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Final Report PR #11/08

A Food Composition Database for Bangladesh with Special reference to Selected Ethnic Foods

By Sheikh Nazrul Islam, Principal Investigator Md. Nazrul Islam Khan, Co-Investigator M. Akhtaruzzaman, Co-Investigator Institute of Nutrition and Food Science University of Dhaka

This study was carried out with the support of the

National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme

November 2010

This study was financed under the Research Grants Scheme (RGS) of the National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme (NFPCSP). The purpose of the RGS was to assist in improving research and dialogue within civil society so as to inform and enrich the implementation of the National Food Policy. The NFPCSP is being implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Food Planning and Monitoring Unit (FPMU), Ministry of Food and Disaster Management with the financial support of EU and USAID. The designation and presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO nor of the NFPCSP, Government of Bangladesh, EU or USAID and reflects the sole opinions and views of the authors who are fully responsible for the contents, findings and recommendations of this report.

Executive Summary
A food composition database (FCD) provides essential information on the nutritive value of foods for which updated data is available. FCD is required for formulating diets, calculating the nutritive value of diets, quantitatively assessing diets for individuals or different population groups and for diet therapy and management. FCD can also be used as a guideline for food analysis in estimating nutrient levels of foods prior to actual analysis. This is particularly useful in nutrition labeling. On the whole FCD provides the basis for planning food, nutrition and health related policy tools. Bangladesh is in the process of revisiting the existing FCD, with the purpose of updating and analyzing the nutrient composition of general and ethnic foods. Presently, the nutrient values of many of the foods have been obtained from food composition tables prepared by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (INFS), University of Dhaka and Helen Keller International (1988), wherein most of the nutrient data is based on the analysis that was car long ago, and some that was drawn from the FCD of neighbouring countries, notably India. In the ensuing decades, major changes have occurred in the nature and complexity of the food chain as also in the environment, soil composition, cropping patterns and intensity. Little is known about the nutrient composition of most of the new high yielding varieties of rice, wheat, maize, potatoe s, fruits, vegetables, fish and livestock that have become part of the nations production and consumption systems. Also, the nutrient composition of the indigenous foods grown and consumed in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) and other tribal areas is not known. To prepare dietary guidelines and determine standard dietary intake, the true nutrient content of these foods needs to be known. The present study has been undertaken to prepare a FCD with special reference to general and ethnic foods. The study was designed to (i) conduct a comprehensive food consumption survey (CFCS) among general and ethnic populations to identify the key food items and (ii) carry out analysis for nutrient values of key food items. The survey was conducted on a randomly selected sample of 2015 households covering 1210 general and 805 ethnic households. A total of 75 general and ethnic foods have been selected for analysis of 22 nutrients and calorie. Validated standard and AOAC methods have been employed for analysis of the nutrients in the selected 75 key foods. The

nutrient profiling comprised proximate principles such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, phytate, selected micronutrients and related compounds such as total carotenoids, -carotene, vitamin C and minerals. Nutrient data obtained have been

compared with reported values published in different articles and books, most of which are consistent with the reported value. The data has been compared with the FCT and the Thai FCT. This food composition database would serve as an important primary source for updating FCT in Bangladesh which is an essential tool in food policy planning and program.

Keywords: Food Composition Database, General food, Ethnic food, Bangladesh

Contents
Executive summary Chapers Tables Figures Abbreviations
2 4 6 7 8

Chapter 1 Introduction
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 Introduction Background Rationale of the study Objectives and approach
10 10 11 14

Chapter 2
2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.1.1 2.1.1.2 2.1.1.3 2.1.1.4 2.1.1.5 2.1.1.5.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.2 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.6.1 2.2.6.2

Materials and Methods


Materials and methods Identification of key food items through CFCS Comprehensive Food Consumption Survey (CFCS) Sample size determination Selection of general households Selection of ethnic household Questionnaire design, enumerator training and pre-testing Comprehensive food consumption survey Data collection, management and analysis Focus group discussions (FGD) Lifestyle characteristics of the general and ethnic population Selection of key food items Analysis of nutrients in key foods Food sampling protocol General food sampling protocol Ethnic food sampling Procedure for food sample collection Identification of collected food samples Sample preparation for analysis Chemicals Methods of nutrient analysis Analysis of moisture Estimation of protein
16 16 17 18 19 21 25 26 26 27 28 28

35 35 37 39 40 40 41 43 43 45 45

2.2.6.3 2.2.6.4 2.2.6.5 2.2.6.6 2.2.6.7 2.2.6.8 2.2.6.9 2.2.6.10 2.2.6.11 2.2.7

Estimation of total fat and fatty acids Estimation of ash content Analysis of crude fibre and dietary fibre Analysis of phytic acid Calculation of carbohydrate and energy Analysis of vitamin C Analysis of carotenoids Analysis of -carotene Analysis of mineral profile Quality assurance programme (QAP)

45 45 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 48

Chapter 3 Results and Discussion


3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5 Results and Discussion Key food identification Comprehensive Food Survey (CFCS) Focus group discussions (FGDs) Lifestyle characteristics of general and ethnic people Identification of key foods Selection of key food Collection of food sample Nutrient composition of key foods Proximate Nutrients Water in key Foods Dietary fiber -Phytate content Vitamins and Minerals in key Foods
50 51 51 60 66 74 76 82 85 86 87 87 87 88

Key Findings Policy Implications and Recommendations Policy Recommendations Future Research Conclusion Acknowledgements References Research team

103 105 107 109 109 110 112 116

Tables
Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Ethnic household selection representing 70% of ethnic population Focus group discussions Food items consumed by only general people (percent frequency 5%) Food items consumed by only ethnic households (percent frequency 5%) Food items commonly consumed by both General and Ethnic people (Percent frequency 5% households) Table 2.6 Table 2.7. Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table 3.5 Table 3.6 Table 3.7 Table 3.8 Table 3.9 Table 3.10 Table 3.11 Table 3.12 Table 3.13 Table 3.14 Ethnic food items listed from ethnic CFCS and FGDs Nutrients analysed and the analytical techniques employed
Location and descriptive of CFCS the data collection among the native local/Indigenous population Location and descriptionof CFCS data collection among the ethnic population

page 22 28 31 32 33

34 44 54

55 60 61

FGDs settings
FGD outcome: Food consumption pattern of the Marma, Chakma, Tanchanga and Tripura communities

Socioeconomic profile of general households Food security by households type in general population Morbidity and its treatment by household type in general population Socioeconomic profile of ethnic households Food security of ethnic tribes Morbidity and its treatment by ethnic tribes Key food list consumed by both the native general and ethnic people Exclusive ethnic food list Proximate nutrient composition of cereals and leafy vegetables Vitamin C, carotenoids and micromineral composition of cereals and leafy vegetables
*

68 69 70 71 72 73 78 79 90 91

Table 3.15 Table 3.16 Table 3.17 Table 3.18 Table 3.19 Table 3.20 Table 3.21 Table 3.22 Table 3.23 Table 3.24 Table 3.25

Macromineral composition of cereals and leafy vegetables Proximate composition of roots & tuber, non-leafy vegetables and fruits Vitamin C, carotenoids and micromineral composition of roots & tuber, nonleafy vegetables Macromineral composition of of roots & tuber, non-leafy vegetables Proximate composition of fish, egg and meat Micromineral composition of fish, egg and meat Macromineral composition of fish, egg and meat -carotene content in general and ethnic foods Dietary fiber in key food items Phytic acid content in key food items Comparision of protein value in the present FCD with IFCT, DKPM, Thai FCT

92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

Figures
Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Sampling plan of general households Sampling plan for ethnic households Geographical locations of ethnic CFCS Multi-regions sampling plan for general food sample Multi-regions sampling plan for ethnic food CFCS activities Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Distribution of general and ethnic households Distribution of selected general households by division and household type Distribution of ethnic households by districts Distribution of ethnic households by tribes FGDs activities Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6: Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Number of food item consumed by population type Distribution of common food item consumed by 5% HH Distribution of ethnic food of food items consumed by 5% HH Distribution of general food items consumed by 5% HH General key foods Ethnic key food Ethnic food collection activities

page 20 23 24 38 39 52 56 57 58 59 62 74 75 75 75 80 81 82

Abbreviations

AOAC CFCS CHT CV DAE DKPM EP EU ES FAO FCDB FCT FGDs HKI HYV IFCT INFS IS NFCD SRM SEM TAT TDF USAID

Association of Official Analytical Chemists Comprehensive Food Consumption Survey Chittagong Hill Tracts Co-efficient of Variance Department of Agricultural Extension Dhesio Khadder Pustiman Edible Portion European Union External Standard Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Food Composition Database Food Composition Tables Focus group discussions Helen Keller International High Yielding Varieties Indian Food Composition Tables Institute of Nutrition and Food Science Internal Standard National Food Composition Database Standard Reference material Standard Error of Mean Technical Advisory Team Total Dietary Fiber United States Agency for International Development

Chapter 1

Introduction

1 Introduction
A food composition database (FCDB) provides detailed information on the nutrient composition of foods. FCDBs provide values for energy and nutrients (e.g. protein, vitamins and minerals) and other important food components or bioactive compounds that are important for human nutrition. This includes the nutrient profile of key foods commonly taken by the population. The key food list comprises the local staples, cereals, fish, meat, vegetables, fruits, milk and others. The nutritive values are either based on chemical analysis which are carried out in analytical laboratories or are estimated from other appropriate data. The earliest known food composition table was produced in 1818 (Somogyi, 1974). The current knowledge of nutrition is still incomplete, and studies are still required, often at ever increasing level of sophistication, into the composition of foods and the role of these components and their interactions in health diseases (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003a). Food composition database will serve to address the basic need for nutrient information, public health problems in the country, the current knowledge in nutrition, and for food safety and toxicity.

1.1 Background Food is one of the essential components for human survival. Good health needs a balanced diet. In order to achieve this, the nutrient composition of most frequently consumed foods has to be made well-known and available to the mass population. Food composition database is of great importance in health and nutrition. It is used in research studies dealing with the effects of diets on health, reproduction and development. There is a significant relationship between diet and health and diseases. Lack of proper dietary habits contributes to the development of many diseases. In this regard, there is a worldwide call for updating or establishing the Food Composition Database. Many countries, particularly in the developing world, lack the resources needed for setting up a national food composition programme.

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Some countries are collaborating on food composition analyses among the institutions in their own country and in the region. Accordingly Bangladesh has undertaken steps in generating its own FCD.

Bangladesh is an agriculture based country. Agriculture produces around 90% of its food need including cereals and vegetables (FAO/WFP CFSAM 2008; WFP, 2010). It has been blessed with high yielding varieties (HYV) of rice, and plenty of vegetables and fruits. There are 141 varieties of leafy vegetables (commonly known as shak) and 25 varieties of non-leafy vegetables in Bangladesh (Maksuda, 2010). Among the leafy vegetables, 97 items are identified as ethnic varieties, and the rest are consumed by both the general and ethnic people. A good number of shaks grow as weeds or during cultivation of other crops. Many of the poor and landless people depend on these indigenous foods (SANFEC, 2005). Several the indigenous fruits and vegetables are known to be nutritionally rich with vitamins and minerals. The biologically rich open water bodies include 260-500 species of inland fish, and some seventy five of these species are regularly consumed by poor communities (Minkin et al, 1997; Rahman and Minkin, 2003; Rahman, 2005; FAO/CINE, 2009 ). The nutrient content of these foods should be incorporated into the food composition table as a valuable source of information on nutrition and food diversity. The nutritive values of these abundantly produced foods as well as the ethnic foods needs to be analyzed and incorporated in the Food Composition Database.

1.2 Rationale of the study The national food intake pattern in Bangladesh is dominated by cereals contributing up to 74-76% of total dietary energy as against the internationally accepted value 5455% for developing countries (WHO/FAO, 2003; WHO/FAO, 2004; Murshid et al., 2008; Yusuf et al, 2009). Vegetables comprise one-fifth of total diet for rural people. Protein and micronutrient rich foods account for less than 10 percent of the rural

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persons diet. Intake of vegetables and fruits has increased considerably. It is still very low, although their consumption is vital for a diversified and nutritious diet (BBS, 2007). The high intake of cereal based food and low intake of micronutrient rich foods results in an unmbalanced diet and causes different health disorders. Diets rich in vegetables and fruits contribute to micronutrients that have specific antioxidant functions and many of which reduce the risk of many health disorders including cardiovascular complications, diabetes related damage, cancers (Connealy, 2008; Liu, 2003; Kaur and Kapoor, 2001), even HIV infection (Oguntibeju, 2009; Baeten et al,
2001). Additionally they provide phytochemicals that have marked health significance.

Therefore, it is important to identify the food sources of various nutrients that are required for the maintenance of good health. Over the last decade, food composition activities have increasingly been undertaken by several agencies and programmes for its ever growing importance. Many national, regional and international organizations recognize its significance. The food composition data are used primarily for the planning, assessment and establishment of human energy and nutrient requirements and intakes. Its importance is versatile. It is required for nutrition planning and in agriculture, health and nutrition assessment; formulation of national; institutional and therapeutic diets; nutrition education and training; formulation of food based dietary guidelines; research on nutrition, agriculture and epidemiology; product development; nutrition labeling; setting food standards and establishing food safety regulations. Until now, data on nutrient values have been obtained from food composition tables (FCT) prepared for Bangladesh by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka (INFS, DU, 1986) and Helen Keller International (HKI, 1988). Most of the nutrient data in these FCT were analyzed long ago with uch of the data borrowed from neighboring countries. Moreover, the nutrient composition of ethnic foods is not available in the Bangladesh food composition table. With the increasing

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concern of the relationships between diet, food habits and degenerative lifestyle diseases, there is increased interest in food composition data. At the same time, there is a call for attention to the major limitations in the available data and to support a variety of research activities in this area (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003a), particularly in food security mapping. This would help to bridge the lack of

information on the nutrient and non-nutrient content of different foodstuffs consumed by different populations and subgroups including ethnic populations.

Further, changes in the food chain due to emergence of high yielding varieties (HYV) newer foods and changes in soil composition (due to environmental changes, increased use of fertilizers and crop intensity) have resulted in possible changes in the composition of nutrient in the foods now being grown. The food chain of the country has been modified during the last decades. Nutritive values of these local food items need to be analyzed and incorporated in the food composition database. All these facts call for a renewed look and analysis of the most frequently consumed foods.

It is time to prepare a Food Composition Database with nutrient data through analysis of general, ethnic and relatively newer foods. Such a Food Composition Database will help in formulating dietary guidelines for different people to meet their nutrient requirements. This is also in line with one of the key areas of intervention of the National Food Policy Plan of Action (2008-2015).

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1.3 Objectives and approach Considering the importance of having a National Nutrient Database, this study aimed to prepare a Food Composition Database with reference to general and ethnic foods. To this end, the study was designed to: identify the most frequently consumed foods of the general and ethnic people of Bangladesh through a comprehensive food consumption survey(CFCS); prepare a key foods list that contributes 75% of any one nutrient need (key food list); analyse macronutrients, micronutrients, and anti-nutrients in the selected key foods (nutrient value of food); develop a comprehensive National Food Composition Database (NFCD) with the analytical results obtained; and provide recommendations for food policy planning and program.

14

Chapter 3

Materials and Methods

15

2 Materials and methods


Food composition database gives detailed information on the nutrient composition of foods providing values of nutrients, energy and other important food components for each food. Nutrient values can be obtained by chemical analysis of foods in

laboratories (direct method) or can be estimated from published literature, unpublished laboratory reports (indirect method) or by combining data of direct and indirect methods containing lab analytical values together with the values taken from the literature and other database as well as imputed and calculated values.

Therefore, the types of food composition data are of original analytical values (lab generated analytical, published or unpublished), imputed values (analytical values obtained for a similar food), calculated values. This study has aimed to prepare a food composition database with nutrient composition of general and ethnic foods based on nutrient data generated by laboratory analysis of key foods. Thus, this study comprisedvalues, borrowed values and presumed

Identification of key food items through Comprehensive Food Consumption Survey (CFCS) and Analysis of nutrients in the selected key foods.

2.1.

Identification of key food items through CFCS

The key foods provide 75% of daily nutrient need (Haytowitz et al, 1996; 2000;
2002). Identifying and prioritizing the most significant foods and nutrients for sampling

and analysis is essential in preparation of national food composition database. Key foods can be listed by data obtained from food consumption surveys that determine a food's relative nutrient contribution to the diet of a population. Diet has been implicated in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations. It is further noted

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that some food source as those consumed by specific population contribute substantially to the nutrient of their diets. Therefore, alternative methods of collecting information, such as small localized surveys and interviews were carried out. Key food items were indentified through a Comprehensive Food Consumption Survey (CFCS) among the general and ethnic population of Bangladesh.

General and Ethnic Foods In this study, general foods are referred to those foods which are consumed by local general people (Rahman et al, 2001; Rashid et al, 2007) who constitute the majority of the Bangladeshi population. Ethnic foods are those foods which are consumed by ethnic tribal people who are the inhabitants of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) region and other specific locations in Bangladesh. The majority of the foods that have been analysed for the nutrient content are commonly consumed by both the general and ethnic people of Bangladesh. Some foods which are uncommon in the food consumption list have also been included for analysis of their nutrient profile.

2.1.1 Comprehensive Food Consumption Survey (CFCS)


Food consumption surveys form the basis for food intake surveys or dietary surveys. The aim of the CFCS was to collect food consumption data of the general and ethnic population that included the types and amounts of food intake, frequency of intake and dietary practices. CFCS was also conducted to prepare a comprehensive

database that would be useful for food safety risk assessmen. It would also provide a valuable resource for health protection and public health policy planning.

In this study, the comprehensive food consumption survey (CFCS) was conducted to collect data on the diversity of food items that are most frequently consumed by general and ethnic people in Bangladesh. The aim of this survey was to obtain a key

17

food list that includes the most frequently and commonly consumed foods by both groups of population. In addition, the CFCS also collected information on the lifestyle, socioeconomic information, food security and health related knowledge of the general and ethnic people. The CFCS was conducted among a cross-sectional population of adults and older groups of population of general and ethnic origins (Kuhnlein et al, 2006). A pretested questionnaire was used to conduct the survey. Pretesting was performed by trained enumerators in cluster mapping locations.

2.1.1.1 Sample size determination In the study, households were taken as the sampling unit. This is based on the principle that in most cases, food is first purchased in the household and then consumed by the members of the household. To determine the sample size required the following statistical formula was used:

n = {Z2P(1-P)}/ d2 where,
n = Minimum sample size P = Expected proportion of the household consuming the diversified food items Z = Standard error corresponding to a given confidence level d = Precision of the estimate which is considered to be 0.05 at 95% confidence level.

Considering the prevalence of diversity in food consumption by the households and by the individuals at 0.15% and the standard scores of the estimate at 95% confidence level with precision of 0.05, the above equation gave a value of sample size of 196 households equivalent to 200 households as minimum sample size from each of the six divisions of Bangladesh. Thus, it comprised a total of 1200 general households. It was selected to get the percentage of households consuming the specific food items throughout the year by the general population in Bangladesh.

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2.1.1.2 Selection of general households

In selecting the 1200 general representative households, a three stage sampling technique was used. Bangladesh, administratively, is divided into six divisions. In selecting the 1200 households, 200 households were selected from each of the six divisions in the first stage. To select the 200 households from each division in the second stage, two districts were randomly selected from each of the six divisions and then 100 households were selected from each of the selected 12 districts. Finally in the third stage, 50 households from urban setting (district city) and 50 households from multiple rural settings under the same district were randomly selected. The household sampling plan is presented in the following diagram.

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Bangladesh
HH # 1200

Dhaka HH # 200

Chittagong HH # 200

Sylhet HH # 200

Rajshahi HH # 200

Khulna HH # 200

Barisal HH # 200

D1

D2

D1

D2

D1

D2

D1

D2

D1

D2

D1

D2

Figure 2.1: Sampling plan of general households

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2.1.1.3 Selection of ethnic households


Twenty eight tribes comprising 2,33,417 number of households have been living in Bangladesh (BBS survey, 1991). Among them, the tribes which have at least 1.5% representation in the total ethnic households living in Bangladesh were taken into the study. This stood at 11 tribes that had 5% representation in the total tribal population living in Bangladesh. These included Marma, Chakma, Tanchanga, Tripura, Bam, Murang, Monipuri, Khashia, Shaotal, Garo and Hajong, which comprise 1,64,667 households representing 70.54% of total ethnic households living in Bangladesh. Ethnic people of the 11 tribes live in the four divisions of Bangladesh namely Dhaka (Durgapur Upazilla under Netrokona districts), Sylhet (Kamalgonj Upazilla under Moulavi Bazar district), Chittagong (Khagrachari, Rangamati and Bandarban Sadar Upazilla) and Rajshahi (Godagari Upazilla under Rajshahi district).

On the basis of probability proportions (PPS) to the size, a total of 400 households were selected from the 11 tribes. In selecting the households on the PPs basis, the household numbers, in the case of some tribes, were found to be less than 30 in number. To have the normality in the distribution, the households size was increased to at least 30 in number. In doing this, the total number of households to be selected stood at 500 households. The 500 households were selected randomly from the 11 representative tribes. The selected ethnic household list by tribes is given in table 2.1 and figure 2.2. They were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire.

Following the presentation of the studys interim findings at the Workshop in Rangamati, CHT on 18th March, 2010 a careful review showed that there was need to have an appropriate inclusion of ethnic foods for nutrient analysis. Suggestions were also made by some of the CHT ethnic members. It was, therefore, decided to include some more ethnic food items so as to have the nutrient profile of an adequate number of ethnic foods. In consultation with FAO Technical Assistance Team (TAT) members, a CFCS

21

was, therefore, conducted on another 300 ethnic households in Khagrachari and Rangamati districts of CHT. It was undertaken among Marma, Chakma, Tripura and Tangchaga ethnic community during March and April, 2010. Thus the CFCS on ethnic households was carried out on a total of 805 households. The selection criteria employed to recruit the ethnic households are described in table 2.1 and figure 2.2 and 2.3.

Table 2.1: Ethnic household selection representing 70% of ethnic population


Tribe name No. of household in respective tribe PPS-Households in respective tribe Projected PPSHouseholds in respective tribe Targeted Households selected in the study

Chakma Marma Tanchanga Tripura Bam Murong Monipuri Khasia Santal Garo Hajong
Total households

44730 29137 4043 15220 2681 4273 3559 7500 36406 12867 4251
1,64,667 (>70%)

108 71 10 37 7 10 9 19 88 31 10
400

136 88 12 46 8 13 11 23 111 39 13
500

238 171 51 87 30 30 25 25 89 31 28
805

22

Figure 2.2: Sampling plan for ethnic households

23

Moulavi Bazar Mymensingh Rajshahi Khagrachari Rangamati Bandarban

Figure 2.3: Geographical locations of ethnic CFCS

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2.1.1.4 Questionnaire design, enumerator training and pre-testing


Questionnaire design: The major components included in the questionnaire were- types

of food consumed by the households throughout the year, socioeconomic profile, family food security, nutritional knowledge, knowledge on nutritional deficiency diseases etc of the projected households. This stand that whole process of collecting information on food items commonly consumed by the household throughout the year, socioeconomic condition and other lifestyle factors related to questionnaire. It was conducted through direct interview to the households respondent during the survey. A semi precode formatted questionnaire was used as the basic data collection tool to get the household information. Considering the importance of the study in the national context and its objectives, information on the variable collected were meticulously included in the questionnaire, discussed with the Technical Advisory Team (TAT) members and carefully examined so that all the relevant information were taken and recorded during the comprehensive consumption survey. The questionnaire was designed in the light of experience achieved from the National Nutrition Survey and various other large scale surveys conducted in Bangladesh focusing on the required variables to answer the objectives as well as purpose of the study. The questionnaire was field tested prior to actual use and was modified on the basis of the feed-back received from the field tests. The questionnaire and selection of survey site were finalized and approved in consultation with Technical Advisory Team (TAT) members of this Programme.
Enumerator recruitment and training: A team consisting of four enumerators with one

supervisor were recruited and trained to conduct the field survey. All the enumerators recruited were university graduates and postgraduates. In the five members team, two enumerators belonged to general community and three were ethnic who were fluent in speaking and understanding the general peoples language as well as the tribal peoples language. More ethnic members were recruited because they were familiar with the

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difficulties in tribal locations where the ethnic people are mostly concentrated as well as to facilitate the data collection within the stipulated time. Initially, all field staffs received 7 days orientation training consisting of familiarization of the questionnaire through guided readings and field trials.
Pretesting questionnaire: The enumerator team spent a considerable time in the office

and at the field-testing sites in practicing the techniques of recording types of food consumed by the household throughout the year and the other related variables included in the questionnaire as well as the related data collection activity. Fifty households comprising general and ethnic people were interviewed in pretesting the questionnaire.

2.1.1.5 Comprehensive food consumption survey To identify the most common food items consumed by the general and ethnic people, 2015 households was selected comprising 1210 general and 805 ethnic households that were interviewed with a precoded and pretested questionnaire. Though there is disproportionate distribution of general population in rural and urban locations, in order to obtain the maximum diversity in consumption of different food items, an equal number of households were selected from both the urban and rural locations. Further, to get the factual data on food consumption in the rural and urban population, a weighted food frequency was calculated giving the actual weighted representation of the rural urban population proportion in the country.

2.1.1.5.1 Data collection, management and analysis Data collection: Data were collected from the selected locations and households

through home visits during the period January to May 2009 and during April to May, 2010. To get the information related to food purchase, consumption and other variables, the household head (male) and the spouse were interviewed. Every day, the collected information/data was checked, coded and cross checked by the interviewers and finally

26

by the supervisor at the field sites in order to avoid any misreporting. Any confusion arising out of this matter was settled on the following day during subsequent home visits. This process of scrutinizing the data was performed during the entire period of CFCS. Data management and analysis: The questionnaire was edited and entered into

SPSS program. Data entry was done by the computer data entry personnel of INFS, DU and this was followed by an extensive period of logical checking to identify any error in data entry, which were then corrected by consulting the original questionnaires. 2.1.2 Focus group discussions (FGDs) The focus group is a type of group interview
pm1969b.pdf). (http://www.extension.iastate.edu/publications/

It provides qualitative approaches to research aiming to obtain in-depth

information on concepts, perceptions and ideas of a group on certain specific topic in short time at relatively low cost. The FGD supplements the survey data. In case of health and nutrition, it is primarily done to get information regarding the lifestyle, food consumption, food security, health and nutrition knowledge of a community. The activities of conducting a focus group include- identification of the objectives of the focus group discussions, preparation of questions, selection of participants, selection of location and facilitator, note-taker and planning of session. It produces high quality data if it is employed for the right purposes using the right procedures. The FGD comprises a group of approximately 6-12 participants with key informants such as community leaders and a critique, and the discussion may last for one hour to one and half hour
(IDRC, http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-56615-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html).

It is an important tool for

acquiring feedback regarding the topic, and it facilitates the enumerators to talk to the people in a more natural setting than a one-to-one interview. In presence of the critique, the participants and key informants are directly asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes towards a particular topic. Their responses are discussed, criticized and recorded.

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It has a high apparent validity - since it is easy to understand, and the results are believable. FGD is relatively easy to assemble, good for getting rich data in participants' own words and developing deeper insights, good for obtaining data from children and/or people with low levels of literacy, identifying factual errors or extreme views. Its limitations are -the responses of each participant are not independent, a few dominant focus group members can skew the session. Focus groups require a skilled and experienced moderator and the data analysis requires expertise and experience. In the present study, FGD was conducted among the ethnic communities of Marma, Chakma, Tripura and Tangchaga living in Khagrachari and Rangamati during March and April, 2010 (table 2.2). It was carried out to obtain information on their food consumption pattern.

Table 2.2: Focus group discussions Division District Khagrachari Chittagong Rangamati Rangamati Khagrachari Upazilla Khagrachari sadar Rangamati sadar Rangamati sadar Khagrachari sadar Time of visit 31/03/2010 03/04/2010 08/04/2010 21/04/2010 Location Marma palli Chakma palli Tanchanga para, Tripura para Type of HHs Marma Chakma Tanchanga Tripura

2.1.3

Lifestyle characteristics of the general and ethnic population

Although the primary aim of the CFCS was to obtain the information on the food consumption pattern of the general and ethnic people, information on their lifestyle such as socioeconomic profile, food security and morbidity and care taken for it were also collected, analysed and addressed.

2.1.4 Selection of key food items


It is documented that the key foods contribute up to 80 percent of any nutrient, but the total nutrient contribution of key foods in a diet accounts for approximately 90 percent of

28

the nutrient contents of the diet. In selecting the key foods, priority was given to those foods that contribute primarily to the energy anf key nutrients of the diet. In addition, considerations were given to- the basic need for nutrient composition, public health problems in the country, current knowledge on nutrition and toxicity, availability of existing data, existence of adequate analytical methods, and feasibility of analytical works. Special focus was given to the distribution of nutrients in foods with emphasis on -carotene, vitamin C, calcium and iron content. Importance of food trading was also considered in making the key food list (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003e). Analysis of CFCS data indicated that food items consumed by the 5% households included a list of 120 foods comprising 20 foods consumed only by the general people (table 2.2), 46 foods consumed only by ethnic people (table 2.3) and 54 common food items consumed by both the general and ethnic population (table 2.4). The study undertook preparation of a database with nutrient composition of 50 key food items. In preparation of the list of 50 food items out of 120 items, the following criteria were used: food items that were consumed by 15% of the households were included in the key food list. some of the ethnic foods were excluded though consumed by >15% households of the ethnic population on the basis that these are being consumed by a very minor group of population. The above exclusion criteria condensed the food list to 70 food items. further to make the list to 50 items, the foods containing poor micronutrients (less or no -carotene) were excluded. thus the key food list included 50 food items. The 50 key food items were initially selected in consultation with Technical Assistance Team (TAT) members. Later in compliance with the recommendation made by some ethnic participants at Rangamati workshop for inclusion of more ethnic tribal foods, a

29

critical review and discussion were made with TAT members, and it was decided to survey on additional 300 ethnic households to include an adequate number of ethnic foods for nutrient analysis.

Inclusion of additional ethnic foods made the key food list of 75 food items. This revised key food list comprised 53 general food items (most of which are consumed by ethnic people) and 22 ethnic foods.

30

Table 2.3: Food items consumed by only general people (percent frequency 5%)
Sl no English name Leafy vegetables 1 2 3 4 Spleen Amaranth Jute Swamp Morning-glory Coco-yam Non-Leafy vegetables 5 6 7 Spleen Amaranth Bean Broad Drumstick Fruits 8 9 10 Apple Bullocks Heart Water melon Fish and Meat 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Sunfish Taki fish Bailla
Ganges River Gizzard Shad

Bengali name

Scientific name

Urban Rural weighted % frequency 14 11 17 5

Data shak Pat shak Kalmi shak Sobuj kochu shak

Amaranthus dubius Corchorus capsularis Ipomoea aquatica Colocasia esculenta

Data Makhon shim Shajna data

Amaranthus dubius Canavalia gladiata Moringa olefera

13 5 7

Apel Atafol Tormuz

Pyrus malus Annona reticulata Citrullus vulgaricus

7 5 22

Mola mach Taki mach Bele mach Chapila mach Baim mach Ilish mach Shrimp Tengra Fish (Taja) Garor mangsha Murgir dim (farm)

Mola mola Channa puncpatus Awaous guamensis Gonialosa manmina Mastacembelus armatus Tenualosa ilisha Macrobrachium rosenberghii Mystus vittatus Beef cattle Gallus bankiva murghi

14 10 17 6 5 7 29 23 26 45

Zig-zag eel/Tire track eel Hilsha Fish Chingri mach Striped dwarf catfish Beef Chicken egg (farm)

31

Table 2.4: Food items consumed by only ethnic households (percent frequency 5%)
Sl. no

English name

Bengali/Local name

Scientific name

Urban Rural weighted % frequency native general people

% frequency of Ethnic people food consumption

CEREALS 1 Rice parboiled (Brri-29) 2 Lentil (deshi) LEAFY VEGETABLES 3 Josephs Coat 4 Bottle Gourd 5 Indian spinach 6 Radish 7 Spinach 8 Coco-yam 9 Bathua ROOTS & TUBERS 10 Potato 11 Radish 12 Coco-yam NON-LEAFY VEGETABLES 13 Egg plant 14 Bean 15 Cabbage 16 Cauliflower 17 Cow pea 18 Cucumber 19 Folwal 20 Gourd (Ash) 21 Bitter Gourd 22 Sweet pumpkin 23 Kakrol 24 Ladies finger 25 Bottle gourd 26 Snake gourd 27 Jackfruit (immature) 28 Green papaya 29 Plantan (green) 30 Tomato (green) 31 Yam Stem FRUITS 32 Mango ripe(deshi) 33 Black berry (deshi) 34 Jackfruit (ripe) 35 Banana (ripe) 36 Bitter Plum 37 Pine Apple (Jaldugi) 38 Tomato (ripe) FISH 39 Carp 40 Tilapia 41 Dragon Fish 42 Fry (very small) 43 Sunfish 44 Shrimp(dry) 45 Rohu 46 Shrimp

Sidhoy chal Masur dal Lalshak Lau shak Pui shak Mula shak Palong sag Sobuj kochu shak Pigweed Gol Alu Mula Sobuj kochu Begun Shim Badha Kopi Foolkopi Borboti Shasha Potol Chal kumra Karola Misti kumra Kakrol Dherosh Lau Chichinga Kacha kathal Kacha papay Kacha kola Kacha tomato Kachur data/loti Paka Am Kalojam Paka Kathal Paka kala Boroi Anarash (Jaldugi) Tomato paka Katol mach Tilapia mach Pangash Choto puti Mola mach Chingri (shukna) Rui Chingri

Oryza sativa Lens culinaris Amaranthus gangeticus Lagenaria siceraria Basella alba Raphanus sativus Spinacea oleracea Colocasia esculenta Chenopodium album Solanum tuberosum Raphanus sativus Colocasia esculenta Solanum melongena Dolichos lablab
Brassica oleracea var. capitata Brassica oleracea var. botrytis

99 78 84 47 64 41 18 13 93 44 33 81 70 80 90 38 20 49 31 43 40 20 43 68 53 8 30 12 21 28 66 17 60 29 38 12 61 21 20 44 56 11 7 45 30

34 35 49 42 28 17 17 7 93 40 37 80 75 58 74 8 21 16 21 42 39 8 24 56 19 23 27 18 33 12 56 8 56 17 36 5 52 7 25 26 27 9 22 35 6

Vigna catjang Cucumis sativus Trichosanthes dioica Benincasa cerifera Momordica charantia Cucurbita maxima Momordica cochinchinensis Abelmoschus esculentus Lagenaria siceraria Trichosanthes anguina Artocarpus heterophyllus Carica papaya Musa paradisiaca Lycopersicon lycopersicum Colocasia esculenta Mangifera indica Syzygium cumini Artocarpus heterophyllus Musa sapientum Zizyphus mauritiana Ananas comosus
Lycopersicon lycopersicum

Labeo rohita Anabus testudineus Pangasius pangasius Puntius ticho Mola mola Heterocarpus ensifer Labeo ruhita Heterocarpus ensifer

32

Table 2.5: Food items commonly consumed by both General and Ethnic people (Percent frequency 5% households)
Sl no

Scientific name English name Bengali/ Local name Oryza sativa Lens culinaris
Amaranthus gangeticus

Urban-Rural weighted % frequency native general people

% frequency of Ethnic people food consumption

Sl. no

Scientific name English name Bengali/ Local name Potol Chal kumra Lau Chichinga Kacha Kathal Paka Am Kalojam Paka Kathal Paka kala Anarosh Boroi Tomato paka Nala Ruhi Katol mach Tilapia mach Pangash Mola mach Silver Carp Taki mach Tengra (dry) Choto puti Chingri (dry) Chingri Chepa Laitta mach Farm murgi Garor mangsha

Urban_Rural weighted % frequency native general people

% frequency of Ethnic people food consumption

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

CEREALS Rice parboiled (Brri-29) Sidhoy chal PULSE Lentil (deshi) Masur dal LEAFY VEGETABLES Josephs Coat Lalshak Bottle Gourd Lau shak Indian spinach Poi shak Radish Mula shak Spinach Palong sag Coco-yam Sobuj kochu shak Bathua leaves Batua shak ROOTS & TUBERS Potato Gol Alu Radish Mula Coco-yam Sobuj kochu Coco-yam stem Sobuj kochu Non-LEAFY VEGETABLES Egg plant Begun Bitter Gourd Karola Sweet pumpkin Misti kumra Kakrol Kakrol Ladies finger Dherosh Green papaya Kacha papay Green tomato Kacha tomato Green banana Kacha kala Bean Shim Cabbage Badha Kopi Cauliflower Foolkopi Cow pea Borboti Cucumber Shasha

27

99 78 84 47 64 38 41 18 13 93 44 33

34 35 49 42 28 34 17 17 7 93 40 37

28 29 30 31

Lagenaria siceraria Basella alba Raphanus sativus Spinacia oleracea


Colocasia esculenta

32 33 34 35 36 37 38

Chenopodium album Solanum tuberosum Raphanus sativus Colocasia esculenta Colocasia esculenta
Solanum melongena

39 40 41 42

Momordica charantia Cucurbita maxima


Momordica cochinchinensis Abelmoschus esculentus

Carica papaya
Lycopersicon lycopersicum

Musa sapientum Lablab purpureus Brassica oleracea var capitata Brassica oleracea var. bortrytis Vigna catjang Curcumis sativus

81 43 40 20 43 30 21 12 70 80 90 38 20

80 42 39 8 24 27 33 18 75 58 74 8 21

43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

53 54

Folwal Ash Gourd Bottle Gourd Snake Gourd Jackfruit immature FRUITS Mango ripe (deshi) Black berry (deshi) Jackfruit (ripe) Banana (ripe) Pineapple (jaldogi) Bitter Plum Tomato (Ripe) FISHES Carp (small) Ruhi Carp Tilapia Dragon Fish Sunfish Silver Carp Taki fish Painted catfish Fry (very small) Shrimp (dry) Shrimp Puti fish (rotten) Laitta fish MEAT Chicken (farm) Beef

Trichosanthes dioica Benincasa cerifera Lagenaria siceraria Trichosanthes anguina


Artocarpus heterophyllus

49 31 68 53 8 66 17 60 29 12 38 61 24 46 21 20 44 11 42 10 23 56 7 30 12 7 40 26

16 21 56 19 23 56 8 56 17 5 36 52 16 35 7 25 26 9 13 13 9 27 22 6 16 12 33 5

Mangifera indica Syzygium cumini


Artocarpus heterophyllus

Musa sapientum Ananas comosus Zyzyphus mauritiana


Lycopesicon lycopersicum

Labeo rohita Labeo rohita Catla catla


Anabus testudineus

Pangasius pangasius Mola mola


Hypophthalmichthys nobilis

Channa puncpatus Pseudolaguvis shawi Puntius ticho Heterocarpus ensifer Heterocarpus ensifer Puntius puntio na Gallus bankiva Beef cattle

33

Table 2.6: Ethnic food items listed from ethnic CFCS and FGDs
Sl no

English name

Bengali name

Scientific name

% household consume (n=805)

Sl no 33

English name

Bengali name na na na na na na na

Scientific name

% household consume (n=805)

CEREALS Rice parboiled (Brri-29) Sidhoy chal 2 Rice sunned* Atap chal 3 Radish Mula shak 4 Sweet pumpkin Misti kumra shak 5 Thankuni Thankuni Pata 6 Bitter gourd Karala pata* 7 Rashun Leaves Rashun shak 8 Dheki leaves Dheki shak 9 Jarul Khambang 10 Dumurshomi Leaves Dumurshumi shak 11 Seneya Leaves Seneha shak 12 Lelom Leaves Lelom shak 13 na Sabarang* 14 Roselle Amila pata* 15 na Lalam pata* 16 Indian Ivy-rue Baruna Shak* 17 na Ojan shak* 18 na Ghanda batali* 19 na Orai balai 20 Purslane Bat slai* 21 Yellow saraca Maytraba 22 Yellow Flower Holud fool 23 Ginger Flower Ada shak 24 Sime Flower Sime fool NON -LEAFY VEGETABLES 25 Pea eggplant Mistti begun* 26 Solanum Tak begun* 27 Sigon data Sigon data* 28 Tara (Like Kochu data) Tara data 29 Basher Korol Basher korol 30 na Banchalta* 31 na Fakong 32 Wild mushroom Edur kan *ethnic food **raw na: not vailable
1

Oryza sativa Oryza sativa Raphanus sativus Cucurbita maxima Centella asiatica Momordica charantia na na na na na na Ajuga macrosperma Hibiscus sabdariffa Premna obtusifolia Xanthoxylum rhetsa Spilanthes calva Paederia foetida Premna esculenta Portulaca oleracea Saraca thaipingensis na na na Solanum spinosa Solanum virginianum Lasia spinosa na na na na na

6 58 8 5 12 18 5 39 13 7 13 23 33 32 30 38 48 54 28 32 26 9 5 13 31 35 40 19 39 50 48 na

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

na Hahnagulu Gourd (Ridge) na Plantain Flower na Yam Pan/jhum alu* Yam (Elephant) Ole kachu Plantain Stem Kolar thore Olekopi Olekopi FRUITS Pamelo (Red) Jambura (Lal) Papaya (ripe) Paka pepey Pineapple (wild ) Anarash (bonno) Wild Melon Sindera* na Roshko* Bead tree kusumgulu* FISH, MEAT AND EGG Ilsha (salted) Ilish mach Kachki Fish Kachki mach Poa fish Poa mach Lota Fish Lota mach Churi Fish (Dried) Churi mach Prawns whole (dried) Chingri shampurna Nappi paste Nappi Zhinuk Shell Crabs Kakra Shark Hangar Shark (Dried) Hangar shutki Kuchia fish Kuchia Snails (Small) Shamuk (choto) Snails (Large) Shamuk (Boro) Rat Idur Frog Beng Egg Dim na Gobar poka Pork Shukurer mangsha

5 14 42 11 34 6 9 6 35 40 55 6 11 29 10 38 14 56 7 24 13 21 20 39 8 6 33 13 na 54

na Carica papaya na Cumis melo


Syzygium balsameum
Elaeocarpus angustifolius

Tenualosa ilisha Corica soborna Glassogobius giuris na na Heterocarpus ensifer na Mollusk shell Liocarcinus vernalis
Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos

Monopterus cuchia Helix pomatia Helix pomati Rattus norvegicus) Litoria caerulea Gallus bankiva na
Sus scrofa domestica

34

2.2. Analysis of nutrients in key foods


In generation of nutrient data for food composition database, designing and executing sampling protocol, preparation of analytical samples and portions, selection of analytical method, execution of analytical procedures with appropriate number of analytes and analytical replicates, involvement of skilled lab personnel, evaluation of analytical values and documentation of data are of utmost important (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003b). Lapse in any of the process would result in error in the representative nutrient data. The basic principles of producing quality data should give attention on-

the collection and preparation of food sample the selection of the analytical method and its validation within the laboratory carrying out the analysis of a particular food proper execution of methods, and review of the values obtained.

Therefore, adequate and appropriate care and precaution were taken in designing and addressing these approaches. 2.2.1. Food sampling protocol A sampling plan is the predetermined procedure for selection, collection, preservation, transportation and preparation of the analytical portion to be used from a lot as samples. A sampling plan should be a well organized document for program objectives (Proctor et al, 2003). Foods are biological materials and exhibit variation in composition, particularly prone to variation in water, carbohydrate and vitamin contents. This variation is related to a number of factors such as cultivation place (cultivated, wild, garden), geographical location, seasons, state of maturity, cultivar and breed, etc. Therefore, collection of food sample needs to be specific in terms of timing and frequency to reflect these variations.

35

Food sampling is one of the most important aspects for compositional analysis.

It

determines the analytical data quality that needs to provide representative nutrient value to the users. However, food sampling is a difficult because of its variability and heterogeneity in composition. The primary objective in food sampling is to collect a representative food sample and to ensure that changes in nutrient composition do not occur between collection and analysis (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003c). Sampling error arises with using a part of total food sample. It is because of heterogeneity nature of foods. Taking small portions at the primary sampling stage can lead to sampling error. Sampling error is also associated with poor labeling & documentation, non-conforming sample use, incorrect mixing, and also inappropriate storage. In practice, 100-500g represents a convenient sample size. The larger sample size the more reliable the sampling; however, sample size is limited by time, cost, sampling methods and logistics of sample handling, analysis and data processing. Therefore, replicate samples of representative amount must always be taken when estimating the composition of food. It is further noted that food samples should be representative of the food as consumed, and as available for consumption. Since the database is for mass people consumption, food samples were collected from the points from where mass people take it for their consumption (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003b).

To minimize the geographical variation, food samples were collected from wholesale markets located at four the entry points (figure 2.4) to Dhaka city, where consumable matured food items come from all over the country for mass people consumption. Two samples were collected from cultivation fields. Also to avoid sampling error, a large portion (approximately 2.0kg) of replicate samples for every item was collected from each collection point. Since there is limited scope to study the seasonal variation in

36

nutrient composion in the food composition database, food items, particularly the vegetables, fruits and fishes were collected during their peak available period. 2.2.1.1 General food sampling protocol In this study a multi-regions sampling plan was used to collect representative food samples. The identified and selected key food items were collected from four different wholesale markets located at the four entry points to Dhaka city, and from two cultivation fields (figure 2.4). Every two samples were pooled together to make a single analyte (test sample), thus made three analytes for each food item, which were then analyzed for their nutrient profile (figure 2.4). Sampling of general food item was started at June 2009, particularly cereals and it was continued upto March, 2010.

37

Figure 2.4: Multi-regions sampling plan for general food sample

38

2.2.1.2 Ethnic food sampling Ethnic food items were collected from local weekly markets at Rangamati and Khagrachari. Three food samples for each food item were collected from each market. Every two food samples were pooled together to make three analytes (test sample), which were analyzed for their nutrient profile. The ethnic food sampling plan is depicted in figure 2.5. A few ethnic foods were collected during September through December, 2009, but most of the ethnic foods were collected during April-May, 2010.

Rangamati Bnorupa bazar

Khargrachari
Bazar

Sample A

Sample B

Sample C

Sample D

Sample E

Sample F

AC Analyte-I

BE Analyte-I

DF Analyte-I

Figure 2.5: Multi-regions sampling plan for ethnic food

39

2.2.2 Procedure for food sample collection Representative food samples were collected from the selected wholesale markets where food items come from all over the country and from cultivation fields. Attempt was taken to collect tender fresh sample. Collection was made in new clean plastic poly bags. In case of field sample collection, some water was sprayed on the vegetable samples during packing into the poly bag, and thus kept it moistened during transportation from the field to the lab.

For collection of general food items, particularly the vegetable items, replicate samples of approximately 2.0kg of each food was purchased from each of the four selected wholesale markets and from the two cultivation fields. These replicate samples were mixed together to make a single sample for each collection point, and thus made six samples for six collection sites. Two samples were then pooled to make a single analyte and thus made three analytes for each food item.

Ethnic food samples were collected from weekly wholesale markets at Rangamati and Khagrachari. Three samples for each food items of approximately 1.5kg were purchased from each market. The samples were water sprayed and packed into new clean plastic poly bags for transportation to the lab.

2.2.3

Identification of collected food samples

Nutrient profile in food composition database needs to be representative of the foodswhat the mass people consume and from where they collect it? To minimize the compositional variations that may arised by geographical locations, timing of collection, sample preparation; the food samples, particularly vegetables, fruits and fishes, were collected from the wholesale markets where the foods arrive from four geographical regions of the country. It thus ensured the representative consumable food items of all geographical locations. Samples were collected at very early morning from the collection

40

points, taken to the lab and immediately processed for analyte preparation at adequate required lab environment with trained and skilled lab personnel. Rice, maize and lentil A market survey was conducted in different wholesale and local rice markets in and around the Dhaka City to find out the rice varieties which were consumed by the majority of population. It was then identified and certified by an expert at the Grain Quality and Nutrition Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur. It was the BRRI -29 variety. The lentil deshi and maize deshi varieties were also indentified and certified by BRRI. Vegetables and fruits The vegetable and fruit items were categorically identified and certified by personnel of Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) and the taxonomist of the Department of Botany, Dhaka University. In case of ethnic foods, food samples were purchased from the weekly wholesale markets with the help of local ethnic DAE staff, who confirmed its identity. After taking the food sample to the lab, the taxonomic expert further identified it for its scientific and English name. Fish, meat and eggs The identified fresh fish samples were purchased from wholesale and local markets at Dhaka city. Meat and egg samples were also purchased from the local market. They were then rapidly processed for estimation of moisture content. The dried samples were used for analysis of proximate nutrients and mineral contents.

2.2.4

Sample preparation for analysis

Generation of nutrient values employs a range of analytical procedures and it requires a number of analytical sample portions. Taking of analytical portions and size depend on the analytical method to be used. When food samples are used for analysis of a range of nutrients, it is convenient to store some analytical portions (at least 3 portions) at -40

41

or -70oC (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003c). Care should be taken to separate the edible portion and inedible portion. When analytical portions are taken repetitively from stored samples for analysis of different nutrients, it is convenient to store multiple identical sample units in the freeze.

In this study, the properly collected food items were first rinsed with tape water followed by washing with distilled water, then gently swabbed with tissue paper and air dried. The cleaned air-dried sample was diced or cut into small pieces (peeled where needed) using a cleaned stainless knife on a cleaned plastic cutting surface. Hand gloves were used throughout the process. The diced food sample was taken to a stainless steel bowl and mixed with a plastic spatula. Adequate precautions were taken to avoid any metal contamination. In case of vitamin analysis, these operations were performed very fast in dim light to avoid any degradation by oxygen and light, and for some food items, portions of fresh process sample(s) were kept frozen. Where required, the clean air dried sample was homogenated with a lab blender, and the required portion of the sample analyte was taken from the homogenated material. Vegetable and fruit analytical sampling The vegetables and fruits were subjected to multiple nutrient analyses. Accordingly, they were processed for analytical samplings and stored in multiple portions as
(a) 3x5g taken for carotenoid analysis, (b) 3x5g taken for vitamin C analysis, (c) 3x20g for Bvitamins analysis, (d) 3x10g for sugar analysis (for fruits), (d) 3x10g for dietary fiber analysis, (e) 3x10g for crude fiber analysis, (f) 3x10g taken for nitrogen analysis, (g) 3x10g taken for mineral analysis, (h) 3x25g taken for moisture analysis, and (i) remaining portion in multiple units frozen and stored at -20oC & -40oC depending on nutrient to be analysed.

Fish, meat and egg analytical sampling Fish: Approximately 1.0-1.5kg fish of consuming size of each variety was collected from 3 wholesale and from 3 local markets located at Dhaka and its peripheries from where

42

people purchased fish for their consumption. The fish samples were brought to lab quickly to avoid any spoilage during transport. Ice box was used during collection of fish from the peripheral points. Taking the sample in lab, it was cleaned and processed for edible portion. Small fish was taken as a whole.

Meat: About 20-25 meat cuts at least 2-3 pieces from each of five regions of the slaughted animal were purchased from butcher shop at two markets and brought in clean plastic poly bags to the lab, where it was processed for analytical sampling.

Egg: Twelve eggs of each variety were collected from the local markets from where mass people taken for their consumption. Each 4 eggs were pooled together to process to make a single analyte, and thus prepared three analytes for each variety.

2.2.5

Chemicals

All chemicals and reagents used in the analysis of the nutrient profile were of analytical grade and were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany, BDH (UK), Sigma Chemical Co (St. Louis, MO, USA). Ascorbic acid, -carotene, and B-vitamins, were procured from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA).

2.2.6

Methods of nutrient analysis

Use of appropriate and accurate methods employing skilled analysts can only ensure reliable data for preparation of a food composition database. However, the choice of analytical methods is limited to equipment facilities and technical staffs available. The original project proposition was aimed to analyse 50 food items for their nutrient profile comprising proximate composition, minerals, vitamin C, total carotenoids, carotene profile and B-vitamins. Because of the fund constraint and time limitation, arising out of the inclusion of additional 25 food items in the analysis, the number of nutrients to be analyzed was reduced to proximate nutrients, minerals, vitamin C and

43

carotenoid for the 75 food items. Analysis of -carotene was limited to 20 vegetables and fruits of both general and ethnic origin. The nutrients analysed and the analytical techniques employed are summarized in the table 2.7. Table 2.7: Nutrients analysed and the analytical techniques employed

Nutrient class Macronutrients

Nutrients Moisture Protein Fat Fatty acids Crude fiber Ash Dietary Fiber Carbohydrate

AOAC and Standards methods Drying in Air oven at 100-105 C (AOAC, 1998a) Micro-Kjeldahl method (AOAC, 1998b) Soxhlet extraction (Raghuramulu et al, 2003a) By calculation (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003) Gravimetric (Raghuramulu et al, 2003b) Muffle furnace (AOAC, 199c) Sigma Kit (AOAC, 1998d; Sigma TDF-100A) By Calculation (Rand et al, 1991)
o

Micronutrients Vitamin Carotenoids Spectrophotometry (Roriguez-Amaya and Kimura, 2004; Rahman et al, 1990) -carotene Vitamin C Mineral Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, Na, K, P Antinutrients Phytate Spectrophotometry (Wheefer and Ferral, 1971) HPLC (Roriguez-Amaya and Kimura, 2004) Spectrophotometry (AOAC, 1998e) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (Petersen, 2002)

44

2.2.6.1 Analysis of moisture Moisture content is one of the most variable components, particularly in the plant foods. This variability affects the food composition as a whole. Therefore, the moisture value remains as an essential component in food composition database. The moisture content in the food items was determined by measuring the amount of water removed from the food (AOAC, 1998a). It was done by direct heating the food in an Air oven at 100-105oC to constant weight. 2.2.6.2 Estimation of protein Protein content in the food items was determined by indirect method estimating total nitrogen in the food. It was calculated by multiplying the total nitrogen using the

respective factor as estimated by Micro-Kjeldahl method (AOAC, 1998b). 2.2.6.3 Estimation of total fat and fatty acids The most frequently used method for fat estimation in food is the continuous extraction of fat with petroleum ether or diethyl ether. For some specific foods, mixture of chloroform and methanol is also used to extract fat. In this study, dried food was subjected to continuous extraction with petroleum ether in a Soxhlet extractor (AOAC, 1998c). Chloroform-methanol extraction was also used in isolation of fat in some particular food items such as meat and eggs (Raghuramulu et al, 2003). Total fatty acid content in the foods was estimated by calculation and by multiplication of total fat content by a factor (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003d).

2.2.6.4 Estimation of ash content In ash estimation, dried food sample is ignited at 600oC to burn out all organic materials. The inorganic material which is ignited at this temperature is the ash.

45

In this study, ash in the food sample was estimated by heating the dried sample in a Muffle furnace at 600oC for 3h (AOAC, 1998d). Ash content was calculated from weight difference. 2.2.6.5 Analysis of crude fibre and dietary fibre Crude fibre was estimated by gravimetric method as described by Raghuramulu et al (2003). The dried and fat free food sample was treated with boiling sulphuric acid at constant volume, cooled, filtered, washed with hot water, made alkaline, boiled, filtered and washed with water followed by ethanol and ether wash. The residue was then heated in a Muffle furnace at 600oC for 3h. Crude fibre was finally calculated from the weight difference. Dietary fibre was analysed by AOAC method (1998d) using total dietary fibre assay kit (TDF-100, Sigma Chemical Co., Saint Louis, Missouri, USA). In this method, a combination of enzymatic and gravimetric techniques was used. Dried fat free sample was gelatinized with heat stable -amylase, then enzymatically digested with protease and amyl glycosidase to remove the protein and starch present in the food sample. Ethanol was added to precipitate the soluble dietary fibre. The residue was filtered and washed with ethanol and acetone. After drying, half of the residue was analysed for protein and half for ash. Total dietary fibre was the weight of the residue minus the weight of the protein and ash. 2.2.6.6 Analysis of phytatic acid Phytic acid was determined by spectrophotometric method (Wheeler and Ferrat, 1971). Phytic acid in the food sample reacting with ferric chloride developed red colour with potassium thiocyanate. This colour difference was read in the spectrophotometer at 485nm against the water blank. Intensity of the colour is proportional to ferric ion

concentration, which was used in the calculation of phytic acid content in the food sample.

46

2.2.6.7 Calculation of carbohydrate and energy The content of available carbohydrate in the food sample was determined by difference. Carbohydrate was calculated by subtracting the sum percentage of moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude and dietary fibre (Rand et al, 1991; FAO, 2003). The energy content in the food sample was calculated by the sum of protein, fat and carbohydrate using respective Atwater factors (Rand et al, 1991). 2.2.6.8 Analysis of vitamin C Ascorbic acid in food sample was estimated by spectrophotometric method (AOAC, 1998e). The fresh food sample (vegetable or fruit) was homogenized in a mortar with pestle using metaphosphoric acid, filtered, treated, and incubated at 60oC for 60 minutes with 2, 4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine. Adding 85% sulphuric acid, it was read at 520nm in spectrophotometer (UV-1601, UV-Visible, Shimadzu). 2.2.6.9 Analysis of carotenoids Carotenoid content in the vegetable or fruit sample was determined by acetonepetroleum-ether extraction followed by spectrophotometric measurement (RoriguezAmaya and Kimura, 2004). Extraction of carotenoid was performed by grinding of processed food sample in mortar and pestle, filtration through sintered glass filter under vacuum and separation from acetone to petroleum ether. When the color of the eluent is orange like, it was read at 450nm in a spectrophotometer (UV-1601, UV-Visible, Shimadzu) for concentration of total carotenoids; when it was green color containing chlorophyll, the extract was passed through a column packed with activated 1:1 alumina and sodium anhydrous to remove the green pigments. The column eluent was then read at 450nm. All preparative and extractive procedures were

performed in dim light to avaoid phoyosensitive damage.

47

2.2.6.10 Analysis of -carotene Reverse phase HPLC (Shimadzu PC based Binary Gradient HPLC Prominence System with PDA Detector, SPD-M20A; Solvent delivery System, LC-20AT; LC Solution Multi Workstation Software) was used to determine the -carotene (Roriguez-Amaya and Kimura, 2004). The nitrogen dried carotenoid was reconstituted with mobile phase (acetonitrile: methanol: 2-propanol-) and 50l reconstituted sample was injected into the VYDAC reverse phase C18 column (5m particle size). The column was re-equilibrated with the mobile phase for at least five minutes before the next injection. -carotene was purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. USA and was used as standard analytes.

2.2.6.11 Analysis of mineral profile Mineral content in the food sample was analysed by Atomic absorption

spectrophotometric method (Petersen, 2002). Dried food sample was subjected to wet digestion with nitric acid and perchloric acid in an auto- digestor at 325oC. The digested sample after appropriate dilution was aspirated into the spectrophotometer where it was burned into atomic components and it was read at their respective wavelength. Sigma standard elements were used as standard analytes.

2.2.7 Quality assurance programme (QAP) Method standardization and validation were carried out with internal standard (IS), external standard (ES), intra and inter lab analysis of particular food and percent recovery. Data quality was maintained by precision (co-efficient of variance, CV), accuracy (Standard Reference material, SRM) and well documented foods, standard error of mean (SEM).

48

Chapter 3

Results and Discussion

49

3 Results and Discussions


Healthy well-nourished people are the outcome of successful social and economic development and constitute an essential input into the development process. Good health needs balanced diets, which could be obtained and designed from nutrient composition of key foods. Therefore, nutrient composition of key foods is to be wellknown and available to the mass population.

Public health nutrition activities, nutrition, agricultural, health and epidemiological research, food industries and trade decision and government policy planning concerning nutrition and agriculture, all depend on an accurate knowledge of what is in food. It is the nutrient composition of food that can provide this information. Currently these data are not adequate to meet the existing needs of planners, practioners, and professionals in Bangladesh. Often the data are incomplete, inconsistent and inaccessible.

There is a worldwide call for updating food composition databases. The third world countries are far behind to address this attempt. Like most of the developing countries, Bangladesh does not have food composition database. The current food composition table (FCT) - Deshio Khadder Pustiman prepared by the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (INFS), University of Dhaka, later edited by Helen Keller International (HKI) in english version- Tables of Nutrient Composition of Bangladeshi Foods was prepared long back; most of the nutrient data used were analyzed long ago, and some were assumed to be borrowed from neighboring countries, and did not have the nutrient data of ethnic foods. Over the last decade food composition activities have increasingly been addressed by many agencies. As an effort to contribute to this need, this study has been undertaken with an aim to prepare a food composition database with reference to general and ethnic foods of Bangladesh.

50

3.1 Key food identification Nutrient profiling of a food is expensive in term of its identification, collection, processing and analysis. Therefore, analyzing every food item for every nutrient and meeting all user requirements is difficult. Consequently, priorities must be determined. Key foods have been identified as those foods that contribute up to 75% of any one nutrient to the dietary intake (Haytowitz et al, 1996; 2000; 2002). Key foods can be documented by food consumption survey. In this study, the key foods was indentified through CFCS and FGDs and priorities made in consultation with TAT members.

3.1.1 Comprehensive Food Consumption Survey (CFCS) Food consumption survey comprises collection of information about food intake frequency and amount of food consumed (Brussaard et al, 2002). It is performed by household survey. The aim of CFCS is to generate food consumption statistics. Food consumption data and nutrient values help to generate Key Foods list. In identifying the key foods, nutrient contribution of the food and public health significance of nutrients are taken into consideration.

The proposal was to conduct CFCS on 1700 households comprising 1200 general households and 500 ethnic tribal households. Later on as per recommendation received from the 5th dissemination workshop at Rangamati on the 18th March 2010, more ethnic households were included in the CFCS to make a total 805 ethnic households

CFCS activities To select the key food items to be investigated for their nutrient profiling, CFCS was carried out to collect food consumption data of the general and ethnic tribal population. Before starting it, survey locations were mapped out, a questionnaire was developed and pretested and sample size was determined. These activities were finalized and

51

approved in consultation with FAO Technical Advisory Team members. CFCS sampling plan of the general and ethnic households are described in the table 3.1 and 3.2, and some CFCS activities in ethnic tribes are highlighted in the photographs.

CFCS Team

Co-Investigator and DAE enumerator with ethnic people

Enumerator taking interview

52

Enumerator with ethnics

PI and enumerator with ethnics taking interview

Co- Investigator and enumerator with ethnics taking interview

53

Table 3.1: Location and description of CFCS data collection among the general population
Division District Upazilla Date of visit Location No of HH interviewed Type of HH

Dhaka

Netrokona Manikgonj

Netrokona sadar Saturia

31.01.09 to 02.02.09 08.02.09 to 11.02.09 12.02.09 to 16.02.09 21.02.09 to 22.02.09 23.02.09 to 25.02.09 25.02.09 to 27.02.09 28.02.09 to 02.03.09 16.03.09 to 17.03.09 18.03.09 to 19.03.09 20.03.09 to 21.03.09 22.03.09 to 24.03.09 03.04.09 to 04.04.09 01.04.09 to 02.04.09 04.04.09 to 06.04.09 08.04.09 to 09.04.09 11.04.09 to 14.04.09 13.04.09 to 14.04.09

Sylhet

Moulavibazar Habigonj

Moulavibazar Sadar Madhobpur

Chittagong

Feni Comilla

Feni Sadar Comilla Sadar Natore Sadar Rajpara Jessore Kotoali Kaligonj Barisal Kotoali Jhalokathi Sadar

Rajshahi

Natore Rajshahi

Khulna

Jessore Jhenaidah

Barisal

Barisal Jhalokathi

West chakpara Mohandrapur Sawdagar para & Uttarkaunna Char saturia Suvro Kodupur Godampara & Krishnanagar West madhobpur North Charipur Nagarkandi, Mathiara Gabindapur Kashinathpur Uttar Patua para Ulupur Terkhadia Kashia danga Shangkarpur Mubarak Kathi Arpara Nadir par Mithapukur Ganopara Rupatoli Krishnakathi Rajapremhar Total

50 54 50 50 52 50 51 50 50 50 50 50 51 49 52 52 50 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 1210

Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Rural Urban Urban Rural

54

Table 3.2: Location and description of CFCS data collection among the ethnic population
Division Dhaka District Netrokona Upazilla Durgapur Time of visit 03.02.09 to 07.02.09 Location
Gopalpur, Nolua Debdul

No of HH interviewed 28 31 25 25 70 60 50
Shap Diglibak,

Type of household Hajong Garo Monipuri Khasia Marma Chakma Tripura Chakma Tanchanga Marma Tanchanga Tripura Chakma

Sylhet

Moulavi Bazar

Kamolgonj

18.02.09 to 20.02.09

Tilokpur Magurchara & Kashiapunji

Chittagong

Khagrachari

Khagrachari sadar

31.03.10 to 15.04.10 17.04.10 to 23.04.10

Nilkantipara Dewanpara Soyanundarpara

Rangamati

Rangamati sadar

03.04.10 to 10.04.10

Haja Chara, Chari,

69 21 30 30 37 109

Naraichari, Vhulu Chari, Tanchanga para, Banna Chari

Bandarban

Bandarban sadar

06.03.09 to 07.03.09 07.03.09 to 08.03.09 09.03.09 to 12.03.09

Raicha Senior para Kalaghata Balaghata Biddopara, Painchara, Parjatan Chakma para, Pain para, Nadir par, Balaghata bazar Bameri para Faruk para Puratan and nutun choroi para

13.03.09 to 14.03.09

30 30 71 89 805

Murang Bam Marma Shaotal

Rajshahi

Rajshahi

Godagari

29.03.09 to 31.03.09

Nimghat para, Nobai bottala, Dangapara, Nimghatu para

Total

55

805

1210

General

Ethnic

Figure 3.1: Distribution of general and ethnic households by number

56

100 104
N u m b e r o f h o u s e h o l d s

103 100 100

100 101

103 99

100 100

100

101 81 61 41 21 1

Rural

Urban

Figure 3.2: Distribution of selected general households by division and household type

57

N u m b e r o f h o u s e h o l d s

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

307

180 120 89 59 50

Figure 3.3: Distribution of ethnic households by district

58

59

31 28 25 25 30 87 51 89 238

30

171

Chakma Bam Shantal

Marma Murong Garo

Tanchanga Monipuri Hajong

Tripura Khashia

Figure 3.4: Distribution of ethnic households by tribe and number

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3.1.2 Focus group discussions (FGDs) In the present study, FGDs were conducted to enrich and supplement the CFCS food consumption data. It carried out among the ethnic community of Marma, Chakma, Tripura and Tangchaga tribes living in Khagrachari and Rangamati. It was done during March and April, 2010. The FGD composed of 8-12 community participants, 2 key informants- one from the community NGO person and one was DAE block supervisor, and a critique- the agriculture officer. The composition, characteristics and activities of the FGDs are depicted in the table 3.3 and photographs. The key question was the type of foods that the ethnic people consume throughout the year. Their response to this issue was discussed, criticized and recorded carefully. In the CFCS it is indicated that ethnic people consumed about 46 food items, most of which are also consumed by the general people; therefore, these are not absolutely ethnic. To explore the true ethnic foods, the FGDs were conducted among the ethnic communities. FGDs showed that aboutt 47 foods comprising leafy vegetables, nonleafy vegetables, fruits, fish and meat of wild origin are consumed by the ethnic people. The outcome of the FGDs is listed in the table 3.4.
Table 3.3: FGDs settings
FGD community Marma Chakma Objective Type of food intake throughout the year Location Pankhaiya para, Khagrachari, CHT South Rangapani, Bidhadhan Chakma Bari, Chakma palli, Rangamati, CHT Tanchaga para, Dharmaraj Bari, Kotoali, Rangamati, CHT Babu No. of participants 12 8 Duration of discussion 90 minutes 60 minutes

Tanchanga Tripura

8 10

75 minutes 90 minutes

Ghasbhan no 2 project Gram, Jagonnath Mandir, Khagrachari, CHT

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Table 3.4: FGD outcome: Food consumption pattern of the Marma, Chakma, Tanchanga and Tripura communities
Sl no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 English name Bengali name LEAFY VEGETABLES Rashun Leaves Rashun shak Dheki leaves Dheki shak Jarul Khambang Dumurshomi Leaves Dumurshumi shak Seneya Leaves Seneha shak Lelom Leaves Lelom shak na Sabarang* Roselle Amila pata* na Lalam pata* Indian Ivy-rue Baruna Shak* na Ojan shak* na Ghanda batali* na Orai balai Purslane Bat slai* Yellow saraca Maytraba Yellow Flower Holud fool Ginger Flower Ada shak Sime Flower Sime fool NON LEAFY VEGETABLES Pea eggplant Mistti begun* Solanum Tak begun* Sigon data Sigon data* Tara (Like Kochu data) Tara data Basher Korol Basher korol Wild mushroom Edur kan Scientific name na na na na na na Ajuga macrosperma Hibiscus sabdariffa Premna obtusifolia Xanthoxylum rhetsa Spilanthes calva Paederia foetida Premna esculenta Portulaca oleracea
Saraca thaipingensis

Sl no 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

na na na
Solanum spinosa
Solanum virginianum

Lasia spinosa na na na

English name na na na Yam FRUITS Pamelo (red) Pineapple (wild ) Wild Melon na Bead tree FISH AND MEAT Lota Fish Churi Fish (Dried) Nappi paste Zhinuk Crabs Shark Shark (dried) Kuchia fish Snails (small) Snails (large) Rat Frog na Pork

Bengali name Banchalta* Fakong Hahnagulu Pan/jhum alu* Jambura (Lal) Anarash (bonno) Sindera* Roshko* kusumgulu* Lota mach Churi mach Nappi Shell Kakra Hangar Hangar shutki Kuchia Shamuk (choto) Shamuk (Boro) Idur Beng Gobar poka
Shukurer mangsha

Scientific name na na na na na na Cumis melo Syzygium balsameum Elaeocarpus angustifolius Na na na Mollusk shell Liocarcinus vernalis
Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos

Monopterus cuchia Helix pomatia Helix pomati Rattus norvegicus) Litoria caerulea na Sus scrofa domestica

na: not available * ethnic food

62

FGDs activities

FGD in Marma community in Marma palli, Khagrachari

FGD in Marma community in Marma palli, Khagrachari

63

FGD in Chakma community in Chakma palli, Rangamati

FGD in Chakma community in Chakma palli, Rangamati

64

FGD in Tanchanga community in tanchanga palli in Rangamati

FGD in Tanchanga community in tanchanga palli in Rangamati

65

FGD in Tripura community in Tripura palli, Khagrachari

FGD in Tripura community in Tripura palli, Khagrachari

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3.1.3 Lifestyle characteristics of general and ethnic people The key objective of the CFCS was to obtain food consumption information of the general and ethnic population of Bangladesh. In addition to collecting the food consumption data, the lifestyle profile of this population was also addressed. Analysis of socioeconomic data showed that amongst the 1210 general households (table 3.1) only 65 households were female headed and the rest were the male headed. The male-headed urban household heads were more educated in numbers than their counter part in rural locations (tables 3.5). Their main occupation was found to be earth cutting. It may be because of their low educational level as well as currently running road and civil works in the rural and semi urban areas. Female headed household heads were mostly engaged in household works. Mean age of the male headed household heads were similar in rural and urban areas. Female headed household heads were comparatively older than the male head. The monthly income and expenditure of both the urban and rural households were found similar.

Prevalence of illiteracy was high among the Marma and Shaontal while Chakma and Tripura were more educated, and consequently Chakma and Tripura people were employed in services (table 3.8). The monthly family income was found to be highest among the Tripura followed by Chakma, and lowest income was found in the Marma and Shaontal tribes. Food security data indicated that almost 3% households frequently experienced food shortage, while 12% percent reported to have food shortage infrequently (tables 3.6, 3.9). Food insecurity was high in February of the year. Rural (46%) and Urban (54%) households reported to have infrequent balanced diet. Almost 9% household ate less than three times a day. In food shortage, adult women had to eat less and it was higher among the rural than the urban households. Compared to the general population, food insecurity was high among the ethnic people. It was found higher among Marma and

67

Shaontal while food security was comparatively better among the Tripura, Tanchanga and Chakma tribes. In term of morbidity, most of the rural and urban household heads reported the suffering of their under five children from diarrhea in the last one month (tables 3.7, 3.10). Most of them did not take any specific care for the treatment of diarrhea. Comparing the

prevalence of diarrhea among the general population, prevalence of diarrhoea among the ethnic under five children was found too high. It was found to be lowest among the Tanchanga and highest among the Tripura children.

The lifestyle data reveal that the ethnic people are far behind the general population in terms of socioeconomic situation, food security and health care access facilities. Special care should be taken to address these problems.

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Table 3.5: Socioeconomic profile of general households


Parameters Type of household (HH) Gender of household head Male Female Education of male headed HH head Below primary Below SSC Below HSC HSC to Below BSc BSc to MSc Illiterate can sign only Can read and sign Total Education of female headed HH head Below primary Below SSC Below HSC Illiterate can sign only Can read and sign Total Occupation of male headed HH head Agri (work) Earth cutting Rickshaw / van driver Others Total Occupation of female headed HH head Agri (work) Earth cutting Household work NGO worker Others Total Urban Frequency 606 Percent 50.1 Frequency 604 Rural Percent 49.9

575 31 106 162 37 39 4 61 75 121 606 1 6 3 3 12 6 31

94.9 5.1 17.5 26.8 6.1 6.5 0.7 10.1 12.30 20.0 100.0 3.4 17.2 10.3 10.1 39.0 20.0 100.0

570 34 129 156 34 32 2 222 28 604 7 1 0 12 9 5 34

94.4 5.6 21.3 25.9 5.7 5.3 0.4 36.7 4.7 100.0 20.0 3.3 36.7 25.0 15.0 100.0

20 574 2 10 606

3.3 94.7 0.4 1.6 100.0

13 583 8 604

2.1 96.5 1.4 100.0

1 6 18 4 2 31 Mean Sd 26.683.40 38.674.35 51.903.87 66.103.53 40.731.42 27.253.20 40.08 3.77 52.78 4.24 66.67 2.89 45.00 11.79

3.4 17.2 58.6 13.9 6.9 100.0 Percent

2 30 20 34 Mean Sd

6.7 86.6 6.7 100.0 Percent

Age of male headed HH head (Year) 15-30 30-45 45-60 60-75 Total Age of female headed HH head (Year) 15-30 30-45 45-60 60-75 Total Monthly total income (Tk.) <5000 5001 8000 5001 8000 8000 11000 11000 14000 >14000 Total Monthly average total expenditure (Tk.)

23.3 45.9 25.4 5.4 100.0 13.8% 44.8% 31.0% 10.3% 100.0%

27.30 2.95 38.37 4.28 53.11 4.76 67.15 3.49 41.23 11.64 26.00 0.00 39.23 4.02 55.00 4.88 70.00 0.00 48.20 11.21

21.3 48.9 23.9 5.9 100.0 3.3 43.3 46.7 6.7 100.0

4093.82 926.68 6673.87 827.44 9653.40 749.35 12520.00 699.55 18976.00 5949.64 7837.54 4556.45 6259.28 3148.04

30.69 36.63 17.00 7.43 8.25 100.0 100.0

4058.38 931.65 6714.47 843.55 9493.94 745.71 12411.36 790.41 20924.00 7222.35 8006.99 5075.75 6169.38 3324.94

28.64 39.40 16.40 7.28 8.28 100.0 100.0

69

Table 3.6: Food security by households type in general population


Urban Parameters Frequency Experience food shortage in family Never ever Some times Often/always Total Time of food shortage January February Whole year Total Status of getting balance food Always Never ever some times Total HH head ate < 3 times a day Yes No Total Children ate <3 times a day Yes No Total Children starved whole day Yes No Total Adult member starved whole day Yes No Total Weight loss any member Yes No Did not verify Total Who ate less during food shortage None response Adult women Adult men Total 517 74 15 606 21 64 4 89 242 38 326 606 54 552 606 25 581 606 12 594 606 29 577 606 8 573 25 606 500 86 20 606 Percent 85.3 12.2 2.5 100.0 23.60 71.91 4.49 100.0 39.9 6.3 53.8 100.0 8.9 91.1 100.0 4.1 95.9 100.0 2.0 98.0 100.0 4.8 95.2 100.0 1.32 94.55 4.13 100.0 82.51 14.19 3.30 100.0 Frequency 522 64 18 604 22 58 2 82 282 42 280 604 57 547 604 16 588 604 5 598 604 19 585 604 8 581 15 604 456 133 15 604 Rural Percent 86.5 10.6 3.0 100.0 26.83 70.73 2.44 100.0 46.7 7.0 46.4 100.0 9.4 90.6 100.0 1.7 97.5 100.0 1.0 99.0 100.0 3.1 96.9 100.0 1.33 96.19 2.48 100.0 75.50 22.02 2.48 100.0

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Table 3.7: Morbidity and its treatment by household type in general population
Urban Response Frequency Eating adequately but not gaining weight Yes No Dont understand Total Member suffers from stomachache Yes No Dont know Total Knowledge about reasons of diarrhoea Answered rightly Answer partly right Wrongly answered Total Diarrhoea in any <5 children in last month Didnt experienced Last week One month ago More than one month ago Total Measures taken to get rid of diarrhoea Didnt experienced Fed home prepared saline Fed packet saline Medicine Medicine and oral saline Total Giving anti helminthes drug regularly to <6y children Cannot remember Yes No Total Immunization to children Dont know Complete Incomplete Total 23 530 53 606 29 575 2 606 446 117 43 606 471 14 24 97 606 471 14 64 4 53 606 309 245 52 606 339 260 7 606 Percent 3.8 87.5 8.7 100.0 4.8 94.9 0.3 100.0 73.7 19.3 7.1 100.0 77.6 2.3 4.0 16.0 100.0 77.8 2.3 10.6 0.7 8.7 100.0 51.0 40.5 8.6 100.0 55.9 42.9 1.2 100.0 Frequency 19 524 61 604 28 576 604 397 162 45 604 478 13 33 80 604 478 10 62 4 50 604 334 223 47 604 357 236 11 604 Rural Percent 3.1 86.8 10.1 100.0 4.6 95.4 100.0 65.6 26.8 7.5 100.0 79.2 2.2 5.5 13.2 100.0 79.1 1.7 10.3 0.7 8.2 100.0 55.3 36.9 7.8 100.0 59.1 39.1 1.8 100.0

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Table 3.8: Socioeconomic profile of ethnic households


Parameters Type of household Education Level HH Head Below primary Below SSC Below HSC HSC and above Illiterate can sign only Can read and sign Total Occupation of HH head Agri (work) (1) Earth cutting (2) Rickshaw / van driver (5) Business (7) Jobless (9) Service (11) Others (12) Total Age (y) distribution of HH Head 15-30 30-45 45-60 60-75 Total Family monthly income (taka) <5000 5001 8000 8000 11000 11000 14000 >14000 Total Family monthly expenditure CHAKMA
Frequency

MARMA %
Frequency

SHAONTAL %
Frequency

TRIPURA
Frequency

TANCHANGA %
Frequency

OTHERS
Frequency

% 2.3 10.2 4.5 1.1 56.8 4.5 100.0 43.2 4.5 5.7 13.6 33.0 100.0 Meansd 27.62.41 37.24.27 52.83.50 66.04.24 42.011.1 23431268 6100548 10000.0 26431704 3125998

% 3.3 267 6.7 46.7 16.7 100.0 26.7 3.3 13.3 3.3 53.3 100.0 Meansd 28.21.94 38.44.07 52.84.98 70.01.09 42.312.1 27391066 70001000 9500707 14000210 40342997 53451979

% 8.1 20.3 9.3 6.4 41.9 14.0 100.0 27.9 2.3 4.7 1.2 12.2 51.7 100.0 Meansd 27.82.07 38.14.30 52.84.25 66.54.29 44.311.3 30551182 6301832 9709923 12000304 40042286 54782137

20 48 26 51 82 9 2 238 79 2 7 11 79 60 238 n 31 145 53 9 238 145 57 18 11 7 238 238

8.3 20.4 11.1 21.3 34.3 3.7 0.9 100.0 33.3 0.9 2.8 4.6 33.3 25.0 100.0 Meansd 26.53.01 38.33.82 53.14.57 69.54.20 41.210.50 3090949 6965884 9375694 12600894 16672887 53063462 65744392

9 18 127 7 161 63 7 11 9 70 161 n 20 63 57 20 161 138 20 161 161

5.6 11.3 78.9 4.2 100.0 39.4 3.2 7.0 5.6 43.7 100.0 Meansd 28.12.52 38.53.96 53.54.27 66.43.09 46.212.4 27801088 6444846 32651635 37681754

2 27 4 1 50 4 88 38 4 5 12 29 88 n 14 42 28 4 88 82 5 1 88 88

19 33 9 24 2 87 7 71 9 87 n 12 49 16 9 87 24 19 24 9 12 87 87

21.6 37.8 10.8 27.0 2.7 100.0 8.1 81.1 10.8 100.0 Meansd 27.44.22 39.73.88 51.63.69 66.32.99 43.111.3 36401418 6875991 9500667 12375478 2320011344 95107292 105121189

2 19 5 33 12 70 19 2 9 2 37 70 n 14 33 19 5 70 56 7 5 2 70 70

14 34 15 11 70 23 166 46 4 8 2 20 86 166 n 18 78 58 13 166 130 25 9 2 166 166

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Table 3.9: Food security of ethnic tribes


Parameters Experience food shortage in family Never ever Some times Often/always Total Time of food shortage January February Whole year Total Status of getting balance food Always Never ever some times Total HH head ate < 3 times a day Yes No Total Children ate <3 times a day Yes No Total Children starved whole day Yes No Total Adult member starved whole day Yes No Total Weight loss in any member Not respond Yes No Did not verify Total Who ate less during food shortage Non response Adult women Adult men Others Total CHAKMA Freq. % 163 64 11 238 162 64 11 237 95 13 130 238 68 170 238 51 187 238 2 236 238 13 225 238 82 2 79 75 238 162 7 60 9 238 68.5 26.9 4.6 100.0 68.3 26.9 4.8 100.0 39.8 5.6 54.6 100.0 28.7 71.3 100.0 21.3 78.7 100.0 0.9 99.1 100.0 5.6 94.4 100.0 34.3 0.9 33.3 31.5 100.0 68.2 2.8 25.2 3.7 100.0 MARMA Freq. % 98 61 2 161 98 42 21 161 41 120 161 25 136 161 11 150 161 2 159 161 9 152 161 36 70 54 161 88 40 25 8 161 60.6 38.0 1.4 100.0 61.1 25.9 13.0 100.0 25.4 74.6 100.0 15.5 84.5 100.0 7.0 93.0 100.0 1.4 98.6 100.0 5.6 94.4 100.0 22.5 43.7 33.8 100.0 54.4 24.6 15.8 5.3 100.0 SHAONTAL Freq. % 30 36 22 88 31 45 12 88 12 3 73 88 46 42 88 40 48 88 7 81 88 13 75 88 21 30 37 88 33 19 34 2 88 34.1 40.9 25.0 100.0 35.0 51.0 14.0 100.0 14.0 3.0 83.0 100.0 52.3 47.7 100.0 45.5 54.5 100.0 8.0 92.0 100.0 14.8 85.2 100.0 23.9 34.1 42.0 100.0 37.5 21.6 38.6 2.3 100.0 TRIPURA Freq. % 73 14 87 85 2 87 54 33 87 87 87 0 87 87 87 87 87 87 31 56 87 87 87 83.8 16.2 100.0 97.3 2.7 100.0 62.2 37.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 35.1 64.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 TANCHANGA Freq. % 51 12 7 70 48 17 3 68 26 2 42 70 16 54 70 9 61 70 70 70 5 66 70 12 2 47 9 70 49 5 16 70 73.3 16.7 10.0 100.0 68.0 24.0 4.0 78 36.7 3.3 60.0 100.0 23.3 76.7 100.0 13.3 86.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 6.7 93.3 100.0 16.7 3.3 66.7 13.3 100.0 70.0 6.7 23.3 100.0 OTHERS Freq. % 113 36 17 166 105 37 19 151 44 16 105 166 43 123 166 20 146 166 4 162 166 14 152 166 19 5 111 31 166 102 22 23 20 166 68.0 21.5 10.5 100.0 63.0 22.1 11.7 96.8 26.7 9.9 63.4 100.0 25.7 74.3 100.0 12.2 87.8 100.0 2.3 97.7 100.0 8.2 91.8 100.0 11.6 2.9 66.9 18.6 100.0 61.5 13.0 13.7 11.8 100.0

73

Table 3.10: Morbidity and its treatment by ethnic tribes


Parameters Eating adequately but not gaining weight Not respond Yes No Dont understand Total Member suffers from stomach ache Yes No Dont know Total Knowledge about reasons of diarrhea Answered rightly Answer partly right Wrongly answered Total Diarrhea in any 5 children in last month Didnt experienced Last week One month ago More than one month ago Cannot remember Total Measures taken to get relief of diarrhoea Didnt experienced Fed packet saline Medicine Medicine and oral saline Total Giving anti helminthics regularly to <6y children Cannot remember Yes No Total CHAKMA Freq. 15 15 137 71 238 9 220 9 238 134 71 33 238 117 2 86 33 238 152 48 13 24 238 108 79 51 238 % 6.5 6.5 57.4 29.6 100.0 3.7 92.6 3.7 100.0 56.5 29.6 13.9 100.0 49.1 0.9 36.1 13.9 100.0 63.9 20.4 5.6 10.2 100.0 45.4 33.3 21.3 100.0 MARMA Freq. 93 68 161 2 159 161 68 73 20 161 60 3 49 49 161 126 12 18 6 161 44 76 41 161 % 57.7 42.3 100.0 1.4 98.6 100.0 42.2 45.1 12.7 100.0 37.1 1.6 30.6 30.6 100.0 78.2 7.3 10.9 3.6 100.0 27.1 47.1 25.7 100.0 SHAONTAL Freq. 1 71 16 88 88 88 32 43 12 88 48 1 3 21 15 88 63 15 3 7 88 37 22 29 88 % 1.1 80.7 18.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 36.8 49.4 13.8 100.0 54.0 1.1 3.4 24.1 17.2 100.0 71.3 17.2 3.4 8.0 100.0 42.0 25.0 33.0 100.0 TRIPURA Freq. 5 80 2 87 87 87 87 87 40 2 16 28 87 68 9 2 7 87 33 49 5 87 % 5.4 91.9 2.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 28 2 5 16 19 70 78.4 10.8 2.7 8.1 100.0 37.8 56.8 5.4 100.0 TANCHANGA Freq. 65 5 70 12 54 5 70 42 12 16 70 40.0 3.3 6.7 23.3 26.7 100.0 37 28 2 2 70 21 40 9 70 % 93.3 6.7 100.0 16.7 76.7 6.7 100.0 60.0 16.7 23.3 100.0 74 1 18 26 46 100 53.3 40.0 3.3 3.3 100.0 30.0 56.7 13.3 100.0 OTHERS Freq. 1 10 140 15 166 19 146 1 166 97 52 17 166 44.8 0.6 10.9 15.8 27.9 100.0 122 19 14 11 166 74 68 24 166 % 0.6 5.8 84.3 9.3 11.6 87.8 0.6 100.0 58.1 31.4 10.5 100.0 44.8 0.6 10.9 15.8 27.9 100.0 73.3 11.2 8.7 6.8 100.0 44.8 40.7 14.5 100.0

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3.1.4 Identification of Key foods The key food approach is used to identify and select food items for analysis of nutrient profile. It concentrates to utilize analytical resource on those foods that contribute significant amounts of nutrients of public health significance to the diet (Haytowitz et al, 1996). It is done by analysis of CFCS data. The purpose of key food list is to select important foods for human nutrition and to provide nutrients of public health benefit. In this study, CFCS and FGDs identified a total of 138 food items comprising- 54 foods consumed by both the general and ethnic population, 20 foods consumed only by the general and 64 foods consumed only by the ethnic people (figure 3.5). The distribution of food groups in the common, general and ethnic foods are depicted in the figures 3.6, 3.7 and 3.8.

54 64

20

Only Ethnic

Only General

Both

Figure 3.5: Number of food item (n=138) consumed by population type

75

11 7

16 23

Cereal

Pulses

Leafy Veg

Non-Leafy Veg

Fruits

Animal

Figure 3.6: Distribution of common food item (n=54) consumed by 5% HH

2 16 22

8 16

Cereal

Leafy Veg

Non-Leafy Veg

Fruits

Animal Foods

Figure 3.7: Distribution of ethnic food (n=64) of food items consumed by 5% HH

3 10

Leafy Veg

Non-Leafy

Animal

Fruit

Figure 3.8: Distribution of general (n=20) food items consumed by 5% HH

76

3.1.5 Selection of key foods The CFCS and FGDs identified 138 key food items. From this list, 75 food items were selected for analysis of their nutrient profile aiming to prepare the food composition database. The objective of food composition database is to ensure inclusion of a range of food items eaten by the population for which the database is being prepared. However, ideally a truly comprehensive database is, in fact, an impossible objective. It is primarily because of very large number of foods in the human diet. The volume of analytical work required for nutrient profiling and resource implications also make it difficult. Therefore, a strategy needs to be developed for establishing priorities in selecting food items for inclusion into the database (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003e).

In addition to considering the nutrient input of the foods, nutrient contribution of the food to energy intake should be focused first. Food items of public health significance also need to be addressed. In Bangladesh, micronutrient deficiency is a public health issue; deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, and iodine are acute problems (WFP: Micronutrient deficiencies in Bangladesh;
Country summary-Bangladesh). Zinc

deficiency is widespread; highly prevalent in children in

developing countries (Zinc Nutritive Initiative: http://www.zinc-crops.org/why_zinc.html). Bangladeshi children are also suffering from zinc deficiency (Nutrition Country Profiles: Bangladesh;
http://www.tulane.edu/~internut/ Countries/Bangladesh/bangladeshlxx.html).

Bangladesh currently exports

certain vegetables. Therefore, importance of food trade also needs to be taken into account in selection of key foods.

Food grouping is important in the selection of key foods. This ensures that the diet as a whole is considered and that the focus is not distorted by emphasizing one food group at the expense of the diet as a whole. Most food composition database have between 10 and 25 food groups, however, it is culturally dependent. It is to be noted that food group should

77

focus food intakes by population rather than food intake by individual (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003e).

The project proposition was to analyze 50 foods for their nutrient profile including proximate, vitamin C, carotenoids, carotene profile, B-vitamins, fatty acids, antinutrient phytate, and minerals. In compliance with the recommendation made at Rangamati workshop for inclusion of more ethnic tribal foods, the food list was increased to 75 and the nutrient profile was condensed to concomitantly in analysis of proximates, vitamin C, carotenoids, and carotene, antinutrient phytate and minerals for the 75 food items. In selecting this 75 key food, priority selection criteria were employed in which- food items consumed by 15% of households were included in the key food list; the ethnic foods consumed by >15% households but yet by a very minor group of ethnic population, were excluded; also foods containing less micronutrient (poor health significance, such as foods contain less or no -carotene) were excluded. The key food list which are consumed by both the general and ethnic, and food items consumed by only the ethnic are presented in tables 3.11 and 3.12. Because of the limitation to the number of food to be included, priority was given to focus the food groups in selecting the key foods so that the selected key foods represent a whole diet. The selected key foods included the most commonly and frequently consumed food groups such as- cereals, lentil, vegetables, fruits, fishes, eggs and meats.

78

Table 3.11: Key food list consumed by both the native general and ethnic people
Sl no

English name
CEREAL

Bengali name

Scientific name

Sl no

English name
Yellow saraca
ROOTS & TUBER

Bengali name
Maytraba

Scientific name
Saraca thaipingensis

Sl no

English name
Amla Melon (mix) Wood apple Palm (ripe) Pineapple (jaldogi) Monkey jack* Burmese grape* Wild Melon

Bengali name
Amloki Melon (mix) Bael Paka tal Anarosh Monkey jack* Burmese grape* Sindera* Roshko*

Scientific name
Emblica officinalis

26 Sidhoy chal Atap chal Vutta Dal Masur dal


Lens culinaris Oryza sativa Oryza sativa Zea mays

51 52

1 2 3

Rice parboiled (Brri-29) Rice sunned** Maize


PULSE

Bangi/futi
Aegle marmelos Borassus flabellifer Ananas comosus

27 28 29

Potato Sweet potato (red) Carrot

Gol Alu Misti alu Gazor

Solanum tuberosum Ipomoea batatas Daucus carota

53 54 55 56

Lentil (deshi)
LEAFY VEGETABLES

non-LEAFY VEGETABLES

Deuwa* Lotkon*
Cumis melo Syzygium balsameum Elaeocarpus angustifolius

30 Lalshak Data shak Lau shak Mula shak Sobuj kochu shak Pat shak Poi shak Palong sag Kalmi shak Thankuni Pata Dhane pata Pudina pata Karala pata* Sabarang* Amila pata* Lalam pata* Baruna Shak* Ojan shak* Ghanda batali* Orai balai Bat slai*
Amaranthus gangeticus Amaranthus dubius Lagenaria siceraria Raphanus sativus Colocasia esculenta Corchorus capsularis Basella alba Spinacia oleracea Ipomoea aquatica Centella asiatica Coriandrum sativum Mentha viridis Momordica charantia Ajuga macrosperma Hibiscus sabdariffa Premna obtusifolia Xanthoxylum rhetsa Spilanthes calva Paederia foetida Premna esculenta Portulaca oleracea

Egg plant Bitter Gourd Sweet pumpkin Kakrol Ladies finger Green papaya Folwal Green chilli Pea eggplant Solanum Sigon data Yam Banchalta Fekong
FRUITS

Begun Karola Misti kumra Kakrol Dherosh Kacha papay Potol Kacha marich Mistti begun* Tak begun* Sigon data* Pan/jhum alu* Banchalta* Fakong

Solanum melongena Momordica charantia Cucurbita maxima Momordica cochinchinensis Abelmoschus esculentus Carica papaya Trichosanthes dioica Capsicum frutescens Solanum spinosa Solanum virginianum Lasia spinosa Dioscorea pentaphylla Dillenia pentagyna Alpinia nigra

57 58 59 60

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Josephs Coat Spleen Amaranth Bottle Gourd Radish Coco-yam Jute Indian spinach Spinach Swamp Morning-glory Thankuni Coriander Spearmint Bitter gourd na Roselle na Indian Ivy-rue na na na Purslane ** raw

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

Bead tree
FISHES

kusumgulu*

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

Carp Tilapia Dragon Fish Sunfish Arguskala Taki fish Silver Carp Poa fish
EGGS

Ruhi Tilapia mach Pangash Mola mach Kachki mach Taki mach Silver Carp Poa mach

Labeo rohita Anabus testudineus Pangasius pangasius Mola mola Scatophagus argus Channa puncpatus Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Glassogobius giuris

69 Paka Am Kalojam Paka Kathal Lichu Paka kala Tormuz Paka pepey
Mangifera indica Syzygium cumini Artocarpus heterophyllus Lichi sinensis Musa sapientum Citrullus vulgaricus Carica papaya

Chicken egg (farm) Chicken egg Duck egg


MEAT
(deshi)

Murgir dim (f) Murgir dim (d) Hasher dim

Gallus bankiva murghi Gallus bankiva murghi Anas platyrhyncha

44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Mango ripe(deshi) Black berry (deshi) Jackfruit (ripe) Lichi (deshi)) Banana (ripe) Water melon Papaya (ripe)

70 71

72 73 74 75

Chiken (farm) Chiken (deshi) Beef Pork*

Farm murgi Desi murgi Garor mangsha Shukor

Gallus bankiva murghi Gallus bankiva murghi Beef cattle Pot bellied pig

*ethnic food

79

Table 3.12: Exclusive ethnic food list


English name
Leafy vegetables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Fruits 17 18 19 20 21 Meat 22 Pork Shukor
Pot bellied pig

Local name

Scientific name

Bitter gourd leaves


na Roselle na Indian Ivy-rue na na na Purslane Yellow saraca

Karala pata
Sabarang Amila pata Lalam pata Baruna Shak Ojan shak Ghanda batali Orai balai Bat slai Maytraba

Momordica charantia Ajuga macrosperma Hibiscus sabdariffa Premna obtusifolia Xanthoxylum rhetsa Spilanthes calva Paederia foetida Premna esculenta Portulaca oleracea Saraca thaipingensis

non-LEAFY VEGETABLES

Pea eggplant Solanum


na

Mistti begun

Solanum spinosa Solanum virginianum Lasia spinosa


Dioscorea pentaphylla

Tak begun Sigon data Pan/jhum alu Banchalta Fakong Deuwa Lotkon Sindera Roshko Kusumgulu

Yam
na na

Dillenia pentagyna Alpinianigra Artocarpus lakoocha Pirardia sapida Cumis melo


Syzygium balsameum Elaeocarpus angustifolius

Monkey jack
Burmese grape

Wild Melon
na

Bead tree

80

General key foods

Bael Lotokon Pui shak

Deuwa Kalmi shak non-Leafy vegetables

Pat shak Potato Black berry

81

Ethnic key food items

82

3.2 Collection of food sample Procedure for collection of food sample is important to get reliable representative nutrient values. Care should be taken to avoid risk of inadvertent moisture loss and deterioration of nutrients during transport from the collection point to the lab. The food samples that were collected from distant points such as field samples and ethnic foods were water sprayed to keep moisten, well packed in clean dark plastic poly bags to prevent water loss and damage by light, and then transported to lab within shortest time span. Some activities of ethnic food sampling are shown in following photographs.

Ethnic food collection

83

Ethnic food collection

Ethnic food collection

Ehtnic food collection

Ehtnic food sorting

84

Team member with DAE personnel

Ethnic food display

85

3.3 Nutrient Compositions of Key Foods Food composition database needs to be comprehensive. Its aim is to include food items that are most commonly consumed by mass population for maintenance of their health and nutrition. It is expected to be the primary source of nutritive information for food policy program planning, designing dietary guideline, therapeutic diet formulation, nutrition and agriculture research and training. By prioritizing the food items, the foods that provide important nutrients for human nutrition as well as foods of public health significance, are to be selected for analysis of nutrient profile and the analysis of every sample for its content of all the nutrients is not required (Haytowitz et al, 2000).

Analysis of a range of foods contributing nutrients to the diet of human nutrition and health is important. It is not truly possible, primarily, because a very large number of foods form the human diet. The volume of analytical works and resource implications for this work further make it impossible. Therefore, the strategy of prioritizing in

selecting food items and nutrients to be analysed has to be addressed properly.

In the present study, by prioritizing the consumption frequency and nutrient contribution to the diet, seventy five key foods were selected for analysis of nutrient profile, which contribute to human nutrition and which is of public health significance. The nutrient profile included proximate nutrients and nutrients of health significance such as vitamin C, carotenoids, -carotene, and minerals. The results of proximate nutrients and

micronutrients are presented in the tables 3.13 to 3.24. Foods, being biological materials, have variations in composition; therefore a database cannot accurately predict the composition of any single sample of a food. It is especially true for labile nutrients such as vitamin C, folates and carotenoids. As a result, FCD cannot be used as literatures for comparision with values obtained for the foods elsewhere. Nutrient values from one country are to be compared with values obtained in other countries by reference to the original literature. However, FCD can be used as

86

reference when the nutrient values are known to be based on original analytical values (Greenfield and Southgate, 2003a).

The present study has analysed 75 key foods for their nutrient profile comprising 23 components grouped as proximate nutrients, vitamins, minerals and antinutrient. The values obtained were reviewed and compared with the values reported in different food composition databases such as- Dhesio Kgadder Pustiman (Ahmed et al, 1977), HKI Food CompositionTable (FCT) (Darnton-Hill et al, 1988), Nutritive values of Indian Foods (IFCT: Indian Food Composition Tables; Gopalan et al, 2004), Thai FCT

(Puwastien et al, 1999) and with the values reported in literatures. It is to be noted that some of the nutrients which have been analysed and included in this database are missing or do not have in the other FCTs.

3.3.1 Proximate nutrients The principal proximate nutrients are protein, fat and carbohydrate. They are oxidized in the body to give energy. In addition to providing energy, the primary function of protein is to supply amino acids for building body proteins. Fats, besides being a concentrated source of energy, provide essential fatty acids having vitamin like function in the body. Water is an essential element, with which the proximate principles form the bulk of the diet. Dietary fibers are indigestible complex molecules, contribute to the bulk and have some important function in the digestive tract.

The values obtained for proximate nutrients were found to be very much consistent with those reported in other FCTs. For example, the protein values obtained in the present study for some key foods were almost similar to those reported in the IFCT, DKPM and Thai FCT (table 3.19). It is also consistent with literature data (Alam and Rahman:http://www.cepis.org.pe/bvsacd/arsenico/arsenic/zahangir.pdf). Such as protein

value was 6.96g/100g ep for BRRI-29 rice (table 3.13) which ranges 6.4-7.4g/100g ep in

87

IFCT, DKPM, Thai FCT. Somewhat similar outcomes were also obtained for other proximate values in most of the key foods analysed.

3.3.2 Water in key foods Water is an essential constituent in food composition database because water content is one of the most variable components, particularly in plant foods. This variability affects the composition of the food as a whole. The water content estimated in the key food items was shown to be very much matched with those reported in other FCTs. Such as moisture value in BRRI-29 rice is 12.14g/100 ep (table 3.13) which is almost same as reported in the IFCT (13.3g/100g ep) and Thai FCT (11.2g/100g ep). Moisture content in the other tested food items also has the comparable results.

3.3.3 Dietary fibre Dietary fiber is the indigestible portion of plant foods. It has a number of physiological functions and benefits including reduced appetite, lower variance in blood sugar levels, reduced risks of heart disease, metabolic syndromes, diabetes, colorectal cancer and constipation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dietary_fiber). It also facilitates and improves absorption of minerals. Therefore, information on dietary fiber content in plant foods is important. This study has estimated dietary fiber content in a number of key foods. Most of the values were consistent with the reported data; such as dietary fiber contents in Amaranth leaves, Spinach leaves, Coriander leaves, Mint leaves, Carrot and Pumpkin (table 3.23) were almost equivalent to those reported in IFCT and literatures (http://www.dietary-fiber.info/; Punna et al, 2004).

3.3.4 Antinutrient-Phytate content Phytic acid is a common constituent of many plant foods. It is a phytonutrient and has antioxidant effect. Phytic acid, by binding with minerals, inhibits their absorption and consequently induces mineral deficiencies to people who consume diet containing high

88

phytate. Phytic acid as antioxidant is effective in prevention of colon cancer


(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phytic_acid).

In the present work, phytic acid content has been estimated for 35 key food items. The data were compared with IFCT and also with literature value. It was indicated that some values were matched with either IFCT or literature value and some did not. Such as phytic acid content in Maize and Lentil were estimated to be 959.85 and 516.12mg/100g ep (table 3.24) respectively which are almost same as reported elsewhere (Hidvegi and Lasztity, 2002; Dost and Tokul, 2006) for the same foods. Phytic acid level estimated for vegetables was also somewhat within the range as reported by Udosen and Ukpanah (1993). Potato contained approximately same amount of phytic acid (16.36 vs 14.00mg/100g ep) as reported in IFCT.

3.3.5 Vitamins and minerals in key foods Vitamins assist the enzymes that release energy from carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Minerals are used for shaping of body structure and skeleton. They enhance the

immune system, support normal growth and development, and help cells and organs to their functions. Vitamins and minerals are widely available from the natural foods we eat.

Vitamin content Vitamins analysed in the key food items included carotenoid, vitamin C and betacarotene. There was a fairly good variation in the values obtained in this study as compared to the other FCTs, but some of the values were found almost consistent. For examples- carotenoid values for Sabuj Kochu Sak, Corriendar leaves, Mula Sak and Mango (ripe) obtained in this study were estimated 8.35, 6.83, 4.22 and 2.56mg/100g ep (table 3.14, 3.17) against the values 10.278, 6.918, 5.295 and 2.743mg/100g ep respectively in the IFCT. Similarly the vitamin C values for Sweet potato, Black berry and Amla in the present study was found to be 23.92, 65.58 and 434.05mg/100g ep

89

respectively (table 3.17) while the values for the same foods were 24.00, 60.00 and 600mg/100g ep respectively in the IFCT. There was a wide variation in beta-carotene value as compared to other FCTs. However, a few food items tested was found to have a value of little variation as compared to IFCT value, such as the betacarotene content in Sobuj kochu shak was 7146.59g/100g ep (table 3.23) as against a value 5920g/100g ed in the IFCT.
,

Mineral content Minerals are indispensable for normal life processes. They are required for metabolic activities which are critical for cell differentiation and replication. Minerals, particularly the trace elements, are essential to form endogenous antioxidant enzymes that are required for endogenous antioxidant activity and immune modulation (Percival, 1998; Shankar and Prasad, 1998). A total of nine minerals copper, zinc, iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorous were estimated in this study. Attempt has been made to compare the values of these minerals with the data reported in other FCTs and literatures. Some values are found to be consistent and some are inconsistent. It is noted that most of the mineral content in rice, maize and lentil were found almost matched with the data of IFCT and to some extent with Thai values. Calcium,

magnesium and phosphorous; and iron and manganes values for rice obtained in this study were 12.75, 42.72 and 125.96 mg/100g ep and 990 and 612.45 g/100g ed (table 3.14, 3.15) while these values are 9.0, 61.00 and 143mg/100g ep; and 1000.00 and 660 g/100g ep respectively for the same foods in the IFCT. Similarly, copper value for maize; calcium, magnesium. phosphorous, iron and manganese values for lentil were also nearly consistent with IFCT values. In case of vegetables, copper value for Dheros and Mistikumra; zinc value for Mistikumra, Carrot and Bael; iron value for Palong sak, Begun, Potato, Sweet potato were almost same as compared to the IFCT value for these foods.

90

Table 3.13: Proximate nutrient composition of cereals and leafy vegetables


Sl. No.

English name

Bengali/Local name

Scientific name

Moisture

Protein

Fat FA g/100g edible portion 0.310.00 0.430.00 2.890.13 0.730.01 0.190.02 0.300.02 0.220.01 0.25.02 0.410.02 0.630.02 0.220.01 0.210.04 0.320.04 0.850.01 0.230.05 0.420.03 0.150.00 1.290.08 1.530.10 1.300.06 1.820.08 1.080.11 2.840.01 2.440.01 0.660.02 2.790.08 0.26 0.37 1.94 0.7 0.15 0.24 0.18 0.2 0.33 0.50 0.18 0.17 0.26 0.68 0.18 0.34 0.12 1.03 1.22 1.04 1.46 0.86 2.27 1.95 0.53 2.23

CF

Ash

CHO

Energy Kcal/100g 349.63 347.29 357.90 344.85 28.67 28.66 16.38 12.97 33.25 60.35 19.62 29.93 26.00 66.49 32.55 43.10 25.19 40.13 37.61 42.98 80.46 36.36 61.92 69.92 24.54 78.43

CEREALS 1 Rice parboiled (Brri-29) 2 Rice sunned* 3 Maize PULSE 4 Lentil (deshi) LEAFY VEGETABLES 5 Josephs Coat 6 Spleen Amaranth 7 Bottle Gourd 8 Radish 9 Coco-yam 10 Jute 11 Indian spinach 12 Spinach 13 Swamp morning-glory 14 Thankuni 15 Corriander 16 Spearmint 17 Bitter gourd 18 na 19 Roselle 20 na 21 Indian Ivy-rue 22 na 23 na 24 na 25 Purslane 26 Yellow saraca
*ethnic na: not available

Sidhoy chal Atap chal Vutta Masur dal Lalshak Data shak Lau shak Mula shak Sobuj kochu shak Pat shak Poi shak Palong shag Kalmi shak Thankuni Pata Dhane pata Pudina pata Karola pata* Sabarang* Amila pata* Lalam pata* Baruna Shak* Ojan shak* Ghanda batali* Orai balai Bat slai* Maytraba

Oryza sativa Oryza sativa Zea mays Lens culinaris


Amaranthus gangeticus

12.140.03 12.980.13 11.180.02 11.380.13 90.750.11 91.400.22 92.820.30 95.330.86 89.290.40 85.700.07 93.840.02 89.930.07 92.320.12 81.840.06 88.990.33 87.160.49 91.570.14 88.630.24 90.560.21 86.910.08 77.700.39 89.030.08 82.870.52 78.811.16 91.680.34 78.721.12

6.960.08 7.740.04 10.990.11 23.910.13 2.390.58 2.360.55 2.580.70 1.820.23 2.450.92 5.20.95 1.50.65 2.261.11 1.990.80 2.31.30 3.041.00 3.071.02 2.130.11 2.570.06 2.860.02 3.380.08 3.170.06 3.100.03 2.900.02 4.220.03 1.95 0.03 7.80 0.12

0.240.00 0.260.00 2.530.03 0.690.02 0.9 0.02 0.880.01 1.170.02 0.620.01 0.770.03 1.360.52 0.540.03 0.730.01 0.950.01 0.900.02 0.990.03 1.360.02 0.620.01 1.250.06 1.200.03 1.790.06 2.510.09 1.310.05 3.410.10 3.710.05 0.890.04 2.700.06

0.600.01 0.540.01 1.380.03 2.630.01 1.42 0.1 0.930.04 2.190.12 1.120.22 2.140.16 2.310.05 0.990.04 2.120.06 0.630.10 1.700.17 2.170.18 1.230.11 1.700.09 1.70.05 0.750.04 2.180.06 1.950.06 1.920.06 1.790.07 3.050.23 2.120.06 2.460.11

79.75 78.11 71.98 60.66 4.35 4.13 1.02 0.85 4.94 8.47 2.91 4.75 3.79 12.41 4.58 6.76 3.83 4.56 3.10 5.44 12.85 3.56 6.19 7.77 2.70 5.53

Amaranthus dubius Lagenaria siceraria Raphanus sativus Colocasia esculenta Corchorus capsularis Basella alba Spinacia oleracea Ipomoea aquatica Centella asiatica Coriandrum sativum Mentha viridis Momordica charantia Ajuga macrosperma Hibiscus sabdariffa Premna obtusifolia Xanthoxylum rhetsa Spilanthes calva Paederia foetida Premna esculenta Portulaca oleracea Saraca thaipingensis

91

Table 3.14: Vitamin C, carotenoids and micromineral composition of cereals and leafy vegetables
Sl.N o. English name Bengali/Local name Scientific name Vitamin C Carotenoids Copper Zinc Iron Manganese

g/100g edible portion CEREALS 1 Rice parboiled (Brri-29) 2 Rice sunned* 3 Maize PULSE 4 Lentil (deshi) LEAFY VEGETABLES 5 Josephs Coat 6 Spleen Amaranth 7 Bottle Gourd 8 Radish 9 Coco-yam 10 Jute 11 Indian spinach 12 Spinach 13 Swamp morning-glory 14 Thankuni 15 Corriander 16 Spearmint 17 Bitter gourd 18 na 19 Roselle 20 na 21 Indian Ivy-rue 22 na 23 na 24 na 25 Purslane 26 Yellow saraca Sidhoy chal Atap chal Vutta Masur dal Lalshak Data shak Lau shak Mula shak Sobuj kochu shak Pat shak Poi shak Palong shag Kalmi shak Thankuni Pata Dhane pata Pudina pata Karola pata* Sabarang* Amila pata* Lalam pata* Baruna Shak* Ojan shak* Ghanda batali* Orai balai Bat slai* Maytraba Oryza sativa Oryza sativa Zea mays Lens culinaris
Amaranthus gangeticus

nd nd nd nd 22.550.35 26.325.68 22.21.78 68.850.73 60.095.20 54.431.27 55.593.95 22.442.93 41.834.90 37.771.68 76.564.47 57.035.60 107.903.40 12.920.03 16.080.37 18.860.09 38.041.81 15.110.02 7.360.02 22.942.82 3.240.05 92.60.00

nd nd nd nd 4.310.03 4.450.78 3.050.02 4.220.16 8.350.10 9.140.14 8.170.06 4.350.07 5.660.10 7.470.21 6.830.03 7.610.02 10.470.49 5.970.15 4.410.08 3.030.13 6.110.27 4.610.38 6.990.10 4.450.78 2.240.14 13.181.15

510.0017.13 490.1311.31 430.2113.99


1620.9180.12

310.3119.72 740.4910.17 400.9027.90 6040.7199.8 1128.581.82 977.312.99 659.50.93 457.852.98 684.491.20 1469.271.0 431.331.18 512.012.00 767.462.68 2431.941.97 1585.95.01 1760.840.03 865.952.99 522.620.47 513.310.31 1554.670.00 312.45 0.05 461.030.03 135.590.01 1818.190.09 414.940.04 1006.290.21

99010 91010 131020


6130.5350.29

612.4519.23
592.2731.79

552.9718.31 987.8337.19 4995.374.72


4205.9310.04

Amaranthus dubius Lagenaria siceraria Raphanus sativus Colocasia esculenta Corchorus capsularis Basella alba Spinacia oleracea Ipomoea aquatica Centella asiatica Coriandrum sativum Mentha viridis Momordica charantia Ajuga macrosperma Hibiscus sabdariffa Premna obtusifolia Xanthoxylum rhetsa Spilanthes calva Paederia foetida Premna esculenta Portulaca oleracea Saraca thaipingensis

444.0311.01 87.551.13 157.712.92 89.341.27 226.743.85 20.991.00 49.291.91 60.242.05 2010.740.14 508.172.02 1233.482.01 183.972.00 66.452.13 1159.090.01 1026.610.41 1396.570.50 312.530.52 351.260.00 305.020.01 253.690.58 215.770.01 251.570.01

2368.182.02 2897.032.97 2107.532.02 904.521.00 1005.350.01 9715.142.00 985.832.00 1566.263.86 1089.790.96 3702.362.56 4977.973.00 3968.462.02 1348.882.01 2818.180.00 3954.370.00 3847.170.88 4375.000.01
2634.47 0.40

243.734.12 89.342.16 1155.084.00 1619.191.00 739.370.82 1430.722.11 414.431.99 2250.451.40 462.568.08 289.092.00 99.925.97 1659.090.00 2737.640.73 4295.130.88
12946.430.02

3423.731.00 3551.790.80 2721.990.00 1425.580.43

2678.380.06 4779.660.29 175.480.21 2356.860.09 1299.790.11

nd: not done na: not available *ethnic

92

Table 3.15: Macromineral composition of cereals and leafy vegetables


Sl.No. English name Bengali/Local name Scientific name Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium mg/100gm edible portion 42.720.81 43.291.38 176.765.22 104.161.82 27.940.95 25.741.87 18.491.20 14.131.00 26.10.91 41.830.85 19.11.01 22.360.84 16.420.81 50.091.00 28.190.92 33.250.86 22.90.99 0.00.00 0.490.00 0.000.0 0.00.00 0.000.00 0.070.00 0.130.00 8.300.00 2.640.01 10.970.01 5.430.01 13.790.08 33.150.05 83.26.01 78.530.94 35.841.16 83.751.04 53.480.99 59.970.99 104.741.03 248.491.10 107.441.06 199.641.02 121.150.99 78.841.00 66.610.86 0.400.02 0.310.02 0.450.03 0.670.02 0.460.02 0.510.04 0.880.04 0.500.02 0.710.04 109.890.06 108.620.17 248.41.58 561.180.08 277.521.01 261.780.93 222.221.01 223.340.85 374.331.09 224.890.99 110.911.07 173.191.33 207.210.77 508.170.99 396.480.90 354.80.90 258.120.98 268.181.00 144.500.50 376.810.00 348.210.20 338.080.01 298.310.31 600.420.43 285.470.70 469.600.59 Phosphorous

CEREALS 1 Rice parboiled (Brri-29) 2 Rice sunned* 3 Maize PULSE 4 Lentil (deshi) LEAFY VEGETABLES 5 Josephs Coat 6 Spleen Amaranth 7 Bottle Gourd 8 Radish 9 Coco-yam 10 Jute 11 Indian spinach 12 Spinach 13 Swamp morning-glory 14 Thankuni 15 Corriander 16 Spearmint 17 Bitter gourd 18 na 19 Roselle 20 na 21 Indian Ivy-rue 22 na 23 na 24 na 25 Purslane 26 Yellow saraca
na: not available *ethnic

Sidhoy chal Atap chal Vutta Masur dal Lalshak Data shak Lau shak Mula shak Sobuj kochu shak Pat shak Poi shak Palong sag Kalmi shak Thankuni Pata Dhane pata Pudina pata Karala pata* Sabarang* Amila pata* Lalam pata* Baruna Shak* Ojan shak* Ghanda batali* Orai balai Bat slai* Maytraba

Oryza sativa Oryza sativa Zea mays Lens culinaris


Amaranthus gangeticus

12.750.61 11.670.38 21.530.56 66.122.47 90.750.01 104.890.01 85.661.96 83.921.93 77.751.90 132.981.99 55.140 .92 47.651.90 34.081.99 147.371.89 113.331.80 110.120.98 170.941.99 49.340.01 30.570.50 35.840.05 84.820.10 26.230.19 64.510.00 54.410.01 20.280.20 39.830.19

125.960.4 140.676.69 281.991.92 313.263.44 41.631.01 34.90.91 26.890.91 22.330.95 42.780.81 59.970.97 18.480.91 24.471.04 36.451.10 45.370.90 30.290.90 36.140.96 22.90.91 52.271.0 38.020.00 44.790.00 44.790.26 50.580.44 40.850.17 43.651.37 24.341.11 109.940.93

Amaranthus dubius Lagenaria siceraria Raphanus sativus Colocasia esculenta Corchorus capsularis Basella alba Spinacia oleracea Ipomoea aquatica Centella asiatica Coriandrum sativum Mentha viridis Momordica charantia Ajuga macrosperma Hibiscus sabdariffa Premna obtusifolia Xanthoxylum rhetsa Spilanthes calva Paederia foetida Premna esculenta Portulaca oleracea Saraca thaipingensis

93

Table 3.16: Proximate composition of roots & tuber, non-leafy vegetables and fruits
Sl.no English name Bengali/Local name Scientific name Moisture Protein Fat FA g/100g edible portion 0.620.01 0.290.01 1.000.03 0.050.00 0.070.01 0.080.00 0.100.00 0.190.02 0.050.00 0.07 0.00 0.830.04 2.130.21 5.270.35 0.320.01 1.170.13 0.630.01 0.270.01 0.630.07 0.270.02 0.140.02 0.930.07 0.360.05 0.200.00 0.140.01 0.120.01 0.210.00 2.560.07 0.420.03 0.580.02 8.730.16 2.490.10 0.520.05 1.540.01 0.940.13 0.5 0.23 0.8 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.15 0.04 0.06 0.66 1.70 4.22 0.26 0.14 0.51 0.22 0.50 0.22 0.11 0.74 0.29 0.16 0.11 0.10 0.17 2.05 0.34 0.46 6.70 1.99 0.42 1.23 0.75 CF Ash CHO Energy Kcal/100g 80.02 133.93 41.32 19.05 16.59 23.48 31.98 23.31 17.01 23.03 40.71 51.61 76.43 11.56 125.21 34.59 6.63 51.47 51.55 83.70 67.21 98.64 27.32 31.06 62.40 19.29 159.16 159.16 56.54 180.45 31.41 13.76 48.62 27.90

ROOTS & TUBER 27 Potato 28 Sweet potato (red) 29 Carrot NON-LEAFY VEGETABLES 0 Egg plant 31 Bitter Gourd 32 Sweet pumpkin 33 Kakrol 34 Ladies finger 35 Green papaya 36 Folwal 37 Green chilli 38 Pea eggplant 39 Solanum 40 Sigon data 41 Yam 42 Banchalta 43 Fekong FRUITS 44 Mango ripe (deshi) 45 Black berry (deshi) 46 Jackfruit (ripe) 47 Lichi (deshi)) 48 Banana (ripe) 49 Water melon 50 Papaya (ripe) 51 Amla 52 Melon (mix) 53 Wood apple 54 Palm (ripe) 55 Pineapple (jaldogi) 56 Monkey jack* 57 Burmese grape* 58 Wild Melon 59 na 60 Bead tree na: not available *ethnic

Gol Alu Misti alu Gazor Begun Karola Misti kumra Kakrol Dherosh Kacha papay Potol Kacha marich Mistti begun* Tak begun* Sigon data* Pan/jhum alu* Banchalta* Fakong Paka Am Kalojam Paka Kathal Lichu Paka kala Tormuz Paka papay Amloki Bangi/futi Bael Paka tal Anarosh Deuwa* Lotkon* Sindera* Roshko* kusumgulu*

Solanum tuberosum Ipomoes batatas Daucus carota Solanum melongena Momordica charantia Cucurbita maxima
Momordica cochinchinensis

79.650.15 65.050.07 89.670.40 93.420.05 93.910.39 93.330.04 89.330.58 92.650.08 93.850.03 92.890.14 84.830.18 84.430.40 78.940.16 96.090.25 66.050.59 89.580.30 97.000.11 86.840.28 86.320.04 77.880.53 83.700.36 74.560.38 92.970.47 91.140.58 82.520.12 95.020.33 61.860.55 81.210.11 85.080.18 60.740.75 90.54 0.49 95.880.11 87.120.25 92.510.08

2.070.03 1.170.03 0.810.03 1.210.81 1.110.54 0.590.03 1.470.22 1.310.22 0.600.20 1.310.02 2.860.95 2.450.03 2.700.03 0.660.02 2.690.04 2.120.03 0.440.02 0.610.20 0.620.07 1.530.07 1.260.09 1.310.07 0.730.09 0.610.10 0.600.19 0.190.06 3.550.06 0.660.08 0.610.10 1.970.01 1.610.20 0.360.03 0.700.03 0.950.03

0.360.01 0.780.01 0.570.02 0.740.01 1.160.07 0.230.06 1.550.04 0.570.00 0.640.01 1.440.02 4.90.14 4.210.07 6.970.06 0.590.05 1.720.05 1.220.06 0.890.04 0.730.85 1.080.06 0.580.12 0.660.20 0.260.02 0.090.03 0.740.03 0.850.00 0.170.45 1.330.01 0.970.07 1.060.02 3.630.06 4.20.18 0.790.03 1.320.07 0.880.09

0.760.01 1.050.02 0.920.09 1.140.09 0.87 0.02 0.670.07 1.250.02 1.190.06 1.320.02 0.580.02 1.130.16 1.120.04 1.570.03 0.830.02 1.140.11 1.340.10 0.790.03 0.350.04 1.050.20 0.790.03 0.80.06 0.970.05 0.360.01 0.530.04 1.180.10 0.250.03 0.220.05 0.920.03 0.450.01 0.980.12 0.520.06 0.540.02 1.330.08 0.810.03

16.54 31.66 10.33 3.44 2.88 5.10 6.30 4.09 3.54 4.29 5.45 5.66 4.55 1.51 28.23 5.11 0.61 10.84 11.66 19.08 13.45 22.54 5.65 6.84 14.73 4.16 30.48 30.48 12.22 24.31 0.64 1.91 7.99 3.91

Abelmoschus esculentus Carica papaya Trichosanthes dioica Capsicum frutescens Solanum spinosa Solanum virginianum Lasia spinosa Dioscorea pentaphylla Dillenia pentagyna Alpinia nigra Mangifera indica Syzygium cumini Artocarpus heterophyllus Lichi sinensis Musa sapientum Citrullus vulgaricus Carica papaya Emblica officinalis Cucumus melo Aegle marmelos Borassus flabellifer Ananas comosus Artocarpus lakoocha Pirardia sapida Cumis melo Syzygium balsameum Elaeocarpus angustifolius

94

Table 3.17: Vitamin C, carotenoids and micromineral composition of roots & tuber, non-leafy vegetables
Sl.No. English name Bengali/Local name Scientific name Vitamin C Carotenoids mg/100g edible 8.800.84 23.923.09 11.170.76 6.660.58 136.3910.46 12.120.41 119.067.01 10.181.10 13.740.42 44.181.81 101.012.22 6.990.30 16.660.105 2.630.06 19.250.24 31.161.11 3.240.07 10.881.20 65.587.04 11.080.50 0.070.00 15.654.21 3.840.65 7.482.65 434.0527.31 3.651.33 15.672.12 35.130.21 27.823.20 11.681.65 12.05 1.60 9.950.23 13.120.07 6.080.23 nd 0.250.02 8.560.49 nd 1.790.03 3.810.13 0.270.06 0.380.03 nd nd 1.010.06 3.620.18 4.580.24 0.950.01 0.480.01 15.170.04 0.130.01 2.560.26 0.390.11 0.710.13 0.070.00 nd 4.200.22 2.330.27 nd 0.800.13 0.150.01 3.570.09 0.710.02 4.130.46 0.120.01 1.840.04 1.190.04 0.260.01 Copper Zinc Iron g/100g edible portion 790.0010.00 170.0030.00 327.390.05 197.243.00 388.350.15 306.873.97 476.194.01 430.592.01 258.142.00 239.441.22 1190.840.09 122.140.01 302.380.32 224.560.50 338.980.02 575.080.89 131.300.71 543.311.81 1090.520.30 566.452.95 522.883.02 714.291.19 176.433.66 2933.332.00 734.271.15 62.713.94 432.812.03 413.531.96 601.482.31 3980.890.04 903.232.00 32.870.02 0.130.01 403.890.01 400.000.00 250.000.00 638.5620.33 289.280.90 400.495.00 400.272.02 538.32.00 282.113.01 417.953.01 309.861.01 4488.552.00 213.740.29 1857.450.00 196.490.00 1084.75 0.00 660.280.28 537.150.06 1312.342.61 1758.141.96 915.033.00 1013.072.00 1122.452.95 498.321.82 145.781.00 1153.852.00 245.760.10 2233.862.00 1240.610.00 160010.00 5254.781.00 1488.831.93 156.120.00 0.260.01 1780.100.10 Manganese ROOTS & TUBER 27 Potato Gol Alu 28 Sweet potato (red) Misti alu 29 Carrot Gazor NON-LEAFY VEGETABLES 30 Egg plant Begun 31 Bitter Gourd Karola 32 Sweet pumpkin Misti kumra 33 Kakrol Kakrol 34 Ladies finger Dherosh 35 Green papaya Kacha papay 36 Folwal Potol 37 Green chilli Kacha marich 38 Pea eggplant Mistti begun* 39 Solanum Tak begun* 40 Sigon data Sigon data* 41 Yam Pan/jhum alu* 42 Banchalta Banchalta* 43 Fekong Fakong FRUITS 44 Mango ripe(deshi) Paka Am 45 Black berry (deshi) Kalojam 46 Jackfruit (ripe) Paka Kathal 47 Lichi (deshi)) Lichu 48 Banana (ripe) Paka kala 49 Water melon Tormuz 50 Papaya (ripe) Paka papay 51 Amla Amloki 52 Melon (mix) Bangi/futi 53 Wood apple Bael 54 Palm (ripe) Paka tal 55 Pineapple (jaldogi) Anarosh 56 Monkey jack* Deuwa* 57 Burmese grape* Lotkon* 58 Wild Melon Sindera* 59 na Roshko* 60 Bead tree kusumgulu* nd: not done na: not available *ethnic

Solanum tuberosum Ipomoea batatas Daucus carota Solanum melongena Momordica charantia Cucurbita maxima
Momordica cochinchinensis

290.0010.00 100.0020.00 53.720.98 184.091.01 182.041.99 40.031.00 2401.664.00 103.932.00 24.591.00 70.391.00 1832.063.01 305.350.01 345.570.50 91.220.20 1152.540.43 447.280.01 89.530.01 173.232.03 116.422.00 30.51.00 251.632.16 45.922.00 80.813.02 1431.112.00 8146.850.95 61.873.00 2031.412.01 4172.933.02 2405.00 796.181.01 248.141.98 32.860.37 128.580.56 344.050.01

10.43 1.05 12.312.51 3.82 0.84 65.75 1.8 254.85 6.07 0.13 0.01 62.11 2.08 29.7 2.04 9.83 1.86 84.511.31 183.21 2.04 549.62 0.02 734.34 0.33 1340.35 0.35 610.17 0.17 1853.04 0.00 1020.60 0.01 577.43 0.96 147.3 1.95 261.44 4.21 88.353.16 204.08 0.99 78.11 2.20 186.673.98 104.9 2.00 177.97 2.99 202.44 2.08 150.374.23 671.164.69 549.36 0.73 1091.81 9.97 49.30 0.29 154.04 0.00 299.18 0.09

Abelmoschus esculentus

Carica papaya Trichosanthes dioica Capsicum frutescens Solanum spinosa Solanum virginianum Lasia spinosa Dioscorea pentaphylla Dillenia pentagyna Alpinia nigra Mangifera indica Syzygium cumini
Artocarpus heterophyllus

Lichi sinensis Musa sapientum Citrullus vulgaricus Carica papaya Emblica officinalis Cucumus melo Aegle marmelos Borassus flabellifer Ananas comosus Artocarpus lakoocha Pirardia sapida Cumis melo Syzygium balsameum
Elaeocarpus angustifolius

95

Table 3.18: Macromineral composition of roots and tuber and non-leafy vegetables
Sl.No. English name Bengali/Local name Scientific name Calcium Magnesium Sodium Potassium mg/100gm edible portion 41.961.22 33.592.03 5.030.00 11.510.95 14.320.98 3.540.86 19.570.98 19.670.79 13.091.00 151.00 27.940..95 0.650.02 4.490.40 0.490.00 17.09 0.01 0.640.29 0330.00 6.691.01 11.991.00 26.80.89 5.151.10 26.280.90 4.011.73 6.621.02 8.080.99 1.020.02 16.581.27 13.911.02 122.00 23.690.90 11.290.95 1.130.09 5.960.09 2.690.00 10.420.03 10.850.03 68.260.01 32.871.10 36.411.99 26.680.95 51.761.11 37.121.00 43.021.01 28.171.02 76.341.00 0.40 0.03 0.52 0.04 0.20 0.03 0.780.04 0.470.02 0.210.02 2.790.52 50.573.14 87.151.05 119.215.83 102.041.01 31.943.68 11.850.93 69.935.95 2.860.67 6.920.53 93.981.01 41.812.97 79.176.11 7.211.07 0.180.01 0.390.03 0.310.03 403.610.41 304.00.82 87.463.27 157.791.16 182.041.00 120.080.94 186.340.83 178.171.00 129.071.02 147.890.90 274.811.06 277.86 0.10 336.96 0.00 147.32 0.32 352.54 0.0 287.54 0.45 134.890.00 98.481.00 106.911.01 305.011.00 134.81.00 255.11.00 58.920.94 133.331.00 174.831.05 27.541.11 427.571.19 375.941.05 122.221.00 348.331.01 198.511.00 66.74 0.00 256.74 0.22 109.20 0.00 Phosphorous

ROOTS & TUBER 27 Potato Gol Alu 28 Sweet potato (red) Misti alu 29 Carrot Gazor NON-LEAFY VEGETABLES 30 Egg plant Begun 31 Bitter Gourd Karola 32 Sweet pumpkin Misti kumra 33 Kakrol Kakrol 34 Ladies finger Dherosh 35 Green papaya Kacha papay 36 Folwal Potol 37 Green chilli Kacha marich 38 Pea eggplant Mistti begun* 39 Solanum Tak begun* 40 Sigon data Sigon data* 41 Yam Pan/jhum alu* 42 Banchalta Banchalta* 43 Fekong Fakong FRUITS 44 Mango ripe (deshi) Paka Am 45 Black berry (deshi) Kalojam 46 Jackfruit (ripe) Paka Kathal 47 Lichi (deshi)) Lichu 48 Banana (ripe) Paka kala 49 Water melon Tormuz 50 Papaya (ripe) Paka papay 51 Amla Amloki 52 Melon (mix) Bangi/futi 53 Wood apple Bael 54 Palm (ripe) Paka tal 55 Pineapple (jaldogi) Anarosh 56 Monkey jack* Deuwa* 57 Burmese grape* Lotkon* 58 Wild Melon Sindera* 59 na Roshko* 60 Bead tree kusumgulu* nd: not done na: not available *ethnic

Solanum tuberosum Ipomoes batatas Daucus carota Solanum melongena Momordica charantia Cucurbita maxima
Momordica cochinchinensis

9.380.68 47.093.44 0.230.00 7.23 2.07 10.921.93 13.742.92 9.831.84 45.951.96 17.761.90 17.321.98 12.212.09 26.810.21 19.270.75 1.640.29 1.890.40 15.980.00 1.480.08 16.081.99 26.731.84 12.641.84 20.830.97 6.382.69 13.470.97 15.111.93 13.811.85 6.461.00 70.680.98 7.890.01 24.820.94 66.682.01 52.112.07 4.270.25 8.190.01 0.170.01

43.30.14 38.20.14 1.100.25 19.72 0.74 19.720.90 13.340.91 25.880.89 27.840.86 15.371.07 17.610.89 38.171.86 63.051.98 69.830.71 19.480.53 34.901.00 40.720.26 19.221.32 7.740.82 11.640.86 10.890.90 15.770.89 19.131.00 6.361.02 11.020.98 13.110.99 1.460.60 23.041.03 14.10.99 6.820.88 22.690.94 17.120.99 28.161.86 39.531.01 14.661.19

Abelmoschus esculentus Carica papaya Trichosanthes dioica Capsicum frutescens Solanum spinosa Solanum virginianum Lasia spinosa Dioscorea pentaphylla Dillenia pentagyna Alpinia nigra Mangifera indica Syzygium cumini Artocarpus heterophyllus Lichi sinensis Musa sapientum Citrullus vulgaricus Carica papaya Emblica officinalis Cucumus melo Aegle marmelos Borassus flabellifer Ananas comosus Artocarpus lakoocha Pirardia sapida Cumis melo Syzygium balsameum
Elaeocarpus angustifolius

96

Table 3.19: Proximate composition of fish, egg and meat


Sl.No. FISHES 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 EGGS 69 70 71 MEATS 72 73 74 75
*ethnic

English name

Bengali/Local name

Scientific name

Moisture

Protein

Fat FA g/100g edible portion 5.070.10 5.110.08 11.950.21 6.390.04 2.130.06 1.470.02 6.100.12 3.460.08 11.370.10 11.600.07 15.870.29 5.650.36 3.050.51 8.640.12 38.720.80 3.55 3.58 8.37 4.47 1.49 1.03 4.27 2.42 9.44 9.63 13.17 5.34 2.88 8.16 36.05

Ash

CHO

Energy Kcal/100g 120.55 127.51 170.23 120.35 83.37 86.11 126.62 104.50 153.73 153.52 205.79 125.29 112.69 136.40 401.76

Carp Tilapia Dragon Fish Sunfish Arguskala Taki fish Silver Carp Poa fish Chicken egg (farm) Chicken egg (deshi) Duck egg Chiken (farm) Chiken (deshi) Beef Pork*

Ruhi Tilapia mach Pangash Mola mach Kachki mach Taki mach Silver Carp Poa mach Murgir dim (farm) Murgir dim (deshi) Hasher dim Farm murgi Desi murgi Garor mangsha Shukor

Labeo rohita Anabus testudineus Pangasius pangasius Mola mola


Scatophagus argus argus

Channa puncpatus
Hypophthalmichthys nobilis

Glassogobius giuris Gallus bankiva murghi Gallus bankiva murghi Anas platyrhyncha Gallus bankiva murghi Gallus bankiva murghi Beef cattle Pot bellied pig

75.630.67 73.920.48 71.911.64 76.290.49 80.730.10 79.710.05 75.450.20 77.690.43 75.780.50 76.121.92 68.390.19 74.611.88 74.920.62 75.670.53 47.960.73

15.600.38 16.870.30 13.710.10 12.960.13 12.990.07 17.180.93 14.590.17 15.520.26 12.070.19 11.330.15 15.470.37 16.290.34 15.610.43 12.490.25 11.490.30

0.570.06 0.590.01 0.470.01 1.610.06 1.090.08 0.600.02 0.520.03 0.510.02 0.770.03 0.890.03 0.950.06 1.13 0.03 0.72 0.01 1.03 0.05 1.590.09

3.13 3.51 1.96 2.75 3.06 1.04 3.34 2.82 0.78 0.95 0.27 2.32 5.70 2.17 1.83

97

Table 3.20: Micromineral composition of fish, egg and meat


Sl no. English name Bengali/Local name Scientific name Copper Zinc Iron Manganese

g/100g edible portion FISHES 61 Carp 62 Tilapia 63 Dragon Fish 64 Sunfish 65 Arguskala 66 Taki fish 67 Silver Carp 68 Poa fish EGGS 69 Chicken (farm) 70 Chicken (deshi) 71 Duck egg MEAT 72 Chiken (farm) 73 Chiken (deshi) 74 Beef 75 Pork*
*ethnic

Ruhi Tilapia mach Pangash Mola mach Kachki mach Taki mach Silver Carp Poa mach Murgir dim (farm) Murgir dim (deshi) Hasher dim Farm murgi Desi murgi Garor mangsha Shukor

Labeo rohita Anabus testudineus Pangasius pangasius Mola mola Scatophagus argus argus Channa puncpatus Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Glassogobius giuris Gallus bankiva murghi Gallus bankiva murghi Anas platyrhyncha Gallus bankiva murghi Gallus bankiva murghi Beef cattle Pot bellied pig

1853.660.35 1566 .580.63 1517.860.92 2508.310.31 1838.382.56 1804.880.12 1679.460.50 2584.270.23 1980.580.99 2383.421.02 3411.18 1.09 2126.580.61 2436.553.45 2776.701.13 5738.220.07

1110.7367.62 1403.19144.17 646.23183.67 3431.6368.42 3108.3149.86 757.16112.10 903.66186.90 1188.3112.66 1171.450.35 2034.18358.18 1405.571.55 1292.2569.77 1572.2069.96 1839.81267.22 2380.67144.21

1376.1575.47 1311.5877.01 1277.92107.33 1338.5712.05 1064.4566.34 1173.218.18 1163.18175.76 1576.9276.80 1539.178.09 1653.9846.18 2159.024.76 1583.77109.77 1467.140.00 1385.7234.87 3412.80324.96

30.0 1.99 44.390.90 38.620.94 60.571.07 82.051.04 33.941.05 28.891.40 72.190.79 59.711.7 56.221.0 87.171.02 53.921.54 62.180.99 143.930.98 156.021.02

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Table 3.21: Macromineral composition of fish, egg and meat


Sl.No . FISHES 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 EGGS 69 70 71 MEAT 72 73 74 75 *ethnic Chiken (farm) Chiken (deshi) Beef Pork* Farm murgi Desi murgi Garor mangsha Shukor
Gallus bankiva murghi Gallus bankiva murghi Beef cattle Pot bellied pig

English name

Bengali/Local name

Scientific name

Calcium

Magnesium

Sodium mg/100gm edible portion

Potassium

Phosphorous

Carp Tilapia Dragon Fish Sunfish Arguskala Taki fish Silver Carp Poa fish Chicken (farm) Chicken (deshi) Duck egg

Ruhi Tilapia mach Pangash Mola mach Kachki mach Taki mach Silver Carp Poa mach Murgir dim (farm) Murgir dim (deshi) Hasher dim

Labeo rohita Anabus testudineus Pangasius pangasius Mola mola


Scatophagus argus argus

0.340.04 0.560.06 0.420.02 0.600.00 0.480.00 0.490.00 0.490.00 0.570.10 0.430.005 0.480.01 0.530.005 0.240.03 0.250.01 0.160.02 0.69.0.15

11.820.16 12.850.05 6.054.19 11.950.01 9.710.01 10.010.04 11.050.04 12.421.37 10.070.12 10.570.12 10.660.07 12.020.33 12.270.00 10.690.43 17.375.42

133.9427.63 128.450.04 103.4718.80 110.076.80 67.695.52 88.580.01 104.826.41 139.8914.23 126.336.82 134.757.21 133.969.14 117.537.16 131.907.18 92.0413.70 168.8588.67

238.4928.13 245.9711.92 169.2130.58 139.793.53 92.609.71 165.939.37 186.357.19 270.8110.87 90.064.86 96.804.39 85.145.57 200.937.28 234.502.94 145.1223.69 179.0785.66

5.810.55 7.160.13 4.991.04 13.170.21 10.540.02 5.480.26 6.030.03 7.491.24 5.250.15 6.410.44 6.000.65 6.550.38 7.200.17 3.530.50 6.163.09

Channa puncpatus
Hypophthalmichthys nobilis

Glassogobius giuris Gallus bankiva murghi Gallus bankiva murghi Anas platyrhyncha

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Table 3.22: -carotene content in general and ethnic foods English name LEAFY VEGETABLES 1 2 3 4 5 6 14 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Josephs Coat Spleen Amaranth Coco-yam Bottle Gourd Indian spinach Swamp Morning-glory Corriander leaves na Roselle na na na Yellow saraca na Lal shak Data shak Sobuj kochu shak Lau shak Pui shak Kalmi shak Dhane pata Sabarang* Amila pata* Baruna Shak* Ojan shak/Surja kannya* Orai balai* Maytraba* Ghanda batali*
Amaranthus gangeticus Amaranthus dubius Colocasia esculenta Lagenaria siceraria Basella alba Ipomoea aquatica Coriandrum sativum Ajuga Macrosperma Hibiscus sabdariffa

Local/Bengali/Ethnic Name

Botanical/Scientific name

-carotene g% edible portion

1256.53 4904.33 7146.59 2370.64 1775.10 2383.68 1470.54 467.28 1606.83 1465.49 1102.88 1110.74 1486.42 1708.97

Xanthoxylum rhetsa
Spilantses calva Premna esculenta Saraca thaipingensis Paederia foetida

ROOT & TUBERS AND non-LEAFY VEGETABLES 15 16 17 18 Carrot Sweet pumpkin Kakrol Banchalta* FRUITS 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Mango ripe(deshi) Jack frujt (ripe) Papaya (ripe) Melon (mix) Water melon na Bead tree
na: not available

Gazor Misti kumra Kakrol Banchalta*

Daucus carota Cucurbita maxima Momordica cochinchinensis Dillenia pentagyna

1689.43 51.41 163.00 55.47

Paka Am Paka Kathal Paka papay Bangi/futi Tormuz Rashko* kusumgulu*

Mangifera indica Artocarpus heterophyllus Carica papaya Cucumus melo Citrullus vulgaricus Syzygium balsameum Elaeocarpus angustifolius

356.28 28.86 425.77 663.68 299.73 8.90 388.43

*ethnic food

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Table 3.23: Dietary fiber in key food items


Sl.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 FRUITS 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Mango ripe(deshi) Black berry (deshi) Jackfruit (ripe) Banana (ripe) Water melon Papaya (ripe) Amla Melon (mix) Wood apple Monkey jack Paka Am Kalojam Paka Kathal Paka kala Tormuz Paka papay Amloki Bangi/futi Bael Deuwa
Mangifera indica Syzygium cumini
Artocarpus heterophyllus

English name Josephs Coat Spleen Amaranth Bottle Gourd Radish Coco-yam Jute Indian spinach Spinach Swamp morning-glory Thankuni Corriander Spearmint Bitter gourd Carrot Egg plant Bitter Gourd Sweet pumpkin Kakrol Ladies finger Green papaya Green chilli

Bengali/Ethnic name Lalshak Data shak Lau shak Mula shak Sobuj kochu shak Pat shak Poi shak Palong shak Kalmi shak Thankuni Pata Dhane pata Pudina pata Karola pata* Gazor Begun Karola Misti kumra Kakrol Dherosh Kacha papay Kacha marich

Scientific name
Amaranthus gangeticus

g/100g edible 4.230.53 4.350.48 4.380.61 2.580.18 2.900.75 5.750.03 2.180.17 2.920.21 3.710.09 8.661.07

LEAFY VEGETABLES
Amaranthus dubius Lagenaria siceraria Raphanus sativus Colocasia esculenta Corchorus capsularis Basella alba Spinacia oleracea Ipomoea aquatica Centella asiatica Coriandrum sativum Mentha viridis Momordica charantia Daucus carota Solanum melongena Momordica charantia Cucurbita maxima
Momordica cochinchinensis

5.920.15
6.910.31 2.250.59 3.680.57 2.280.34 0.410.02 1.140.88

NON-LEAFY VEGETABLES

0.440.03
3.100.41 2.710.28 4.910.86 3.650.30 7.250.82 5.141.06 1.900.16 1.610.80 0.590.04 2.150.49 6.962.33 2.110.11

Abelmoschus esculentus

Carica papaya Capsicum frutescens

Musa sapientum Citrullus vulgaricus Carica papaya Emblica officinalis Cucumus melo Aegle marmelos Artocarpus lakoocha

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Table 3.24: Phytic acid content in key food items


English name Bengali/Local name Scientific name Phytic acid mg% edible portion

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

CEREALS AND LENTIL Rice parboiled (Brri-29) Sidhoy chal Rice sunned** Atap chal Maize Vutta Lentil (deshi) Masur dal LEAFY VEGETABLES Josephs Coat Lalshak Spleen Amaranth Data shak Bottle Gourd Lau shak Radish Mula shak Coco-yam Sobuj kochu shak Jute Pat shak Swamp Morning-glory Kalmi shak Thankuni Thankuni Pata Bitter gourd Karala pata* Roselle Amila pata* non-LEAFY VEGETABLES Egg plant Begun Bitter Gourd Karola Sweet pumpkin Misti kumra Kakrol Ladies finger Green papaya Green chilli ROOTS & TUBERS Potato Sweet potato (red) Carrot FRUITS Mango ripe(deshi) Black berry (deshi) Jackfruit (ripe) Banana (ripe) Water melon Papaya (ripe) Amla Melon (mix) Wood apple Monkey jack* Burmese grape*
*ethnic ** raw

Oryza sativa Oryza sativa Zea mays Lens culinaris


Amaranthus gangeticus

116.86 5.43 147.97 4.44 959.85 2.86 516.12 9.1 10.370.62 16.41.40 3.310.04 1.880.16 11.460.15 16.40.16 2.430.09 3.410.12 3.740.12 15.900.07 10.880.07 8.270.29 15.850.30 5.250.02 5.980.02 7.720.07 13.720.85 16.360.04 20.250.15 9.281.14 9.281.14 10.050.06 26.420.16 18.342.74 9.480.06 26.830.06 8.200.49 19.820.10 120.952.02 30.90.43 13.571.27

Amaranthus dubius Lagenaria siceraria Raphanus sativus Colocasia esculenta Corchorus capsularis Ipomoea aquatica Centella asiatica Momordica charantia Hibiscus sabdariffa Solanum melongena Momordica charantia Cucurbita maxima Momordica cochinchinensis
Abelmoschus esculentus

Kakrol Dherosh Kacha papay Kacha marich Gol Alu Misti alu Gazor Paka Am Kalojam Paka Kathal Paka kala Tormuz Paka papay Amloki Bangi/futi Bael Deuwa* Lotkon*

Carica papaya Capsicum frutescens Solanum tuberosum Ipomoea batatas Daucus carota Mangifera indica Syzygium cumini
Artocarpus heterophyllus

Musa sapientum Citrullus vulgaricus Carica papaya Emblica officinalis Cucumus melo Aegle marmelos Artocarpus lakoocha Pirardia sapida

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Table 3.25: Comparision of protein value in the present FCD with IFCT, DKPM, Thai FCT
Sl. no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Food items Cereals Rice parboiled Rice (Atap) Maize Pulses Lentil (Deshi) Leafy Vegetables Bottle Gourd Coco-yam Josephs Coat
Swamp Morning-glory

pFCD

IFCT

DKPM

T-FCT

Sl. no 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Food items

cFCD

IFCT

DKPM

T-FCT

Roots & Tubers


6.96 7.74 10.99 23.91 2.58 2.45 2.39 1.99 1.5 5.2 3.04 3.07 2.3 2.36 1.82 2.26 2.86 1.21 0.6 1.47 1.31 1.31 0.59 6.4 na 11.1 25.1 2.3 3.9 2.8 2.9 na na 3.3 4.8 na na 3.8 2 na 1.4 0.7 na 1.9 na 1.4 6.4 6.8 11.1 25.1 2.3 3.9 3.3 1.8 2.2 2.6 3.3 2.9 2.6 1.8 1.7 3.3 1.6 1.8 0.9 2.1 1.8 2.4 1.4 7.4 na na na 4.5 na na na na na 2.3 na na na 2.2 2.1 1.4 na 0.6 na na na 1.4 43 44 45 Potato Sweet Potato Carrot 2.07 1.17 0.81 0.61 1.53 0.62 0.61 0.61 1.31 3.55 0.6 1.26 0.19 0.73 0.66 12.07 13.5 12.49 16.29 11.49 1.6 1.2 0.9 0.6 1.9 0.6 na 0.4 1.2 7.1 na 1.1 0.3 0.2 0.7 13.3 13.5 22.6 26.6 18.7* 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.8 1.0 1.9 0.9 0.7 2.6 0.9 1.1 0.3 0.2 0.7 13.3 15.47 22.6 25.9 18.7 2.5 0.9 1.6 0.6 1.7 0.5 na 0.4 1.3 na na 1.0 na 0.6 0.5 12.8 12.1 na 17.3 20.9

Fruits
Mango (Ripe) Jack fruit Papaya (Ripe) Black berry Pine apple Banana (Ripe) Wood Apple Amla Lichi Melon Water melon Palm (Ripe) Eggs Chicken egg Duck egg

Indian spinach Jute leaves Corandar leaves Mint leaves Thankuni leaves Spleen Amaranth Radish Shak Spinach Green chilli Egg plant Green papay Kakrol Ladies finger Folwal Sweet pumpkin

Non Leafy Vegetables

Meat
Beef Chicken Pork

pFCD: present Food Composition Database IFCT: Indian Food Composition Table DKPM: Deshio Khadder Pustiman Thai_FCT: Thai Food Composition Table

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Key Findings
Aim of this study was to prepare A Food Composition Database for Bangladesh with Special Reference to Selected Ethnic Foods. In order to have this attempt done, the study was designed to identify key food items and analyses the key food for their nutrient profile aiming at preparation of food composition database. The key foods were identified through comprehensive food consumption survey (CFCS) and focus group discussion (FGD). CFCS was conducted amongst 1210 general

households and 805 ethnic tribal households, and FGD was performed among Marma, Chakma, Tanchanga and Tripura ethnic communities. Through CFCS and FGD 138 food items were identified, from which, 75 key food items were listed for analysis for their nutrient profile. This key list comprised 53 food items consumed by both the general and ethnic people; and 22 food items consumed by only the ethnic tribes. The nutrient profile analysed for the 75 key foods comprised- proximate nutrients, energy content; phytic acid , vitamin C, carotenoids, beta-carotene and minerals.

Comprehensive food consumption survey (CFCS)


reveals food consumption pattern of general and ethnic population ethnic people consume almost all of the wild foods ethnic people consume most of the native general foods general people usually do not intake ethnic foods.

Key Foods
A total of 138 food items comprising general and ethnic foods were identified. foods consumed by 5% households as well as nutrient dense foods of public health significance were selected to make a list of 75 key foods for analysis of their nutrient profile.

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Nutrient profile analysed


The selected seventy-five key foods were analysed for- proximate nutrients: moisture, protein, total fat, fatty acid, carbohydrate, crude fiber, dietary fiber, ash;
energy content; antinutrient: phytic acid; vitamins: vitamin C, carotenoids, beta-

carotene; and minerals: copper, zinc, iron, manganese, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorous.

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Policy Implications
Bangladesh has made major strides to meet the food needs of its increasing population through boosting agricultural production. Agriculture produces above 90% of its food need including cereals and vegetables, and to some extent fruits. It has been blessed with high yielding varieties (HYV) of rice, plenty of vegetables and seasonal fruits, and biologically rich open water fisheries. While cereal production is sufficient in Bangladesh and certain vegetables and fruits are being exported. The national food intake pattern in Bangladesh documents that people consume high amount of cereal based diet and lesser amounts of micronutrient rich vegetable and fruits. This results in an imbalanced diet habit. The changes in food chain with the emergence of HYV newer foods as well as change in soil composition (due to environmental changes, increased fertilizers use and crop intensity) have resulted in possible changes in the nutrient composition of the foods being grown. Thus, the food chain of the country has changed during the last decades. In addition, introduction of western foods in Bangladesh markets has also changed the food habits. All these facts call for a fresh analysis of the most frequently consumed foods. Bangladesh does not have its own food composition database. This project is the start point for development of a food composition database for Bangladesh. This part food composition database (FCD) will provide the basis for planning food, nutrition and health related policy tools. It will be the primary source of food composition information for food and agriculture policy program planning. It will help in designing

balanced diets food based dietary guidelines therapeutic diets health, nutrition and agriculture research nutrition education and training food security, safety, and regulations.

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A food composition database preferably includes all nutrients that are important in human nutrition. It should consider the basic need for nutrient information, nutrient contribution to public health nutrition, public health problems, nutrient of public health significance, and importance of food trade need. In preparation of food composition database, the improvement of analytical facilities should also be addressed.

It is noted that most of the databases have between 10 and 25 food groups comprising hundreds to thousands of food items. The present database includes nutrient

composition of 75 food items incorporating 9 food groups. However, it is reference point for developing and updating the food composition database. Since Bangladesh is at the advent of preparation of its own food composition database, consistent financial support should be ensured to have a national food composition database with at least 500 food items consumed by mass population including ethnic people. Funding should also be provided to support lab upgradation for the analysis of micronutrients of public health significance.

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Policy Recommendations
1. Updating FCT for Bangladesh
There is lack of up-to-date knowledge on food composition tables (FCT) for Bangladesh. Given the major changes that have occurred in the complexity of the food chain as also in the environment, soil composition, cropping patterns and cropping intensity, there is need to update knowledge on the nutrient composition of most of the new high yielding varieties of rice, wheat, maize, potatoes, fruits, vegetables, fish and livestock that have become part of the nations production and consumption systems. There is need for updating and constructing a revised FCT for use as tools in determining standard dietary intake for different population groups including ethnic groups. The results of this research can be a pilot contribution which needs to be built on for further work on FCT.

2. Constructing FCT of ethnic foods


Preparation of food composition tables for Bangladesh require research to ascertain the extent to which the nutrient content of the new varieties of foods including ethnic and traditional consumed by the tribal population contributes to the diets in Bangladesh. In particular, the nutrient composition of the indigenous foods grown and consumed in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) and other tribal areas is not known. The FCT for Bangladesh needs to include the nutrient composition of ethnic foods and new FCT will therefore need to be constructed.

3. Preparation of food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs)


To prepare dietary guidelines and determine standard dietary intake, the true nutrient content of all foods consumed by the overall population needs to be known especially ethnic groups. Knowing the profile of ethnic foods being produced and consumed is critical in food and agriculture planning and in developing dietary guidelines. FCT on ethnic foods can help inform agriculture, food and health policy on enhancing the supply and demand for ethnic food sources which can serve as a valuable source of both

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macro and micronutrients.

FBDGs for Bangladesh need to be elaborated and

implemented through a shared consensus and wider dissemination through efforts of relevant stakeholders.

4. Strengthening collaboration for harmonization


Studies on the analyses of Bangladeshi foods have been carried out in the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science (INFS), Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST), Institute of Public Health and Nutrition (IPHN), Bangladesh Agriculture University (BAU), ICDDR,B and other research organizations. Collaboration among these institutions and relevant GoB institutions such as BARC, BARI, BRRI and DAE should be strengthened. There is an urgent need to consolidate and compile the FCT for Bangladesh through a harmonization of the food composition analyses carried out over the years in these institutions.

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Future Research This study identifies a large number of food items that are consumed by mass population including ethnics, but it has analysed only 75 key foods. The nutrient profile of these 75 foods is not representative food items for a national food composition database. Therefore, this attempt should be continued to prepare a national database of at least 500 food items with a comprehensive nutrient profile.

Conclusion
The present report is a part of a wider food composition database. It provids newer nutrient data of selected key foods. This database is expected to be the primary source of nutrient values for food and agriculture policy planning, preparing dietary guidelines, therapeutic diet formulation and research on nutrition, health and agriculture. It will be useful to the policymakers and professionals who are working towards improving nutrition and public health in Bangladesh. This database will motivate future attempts for the analysis of nutrient profile of mass peoples foods to develop a national food composition database. A separate tabulation of nutrient data of the selected foods is also provided as a reference output along with this report.

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Acknowledgements
This study was a collaborative research between the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka and the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka; Department of Agricultural Extension, Ministry of Agriculture; Grain Quality and Nutrition Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur; Department of Biochemistry, Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University; to some extent- Nutrition Biochemistry Laboratory, ICDDR,B with the participation of fifteen scientists including a number of post-graduates, M.Phil and PhD students who were involved in designing, planning and carrying out this work. Thanks are due to the Laboratory team who were involved in the analysis of nutrient profile of the key foods and CFCS team who carried out the comprehensive consumption survey. We are thankful to Professor Dr. Sagarmay Barua, Director, Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka for his whole hearted constant appreciation and cooperation in carrying out and completetion of this work. Thanks are due to the

Director, Center for Excellence, University of Dhaka for providing some lab facilities, and for allowing us to use the conference room. We are also indebted to Professor Dr. Md. Aminul Haque Bhuyan of the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka for his untiring suggestions and encouragement in carrying out this work. We are obliged to the authorities of Dhaka University for enabling a silky-smooth end to this work. Special thanks are due to Mr. Paban Kumar Chakma, Agriculture Officer- Rangamati, CHT and Mr. Gugal Chandra De, Agriculture Officer- Khagrachari, CHT as well as to the other DAE staff for their sincere assistance in conducting the CFCS and the Focus Group Discussions among the ethnic communities. We express our gratefulness to Late Professor Dr. HKM Yusuf, Nutritionist, NFPCSP FAO; Dr. Lalita Bhattacharjee, Nutritionist, NFPCSP - FAO and Dr. Mohammad Abdul Mannan, National Food Utilization and Nutrition Advisor, NFPCSP-FAO, FAO Representation in Bangladesh for their constant technical support, valuable criticism and discussion and important suggestions in completion of this work. Additionally, appreciation is given to Dr. Rezaul Karim Talukder, Socioeconomist, NFPCSP - FAO for his initial suggestions in the study. Thanks are also due to Dr. Nur Ahamed Khondaker, Research Grant Administrator, FAO-NFPCSP, FAO Representation in Bangladesh, for his unswerving administrative support in the completion of this work.

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We are also appreciative of the Finance Department, FAO Bangladesh for its active help in the smooth release of funds.

We are grateful to Mr. Ciro Fiorillo, Chief Technical Adviser, NFPCSP - FAO, for his technical and administrative support in carrying out this work.

A final thanks to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Food Planning and Monitoring Unit (FPMU), Ministry of Food and Disaster Management for their support under the National Food Policy Capacity Strengthening Programme (NFPCSP) with financial assistance from EU and USAID.

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RESEARCH TEAM
1

Principal Investigator Co-Investigators

Professor Sheikh Nazrul Islam , PhD Professor Md. Nazrul Islam Khan1, PhD 1 Professor M. Akhtaruzzaman , PhD 1 Professor Saiful Huque , PhD 2 Professor Monira Ahan , PhD Muhammad Ali Siddique , PhD (BRRI, Gazipu) Ashrafi Hossain4 MSc, (SBAU) 5 Md. Abdul Jalil , MSc, PhD student (DAE) 1 Shah Md. Anayet Ullah Siddiqui , MSc (INFS, DU) 6 Maksuda Khatun , PhD student (Botany, DU) 1 Mahbuba Kawser , MS, M.Phil, PhD student (INFS, DU) 1 Parveen Begum , MS, M.Phil (INFS, DU) 7 Anjan Kumar Roy , MSc, M.Phil. student (INFS, DU; ICDDRB) 1 Sabnam Mustafa , M. Phil student (INF, DU) Kohinur Begum, MSc (INFS, DU) Abu Bakar Siddique, MSc (INFS, DU Md. Tariqual Islam Sajib4, MSc (SBAU) Dipa Jamal, MSc (INFS, DU) 1 Tanjina Rahman , MS (INFS, DU) 1 Farzana Bhuyan MSc student (INFS, DU) Mia Sakib Anam1 MSc student (INFS, DU) Syeda Munia Haque, MSc student (INFS, DU) Nur Mohammad Siddiki, MSc (supervisor) Shafiqul Islam Khan, MSc Rupesh Chakma, MSc Pintu Chakma, MSc Ripan Chakma, MSc Professor Sagarmay Barua, PhD (Director, INFS, DU)
3

Laboratory Team

CFCS Team

Consultant

Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh; 3Grain Quality and Nutrition Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur-1701, Bangladesh; 4Department of Biochemistry, Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh; 5Department of Agricultural Extension, Khamar Bari, Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh; Department of Botany, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh; 7Nutrition Biochemistry Laboratory, ICDDRB, Mohakhali, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh

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