Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9

Antibiotics

Brand Name: Amoxicot, Amoxil, Amoxil Pediatric Drops, Biomox, DisperMox, Moxilin, Novamoxin, Polymox, Trimox, Wymox Generic Name: Amoxicillin Drug Form/ Availability: Capsules: 250 mg (Amoxil, Biomox, Wymox), 500 mg (Amoxil, Biomox, Trimox) Powder for Reconstitution: 50 mg/L (Amoxil Pediatric Drops, Trimox), 125 mg/5 mL (Amoxil, Trimox), 200 mg/mL (Amoxil), 250 mg/mL (Amoxil, Biomox, Trimox), 400 mg/ mL (Amoxil) Tablets (Amoxil): 500 mg, 875 mg Tablets (Chewable [Amoxil]): 125 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg Tablets for Oral Suspension (Dispermox): 200 mg, 400 mg

Indications/Routes/Dosage: Susceptible Infections PO: Adults/Elderly: 250-500 mg q8h or 500-875 mg q12h. Children Older than 3 mos.: 25-50 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses. Children 3 mos and Younger: 30 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses Lower Respiratory Tract Infections PO: Adults/Elderly: 500 mg q8h or 875 mg q12h H. Pylori Infection PO: Adults, Elderly: 1 g twice a day in combination with clarithromycin and lansoprazole for 14 days Otitis Media PO: Children: 80-90 mg/kg/day in 2 or 3 divided doses Gonorrhea PO: Adults, Elderly: 3 g as a single dose Endocarditis Prophylasis PO: Adults, Elderly: 2 g 1 hr before procedure. Children: 50 mg/kg 1 hr before procedure. Maximum: 2g Dosage in Renal Impairment Dosage interval is modified based on creatinine clearance. Creatinine Clearance 10-30 mL/min: usual dose q12h. Creatinine Clearance less than 10 mL/min: usual dose q24h Conraindications: Hypersensitivity to any Penicillin, infectious mononucleiosis .

Adverse Effects: Antibiotic-associated and other superinfections may result from altered bacterial balance. Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and acute interstitial nephritis occur rarely. Nursing Considerations: Baseline assessment- Question for History of allergies, especially penicillins, cephalosporins. Intervention/Evaluation- Hold medication and promptly report rash or diarrhea (with fever, abdominal pain, mucus and blood in the stool may indicate antibiotic-associated colitis). Be alert for superinfection: increased fever, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, black/hairy tongue, stomatitis, anal/genital pruritus. Patient/Family Teaching- a. Continue antibiotic for full length of treatment. Space doeses evenly. b. Take with meals if GI upset occurs. c. Thoroughly chew the chewable tablets before swallowing. d. Notify physician in event of rash, diarrhea, or other new symptom.

Brand Name: Duracef Generic Name: Cefadroxil Drug Form/ Availability: Capsules: 500 mg Tablets: 1 g Oral Suspension: 125 mg/5mL, 250 mg/5mL, 500 mg/5mL

Indications/Routes/Dosage: UTI PO: Adults/Elderly: 1-2 g/day as a single dose or in 2 divided doses. Children: 30 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses. Maximum: 2 g/day Skin and Skin-Structure Infections, Group A BETA-Hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngitis, Tosilitis PO: Adults/Elderly: 1-2 g in 2 divided doses. Children: 30 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses. Maximum: 2 g/day Impetigo PO: Children: 30 mg/kg/day as a single or in 2 divided doses. Maximum: 2 g/day Dosage in Renal Impairment After an initial 1-g dose, dosage and frequency are modified based on creatinine clearance and the severity of the infection.

Creatinine Clearance 25-50 mL/min 10-25 mL/min 0-10 mL/min

Dosage Interval 500 mg q12h 500 mg q24h 500 mg q36h

Conraindications: History of anaphylactic reaction to penicillins or hypersensitivity to cephalosporins. Adverse Effects: Antibiotic-associated colitis and other superinfections may result from altered bacterial balance. Nephrotoxicity may occur, especially to pre-existing renal disease. Patients with a history of allergies, especially to penicillin, are at risk from developing a severe hypersensitivity reaction, marked by severe pruritus, angioedema, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis. Nursing Considerations: Baseline assessment- Question for History of allergies, particularly penicillins, cephalosporins. Intervention/Evaluation- Asses oral cavity for white patches on mucous membranes, tongue. Monitor bowel activity and stool consistency carefully; mild GI effects may be tolerable, but increasing severity may indicate onset of antibiotic-associated colitis. Monitor I&O, renal function test results for nephrotoxicity. Be alert for superinfection: genital/anal pruritus, moniliasis, abdominal pain, sore mouth/tongue, moderate to severe diarrhea. Patient/Family Teaching- a. Continue antibiotic for full length of treatment. b. Doses should be evenly spaced. c. May cause GI upset (may take with food or milk). d. Refrigerate oral suspension.

Brand Name: Maxipime Generic Name: Cefepime Drug Form/ Availability: Powder for Injection: 500 mg, 1 g, 2 g.

Indications/Routes/Dosage: Pneumonia IV: Adults, Elderly: 1-2 g q12h for 7-10 days. Children 2 mo and Older: 50 mg/kg q12h. Maximum: 2 g/dose Skin and Skin Infections IV: Adults/Elderly: 2 g q12h for 10 days. Children 2 mo and Older: 50 mg/kg q12h. Maximum: 2 g/dose Intra-abdominal Infections IV: Adults, Elderly: 2 g q12h for 10 days. UTIs

IV: Adults, Elderly: 0.5-2 g q12h for 7-10 days. Children 2 mo and Older: 50 mg/kg/day q12h. Maximum: 2 g/dose Endocarditis Prophylasis IV: Adults, Elderly: 2 g q8h. Children 2 mo and Older: 50 mg/kg q8h. Maximum: 2g Dosage in Renal Impairment Dosage and frequency are modified based on creatinine clearance and the seveity of the infection. Creatinine Clearance 30-60 mL/min 1-29 mL/min 10 mL/min or less Dosage Interval 0.5 g q24h- 2 g q12h 0.5- 2 g q24h 0.25-1 g q24h

Conraindications: History of anaphylactic reaction to penicillins or hypersensitivity to cephalosporins. Adverse Effects: Antibiotic-associated colitis manifested and other superinfections may result from altered bacterial balance. Nephrotoxicity may occur, especially in patients with pre-existing renal disease. Patients with a history of allergies, especially to penicillin, are at risk for developing a severe hypersensitivity reaction, marked by severe pruritus, angio-edema, bronchospasm and anaphylaxis. Nursing Considerations: Baseline assessment- Question for History of allergies, especially penicillins, cephalosporins. Intervention/Evaluation- Evaluate IM site for indurations and tenderness. Assess oral cavity for white patches on mucous membranes/tongue. Monitor pattern of bowel activity and stool consistency carefully; mild GI effects may be tolerable, but increasing severity may indicate onset of antibiotic-associated colitis. Monitor I&, renal function reports for nephrotoxicity,. Be alert for superinfection: severe genital or anal pruritus, abdominal pain, severe mouth soreness, moderate to sveverdiarrhea. Patient/Family Teaching-a. Discomfort may occur with IM injection. b. Continue antibiotic for full length of treatment. c. Space doses evenly.

Brand Name: Apo-Cephalex, Biocef, Keflex, Kefftab, Novolexin Generic Name: Cephalexin Drug Form/ Availability: Capsules: 250 mg (Keflex), 500 mg (Biocef, Keflex) Tablets: 250 mg, 500 mg (Biocef, Keflex)

Powdered Oral Suspension: 125 mg/5mL, 250 mg/5mL (Biocef, Keflex)

Indications/Routes/Dosage: Bone Infections, Prophylaxis of Rheumatic Fever, Follow-up to Parenteral Therapy PO: Adults/Elderly: 250-500 mg q6h up to 4 g/day Streptococcal Pharyngitis, Skin and Skin-Structure Infections, Uncomplicated Cytsitis PO: Adults/Elderly: 500 mg q12h Usual Pediatric Dose Children: 75-100 mg/kg/day in 2-4 divided doses Dosage in Renal Impairment After an initial 1-g dose, dosage and frequency are modified based on creatinine clearance and the severity of the infection. Creatinine Clearance 10-40 mL/min Less than 10 mL/min Dosage Interval Usual dose q8-q12h Usual dose q12-q24h

Conraindications: History of anaphylactic reaction to penicillins or hypersensitivity to cephalosporins. Adverse Effects: Antibiotic-associated colitis and other superinfections may result from altered bacterial balance. Nephrotoxicity may occur, especially to patients with pre-existing renal disease. Patients with a history of allergies, especially to penicillin, are at risk from developing a severe hypersensitivity reaction, marked by severe pruritus, angioedema, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis. Nursing Considerations: Baseline assessment- Question for History of allergies, particularly penicillins, cephalosporins. Intervention/Evaluation- Asses oral cavity for white patches on mucous membranes, tongue. Monitor bowel activity and stool consistency carefully; mild GI effects may be tolerable, but increasing severity may indicate onset of antibiotic-associated colitis. Monitor I&O, renal function test results for nephrotoxicity. Be alert for superinfection: genital/anal pruritus, moniliasis, abdominal pain, sore mouth/tongue, moderate to severe diarrhea. Patient/Family Teaching- a. Continue antibiotic for full length of treatment. b. Doses should be evenly spaced. c. May cause GI upset (may take with food or milk). d. Refrigerate oral suspension.

Brand Name: Megacillin, Novepen-G, Pfizerpen Generic Name: Penicillin G Potassium Drug Form/ Availability:

Injection: 5 million units Intravenous Solution: 1 million units/50 mL, 2 million units/50 mL, 3 million units/50 mL. Powder for Injection: 1 million units, 5million units (Pfizerpen), 20 million units (Pfizerpen) Premixed Dextrose Solution: 1 million units, 2 million units, 3 million units

Indications/Routes/Dosage: Sepsis, Meningitis, Pericarditis, Endocarditis, Pneumonia due to Susceptible GramPositive Organisms (Not Staphylococcus Aureus) and some Gram-Negative Organisms IV, IM: Adults, Elderly: 2-24 million uunits/day in divided doses q4-6h. Children: 100,000-400,000 units/kg/day in divided doses q4-6h Dosage in Renal Impairment Dosage interval is modified based creatinine clearance. Creatinine Clearance 1-30 mL/min 10 mL/min or less Dosage Interval Usual dose q8-12h Usual dose q12-18h

Conraindications: Hypersensitivity to any penicillin. Adverse Effects: Hypersensitivity reactions ranging from rash, fever, and chills to anaphylaxis occur. Nursing Considerations: Baseline assessment- Question for History of allergies, especially penicillins, cephalosporins. Intervention/Evaluation- Monitor CBC, urinalysis electrolytes, renal function tests.

Antipyretics/ Analgesics/ Anti-inflammatory


Brand Name: Abenol, Apo-Acetaminophen, Atasol, Feverall, Mapap, Tempra, Tylenol Generic Name: Acetaminophen Drug Form/ Availability: Caplets (Genapap, Tylenol): 500 mg Caplets (Extended-Realease [Mapap, Tylenol Arthritis Pain]): 650 mg Capsules (Mapap): 500 mg Elixir: 160 mg / mL Liquid (Oral [Tylenol Extra Strength]) n): 500 mg/ 15 mL Solution (Oral Drops [Genapap Infant]): 80 mg/0.8 mL

Suppository (Rectal): 80 mg (Fevrall), 120 mg (Acephen, Feverall), 325 mg (Acephen, Feverall), 650 mg (Acephen, Feverall) Tablets (Genapap, Mapap, Tylenol): 325 mg, 500 mg Tablets (Chewable [Genapap, Mapap, Tylenol]): 80 mg

Indications/Routes/Dosage: Analgesia and Antipyresis PO: Adults/Elderly, Children 13 yr and Older: 325-650 mg q4-6h or 1 g 3-4 times a day. Maximum: 4 g/day. Children 12 yr and Younger: 10-15 mg/kg/dose q4-6h as needed. Maximum: 5 doses/24 hr. Neonates: 10-15 mg/kg/dose q6-8h as needed. Dosage in Renal Impairment Creatinine Clearance 10-50 mL/min 10 mL/min or less Dosage Interval q6h q8h

Conraindications: Active alcoholism, liver disease, or viral hepatitis, all of which increase the risk of hepetoxicity. Adverse Effects: Acetaminophen toxicity is the primary serious reaction. Early signs and symptom of acetaminophen toxicity include anorexia, nausea, diaphoresis, and generalized weakness within the first 12-24 hours. Later signs of acetaminophen toxicity include vomiting, right upper quadrant tenderness and elevated liver function tests within 48-72 hr after ingestion. The antidote to acetaminophen is acetylcysteine. Nursing Considerations: Baseline assessment- If given for analgesia, assess onset, type, location, duration of pain. Effect of medication is reduced if full response recurs prior to the next dose. Fixed combinations: Obtain vital signs before giving the medication. If respirations are less than 12/min (20/min or less in children), withhold medication, contact physician. Intervention/Evaluation- Assess for clinical improvement and relief of pain, fever. Therapeutic serum level: 10-30 mcg/mL; toxic serum level: greater than 200 mcg/ml. Patient/Family Teaching- a. Consult physician for use in children younger than 2 years; oral use longer than 5 days (children), longer than 10 days (adults), or fever longer than 3 days. b. Severe / recurrent pain or high/continuous fever may indicate serious illness.

Brand Name: Asaphen E.C., Bayer, Bufferin, Ecotrin, Entrapin, Entrophen, Halfprin, Novasen, YSP Aspirin, Zero-Order Release, ZORprin Generic Name: Aspirin Drug Form/ Availability: Caplets (Bayer): 81 mg, 325 mg, 500 mg Gelcaps (Bayer): 325 mg, 500 mg Tablets: 162 mg (Halfprin), 325 mg (Bayer), 500 mg (Bayer) Tablets (Enteric Coated [Bayer, Ecotrin, St. Joseph]): 81 mg, 325 mg, 500 mg, 650 mg Tablets (Chewable [Bayer, St. Joseph]): 81mg Suppositories: 60 mg, 120 mg, 126 mg, 200 mg, 325 mg, 600 mg, 650 mg

Indications/Routes/Dosage: Analgesia, Fever PO, RECTAL: Adults/Elderly: 325-1000mg q4-6h. Children: 10-15 mg/kg/dose q46h. Maximum: 4 g/day. Anti-inflammatory PO: Adults/Elderly: Initially, 2.4-3.6 g/day in divided doses; then, 3.6-5.4 g/day. Children: Initially, 60-90 mg/kg/day in divided doses; then, 80-100 mg/kg/day. Platelet Aggregation Inhibition PO: Adults, Elderly: 80-325 mg/day Kawasaki Disease PO: Children: 80-100 mg/kg/day in divided doses. Contraindications: Allergy to Tartrazine dye, bleeding disorders, chickenpox or flu in children and teenagers, GI bleeding or ulceration, hepatic impairment, history of hypersensitivity to aspirin or NSAIDs. Adverse Effects: High dose of aspirin may produce GI bleeding and gastric mucosal lesions. Dehydrated, febrile children may experience aspirin toxicity quickly. Reyes syndrome may occur in children with the chickenpox or the flu. Low-grade toxicity characterized is by tinnitus, generalized pruritus (possibly severe), headache, dizziness, flushing, tachycardia, hyperventilation, diaphoresis, and thirst. Marked toxicity is characterized by hyperthermia, restlessness, seizures, abnormal breathing patterns, respiratory failure, and coma. Nursing Considerations: Baseline assessment- Do not give to children or teenagers with chickenpox or flu (increases the risk for Reyes syndrome). Do not use if vinegar-like odour is noted (indicates chemical breakdown). Assess type, location, duration of pain, inflammation. Inspect appearance of affected joints for

immobility, deformities, skin condition. Therapeutic serum level for anti-arthritic effect: 20-30 mg/dl (toxicity occurs if levels are greater than 30 mg/dl). Intervention/Evaluation- Monitor urinary pH (sudden acidification, pH from 6.5-5.5, may result in toxicity). Assess skin for evidence of ecchymosis. If given as antipyretic, assess temperature directly before and 1 hr after giving medication. Evaluate for therapeutic response: relief of pain, stiffness, swelling; increase in joint mobility; reduced joint tenderness, improved grip strength. Patient/Family Teaching- a. Do not crush or chew enteric-coated tablets. b. Report ringing in ears (tinnitus) or persistent abdominal GI pain. c. Therapeutic and anti-inflammatory effect noted in 1-3 weeks. d. Behavioural changes, vomiting may be early signs of Reyes syndrome. Contact physician.