking oil Answer: A 10. What is the main function of chloroplasts in a plant cell? A. To absorb light energy and manufacture food. B. To remove waste materials by active transport. C. To manufacture chemical energy from food. D. To control the shape of a cell. Answer: A 11. Which BEST explains why green marine algae are most often restricted to the top 100 meters of the ocean? A. They have no roots to anchor them to the ocean floor. B. They can live only where their is light. C. The pressure is too great for them to survive below 100 meters. D. If the algae lived below 100 meters they would be eaten by animals. Answer: B 12. A girl found the skull of an animal. She did not know what the animal was but she was sure that it preyed on other animals for its food. What clues led to this conclusion? A. The eye sockets faced sideways. B. The skull was much longer than it was wide. C. There was a projecting ridge along the top of the skull. D. Four of the teeth were long and pointed. E. The jaws could move sideways as well as up and down. Answer: D 13. When a bird sings it is most likely singing in order to A. frighten away other types of birds B. mark the bird's territory against another type of bird C. attract insects D. wake up other animals Answer: B 14. On cold days, snakes usually lie very still and eat very little or nothing, while birds usually move around and eat alot of food. Which statement best explains thins? A. Both animals are cold-blooded, but without feathers to keep warm, snakes get too cold to move. B. Unlike birds, snakes are warm-blooded; they must hibernate during cold weather. C. Unlike snakes, birds are cold-blooded; they are less affected by the cold than snakes. D. Unlike snakes, birds are warm-blooded; they must eat food to maintain a constant

temperature. Answer: D 15. Which of these meals would give you most of the nutrients that you need? A. Meat, milk, and a piece of chocolate B. Bread, vegetables, and fish C. Vegetables, fruit, and water D. Meat, fish, and bread Answer: B 16. Years ago farmers found that corn plants grew better if decaying fish were buried near by. What did the decaying fish probably supply to the plants to improve their growth? A. energy B. minerals C. protein D. oxygen E. water Answer: B 17. Which is the most basic unit of living things? A. Cells B. Bones C. Tissues D. Organs Answer: A 18. Write down the reason why we get thirsty on a hot day and have to drink a lot. Answer: Should refer to perspiration and it's cooling effect and the need to replace lost water. 19. Jose caught influenza. Write down one way he could have caught it. Answer: Should refer explicitly to the transmission of germs. 20. What happens when an animal hibernates? A. There is no life in any of its parts. B. It stops breathing. C. Its temperature is higher than when it is active. D. It is absorbing energy for use when it is active. E. It is using less energy than when it is active. Answer: E 21. What digestive substance is found in the mouth? Waht does it do? Answer: Should name saliva and the fact that it helps to make food moist or soft. 22. What is the advantage of having two eyes to see with rather than one eye?

Answer: Should mention that two eyes allow for better depth perception or the perception of distance. 23. What could be the unwanted consequences of introducing a new species to a certain area? Give an example. Answer: Should state that the natural (ecological) balance will be upset. A realistic example of a species could be given. 24. Suppose you want to investigate how the human heart rate changes with changes in activity. What materials would you use and what procedures would you follow? Answer: Should describe a procedure in which i. Somebody (or self) measures pulse at rest using a timer or watch, ii. Then the student does an exercise (physical activity). iii. Pulse is remeasured during or after exercise.

1. A metal spoon, a wooden spoon, and a plastic spoon are placed in hot water. After 15 seconds, which spoon will feel the hottest? A. The metal spoon B. The wooden spoon C. The plastic spoon D. The three spoons will feel the same. Answer: A 2. Which form of solar radiation causes sunburn? A. Visible B. Ultraviolet C. Infrared D. X-rays E. Radio waves Answer: B 3. Air is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. Describe one way that air can be shown to exist. Answer: Should include that you can see or feel effects of air movement. 4. Machine A and Machine B each used to clear a field. The table shows how large an area each cleared in 1 hour and how much gasoline each used. Area of field cleared in 1 hour Gasoline used in 1 hour Machine A 2 hectares 3/4 liter Machine B 1 hectare 1/2 liter Which machine is more efficient in converting the energy in gasoline to work? Explain your answer. Answer: Machine A because it uses less gas per hectare.

5. The crews of two boats at sea can communicate with each other by shouting. Why is it impossible for the crews of two space ships a similar distance apart in space to do this? A. The sound is reflected ,ore in space. B. The pressure is too high inside the spaceships. C. The spaceships are traveling faster than souns. D. There is no air in space for sound to travel through. Answer: D 6. A flashlight close to a wall produces a small circle of light compared to the circle it makes when the flashlight is far from the wall. Does more light reach the wall when the flashlight is further away? ___ Yes ___ No (Check one) Explain your answer Answer: No, the answer should explain that the same amount of light reaches the wall. 7. A tight metal lid on a jar of pickles may loosen when it has been held in hot water. This is because the hot water causes the A. glass jar to contract B. metal lid to contract C. glass jar to expand more than the metal lid expands D. metal lid to expand more than the glass jar expands Answer: D 8. A glass of water with ice cubes in it has a mass of 300 grams. What will the mass be immediately after the ice has melted? Explain your answer. Answer: Should be 300 g and include an explanation. 9. When white light strikes on Peter's shirt, the shirt looks blue. Why does the shirt look blue? A. It absorbs all the white light and turns most of it into blue light. B. It reflects the blue part of the light and absorbs most of the rest. C. It absorbs only the blue part of the light. D. It gives off it's own blue light. Answer: B 10. Electric energy is used to power a lamp. Is the amount of light energy produced more than, or less than, or the same as the amount of electrical energy used? The amount of light energy produced is _____ more than _____ less than

_____ the same as the amount of electrical energy used (check one) Give a reason to support your answer. Answer: Less. Should mention that (much) energy is transformed to heat. 11. One day when the temperature was just below 0 degrees C, Peter and Ann made snowballs. They put a thermometer into one of the snowballs and it showed 0 degrees C. They tries to make the snowball warmer by holding it in their hands. What do you think the thermometer showed after two minutes? Explain your answer. Answer: Should include that the same temperature exists because snow cannot get warmer than 0 degrees.

1. The words cloth, thread, and fiber can be used in the following sentence: cloth consists of threads which are made of fiber. Use the words molecules, atoms, and cells to complete the following sentence: _____________ consists of _______________ which are made of ________________. Answer: Cells-Molecules-Atoms. 2. Which is an example of a chemical reaction? A. The melting of ice B. The grinding of salt crystals to powder. C. The burning of wood. D. The evaporation of water from a puddle. Answer: C 3. Animals are made up of many atoms. What happens to the atoms after an animal has died? A. The atoms stop moving. B. The atoms recycle back into the environment. C. The atoms split into simpler parts and then combine to form other atoms. D. The atoms no longer exist once the animal has decomposed. Answer: B 4. Which gas could cause a glowing splint to burst into flame? A. Neon B. Oxygen C. Nitrogen D. Carbon dioxide Answer: B 5. Which of the following is NOT a mixture? A. Air B. Blood

C. Orange juice D. Salt Answer: D 6. When oil is burning, the reaction will A. only release energy B. only absorb energy C. neither absorb nor release energy D. sometimes release and sometimes absorg energy depending on the oil Answer: A 7. Which is a chemical change? A. Element 1 is hammered into a thin sheet. B. Element 2 is heated and turns to a liquid. C. Element 3 turns a greenish color as it sits in air. D. Element 4 is ground up into a fine, slippery powder. Answer: C 8. If a neutral atom loses an electron, what is formed? A. A gas B. An ion C. An acid D. A molecule Answer: B 9. A mixture of powdered iron and sulfur is heated. What will be formed? A. a single element B. two other elements C. a solution D. an alloy E. a compound Answer: E 10. Which is NOT an example of a chemical change? A. Boiling water B. Rusting iron C. Burning wood D. Baking bread Answer: A 11. Carbon dioxide is the active material in some fire extinguishers. How does carbon dioxide extinguish a fire? Answer: Should include that carbon dioxide keeps oxygen away, response should include a specific reference to oxygen. 12. It takes 10 painters 2 years to paint a steel bridge from one end to the other. The

paint that is used lasts about 2 years, so when the painters have finished painting at one end of the bridge, they go back to the other end and start painting again. a. Why MUST steel bridges be painted? b. A new paint that lasts 4 years has been developed and costs the same as the old paint. Describe 2 consequences of using the new paint. Answer: a. Must include that the bridge should be painted to avoid corrosion. Answer: b. Must include that the new paint will be cheaper for the community.

1. Maria collected the glass given off by a glowing peice of charcoal. The gas was then bubbled through a small amount of colorless limewater. Part of Maria's report stated, "After the glass was put into the jar, the limewater gradually changed to a milky white color." This statement is A. an observation B. a conclusion C. a generalization D. an assumption of the investigation E. a hypothesis Answer: A 2. Juanita did several experiments to germinate corn. She summed up her results as follows: 1. Moist grains of corn germinate in the light. 2. Moist grains of corn germinate in the dark. What can you conclude from her results? Answer: Should include that light is not required for moist corn to germinate. 3. Write down one example of how computers help people do their work. Answer: Should refer to writing or editing text. 4. A cupful of water and a similar cupful of gasoling were placed on a table near a window on a hot sunny day. A few hours later it was observed that both the cups had less liquid in them but that there was less gasoline left than water. What does this experiment show? A. All liquids evaporate B. Gasoline gets hotter than water C. Some liquids evaporate faster than others. D. Liquids will only evaporate in sunshine. E. Water gets hotter than gasoline. Answer: C 5. One of the principal causes of acid rain is A. waste acid from chemical factories being pumped into rivers B. acid from chemical laboratories being pumped into rivers C. gases from burning coal and oil dissolving in water in the atmosphere

D. gases from air conditioners and refrigerators escaping into the atmosphere Answer: C 6. Whenever scientists carefully measure any quantity many times, they expect that A. all of the measurments will be exactly the same B. only two of the measurments will be exactly the same C. all but one of the measurments will be exactly the same D. most of the measurments will be close, but not exactly the same Answer: D 7. Since water is a renewable resource and so much of it falls each year, theoretically there should be enough water fro everyone on Earth. Write down TWO reasons why not everyone has enough water. Answer: Should mention the uneven distribution of rain or other sources of water.
PROBLEM: What happens when seeds sprout? RESEARCH: Read about seeds and sprouts in a science textbook or encyclopedia. Make a drawing of the seed and label all the parts. Make another drawing of a sprout and label all the parts. HYPOTHESIS: Be sure to use terms you have learned from your research. Describe what you think will happen as the seeds mature. MATERIALS: 1 large sponge 1 large shallow dish Plastic wrap Metric ruler 10 bean seeds (dried beans) 10 radish seeds (or grass seeds) 10 sunflower seeds (not roasted) 10 tomato seeds PROCEDURE: 1. Soak seeds in separate containers of water over night. Seeds sprout best if soaked over night. 2. Rinse the sponge in clean water and squeeze out the water. If you are using paper towels, fold them in half and do not wet them yet.) 3. Place the sponge (paper towels) in the bottom of the dish. (If you are using paper towels, wet the towels slightly now.) 4. Lay one or two rows of each kind of seeds across the sponge. The seeds may touch but must not overlap. 5. Cover the dish with plastic wrap. 6. In your notes make, a chart to record your observations. The day you plant the seeds is

Day 1. Record the date for each observation. DATA: Record your data for six days Date Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Beans Sunflowers Radishes Tomatoes

CONCLUSION: This is not optional. You must explain what you learned by doing this activity. Remember that you must answer the question you asked in your original problem statement. NOTE: BE SURE TO HAVE YOUR PARENT OR GUARDIAN SIGNS YOUR WORK. PARENTS: YOUR SIGNATURE SHOWS YOUR STUDENT HAS DONE THE WORK.

TEACHER SECTION: POSSIBLE HYPOTHESIS: The embryo plant will have to push through the seed coat. The root will grow down and the stem will grow up. POSSIBLE CONCLUSION: Students should discuss the observations in relationship to the hypothesis. They should use correct terminology in their discussion.