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THE USE OF NONSTANDARD LANGUAGE IN THE MARKET

a. Background According to Crystal (1980:114-115), discourse is a term used in linguistics refer to a continuous stretch of (especially spoken) language larger than sentence. It is undeniable that every human being need language as their spoken in their life, it is awarded that human daily live even animal use language to communicate each other, for human being who has thought and feeling need effective communication to interact each other because without good communication the healthy live does not created and event can appear misunderstanding during and after conversation that possible cases chaotic and conflict in the society but by using effective language in expressing idea and feeling the receiver will be able to accept what message conveyed. In this live people use two kinds of language they are standard language and non standard language, standard language use is regarded as the most correct way of writing or speaking the language for example, language use in general publishing, the news media even electronic media or written media , education, economics, government, such professions as law and medicine, and by especially the middle classes and Non standard language is used in non formal situation or place such in the market, super market, mall, bus station, in the beach, bar, home or daily live. The reality in the society people dont know about standard language and non standard language, people dont relies that is the language which they use is standard or non standard language they just us as their habits or costume and even they just use the language as their tools of communication based on the statement above the writer interest
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in doing this research why people use non standard language in non formal place such as in the market?. b. Research question Based on the background above, the writer formulates the research question of this study as follow. how do people use non standard language in the market? c. Objective of the research In relation to the research question, the writer of this study will set research objective as follows: To find out how do people use non standard language in the market? d. Significance of the research The finding of the research will be expected to be useful for the reader in general, English education program, students of post graduated program and especially for the writer in doing more and more discourse analysis. And also this research is expected to give contribution and enrichment of teaching and learning method especially in teaching about standard and non standard language. e. The scope of the research This research will be limited to the use of non standard language use in Palopo central market which involves buyer and seller, data is collected by recording one or more the process of buyer and seller. Non standard language use by the buyer and seller were interpreted using conversation analysis. By using conversation analysis the example of non standard language found in the data were interpreted within the context of its

production. It means that previous and following conversation the speaker will help the writer find the non standard language use in the data

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE A. Standard language Here are some notions of standard language, There are many claims from some people whose say that standard english is necessary. Most of them have similar reason about it. Here are some opinions of linguists about why standard language that is passed by language standaridization process is necessary: Haugen, as cited in Wardhaugh 2000, p. 34 said that one of the most important is that it allows the language to serve as a model for everyone in the community to agree upon in order to communicate. And in his addition, he said that having a common, mutually comprehensible language unifies the members of a community. Wardhaugh (2000) added more positive aspects of standardization, including it can be employed to reflect and symbolize some kind of identity and can also be used to give prestige to speakers (p. 35). Standardization also makes the language easier to teach in schools. This becomes very important for higher education. It would be illogical for particular states or regions of a nation to maintain local dialects as a medium of instruction if the majority of universities used a different dialect or language And In page 36, Wardhaugh also mentioned political reasons, such as claiming autonomy from domestic or foreign rule, such as Basque and Catalan in Spain and Finnish in Swedish and Russian occupied lands (p. 36). Choosing one language or dialect over others results in the creation of a preferred variety that becomes the winner in a struggle for dominance According to Durantis opinion, there is no way to avoid language standardization in the literate world. Duranti also wrote the process of state formation creates the condition for a unified linguistic market where one linguistic variety acquires the status of standard language (1997, p. 45). The social theorist Bourdieu claimed that a standard language is the result of sociopolitical processes, including bureaucratic institutions such as schools (as cited in Duranti, 1997, p. 45).
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Based on http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=489909762 state that Characteristics of standard language. The only requirement for a variety to be standard is that it can frequently be used in public places or public discourse. The creation of a prescriptive standard language derives from a desire for national (cultural, political, and social) cohesion with this considered as requiring an agreed-upon, standardized language variety. Standard languages commonly feature: A recognized dictionary (standardized spelling and vocabulary) A recognized grammar A standard pronunciation (educated speech) Constitutional (legal) status (frequently as an official language) Effective public use (court, legislature, schools)

B. Non standard language Based on standard language statement above the writer state that nonstandard language is the language use by a group of people in the society which not recognized by grammar/less structured, not recognized by dictionary or slang, mixing vocabulary and uneducated speech.

CHAPTER III FINDING AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the findings and discussion of the research. The findings cover the extracts and the analysis of the record. The theory used to analyze data is conversation analysis, in this Data taken by record the process of transaction in the market. a. Findings Non standard language The data of the record shows a lot of non standard language use in any place in the market. The following extract reveals that the speaker used non standard language during communication between buyer and seller The conversation between buyer and seller involve two language, they are non standard of Indonesian language and colloquialisms of Palopo. Those languages are blended in conversation where Indonesian is taken as the most language used. The researcher us italic for non Indonesian standard language and bold for Indonesian standard language and for standard English the writer use bold and italic times new roman. Extract: 1. Non standard language used by speaker inside the shop between costumer and seller (costumer want to buy domino). 1. Costumer 2. Seller 3. Costumer 4. Seller 5. Costumer 6. Seller 7. Costumer 8. Seller A: kasika dominota.. B: iye....? A: domino B: berapa? A: satu, berapa ini? B: duang sabu lima ratu A: eeehh.? B: dua stengah
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9. Costumer Analysis

A: makasih

Base on the data above, the writer predict the speaker used non standard language ninety percent, almost sentences use in nonstandard language, let analyze every sentence: line 1 costumer A: kasi ka dominota in Indonesian standard language must be said saya mau membeli domino because kasi ka dominota it means ask Domino without pay and the situation is, he want to buy domino not just ask domino. in standard English must be said I want to buy dominos, line 2 seller B: iye? Should be said in standard Indonesian language ya? to confirm the question, In English standard language should say yes? line 3 costumer A: domino., this word is standard in Indonesian Language domino in English is dominos so this sentence in not problem because the costumer use standard language. Line 4 seller B: berapa? This word is the same of line 3 the seller use standard language of Indonesia berapa? in English standard language how many.? So this word is standard language. used. Line 5 costumer A: satu, berapa ini? This word satu is standard language in Indonesia but berapa ini? is non standard because the writer does not know what the question is, asking the price or asking the quantity, so the writer must give an Indonesian standard language as follows berapakah harganya ini? In standard English must be how much is this? line 6 Seller B: duang sabu lima ratu, this sentence is the language used by certain group of people in Palopo, kind of sentence like this is a colongualism of Palopo and in standard Indonesian language said dua ribu lima ratus rupiah in English two thousand five hundred rupiah (Rp 2500). line 7 Customer A: eeeah.?? This word is non standard word in Indonesia, costumer should say yah? In English standardization should say yes? To clarified the statement. line 8 Seller B: dua stengah, This sentence is non standard Indonesia, seller should say dua ribu lima ratus, In English standardization should say two thousand five hundred rupiah line 9 Costumer A: makasih This word is non standard Indonesia, costumer should say terima kasih, In English standardization should say thank you.

Extract: 2. Non standard language used by speaker in the market between costumer and seller (costumer want to buy vegetable). 1. Costumer 2. Seller 1 3. Costumer 4. Seller 1 5. Costumer 6. Seller 1 7. Costumer 8. Seller1 9. Seller 2 10. Seller 1 11. Seller 2 12. Costumer 13. Seller 1 14. Costumer 15. Seller 1 16. Costumer 17. Seller 1 18. Costumer Analysis Base on the data above, Line 1 costumer A: tak berapa ini sayurta bu? in Indonesian standard language must be said berapakah harga sayur ibu?. in standard English must be said how much your vegetable mam?, line 2 seller1 B: dua ribu Should be said in standard Indonesian language dua ribu rupiah, In English standard language should say two thousand rupiah
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A: tak berapa ini sayurta bu? B: dua ribu A: dua ribu B: mengangguk A: kasi mi dua, ada toge? B: ada A: tak berapa satu tempat..? B: ada seribu ada dua ribu, kasi dulu toge makria C: aah iye? B: kasi yang dua ribu C: Toge A: tak berapa ini jeruk nipista bu? B: tiga seribu A: tiga seribu? B: iye A: kita kasi mi seribu di! B: apa lagi? A: itu saja bu, terima kasih

line 3 costumer A: dua ribu, this sentence is standard Indonesian Language but should completed by rupiah dua ribu rupiah in standard English is two thousand rupiah so this sentence in not problem because the costumer use standard language. Line 4 seller1 B: mengangguk This word is body language, Line 5 costumer A: kasi mi dua, ada toge? This sentence is non standard language in Indonesia should say kasi dua with out mi, ada toge? Is standard Indonesian anguage, In standard English should be give me two, any bean sprouts? line 6 Seller1 B: ada, this word is standard language in English language any. line 7 Customer A: tak berapa satu tempat..? This sentence is non standard Indonesian language, must be berapakah harganya satu tempat? In English standardization should say how much in one place?. line 8 Seller1 B: ada seribu ada dua ribu, kasi dulu toge makria, These sentences are non standard Indonesia, seller should say ada seribu rupiah, ada dua ribu rupiah, mama Ria kasi dulu toge because if just use ada seribu ada dua ribu this statement is unclear about because this statement stated what price or quantity of the bean sprouts, In English standardization should say there is one thousand and there is two thousand rupiah, mother Ria please give your bean sprouts. line 9 seller 2 : aah iye? This word is non standard Indonesia, costumer should say yah? To confirm the order, In English standardization should say ya?. line 10 buyer : kasi yang dua ribu This sentence is non standard Indonesia language, costumer should say kasi yang dua ribu rupiah, In English standardization should say give me two thousand rupiah. line 11 seller 2 : Toge ! This word is standard Indonesia language, In English standardization should say bean sprouts. 12 costumer A: tak berapa ini jeruk nipista bu? in Indonesian standard language must be said berapakah harga sayur ibu?. in standard English must be said how much your citrus fruit mam?, line 13 seller1 B: tiga seribu Should be said in standard Indonesian language tiga seribu rupiah, In English standard language should say three a thousand rupiah. line 14 buyer B: tiga seribu! Should be said in standard Indonesian language tiga seribu rupiah !, In English standard language should say three a thousand rupiah!. line 15 seller1 B: iye? This word is non standard word in Indonesia, seller should say yah? In English standardization should say yes? Line 16 costumer A: kasi mi seribu This sentence is non standard language in Indonesia should say kasi seribua rupiah ya with out mi and di!, In standard English should be give one thousand ya! Line 17 seller1 A: apa lagi? This sentence is standard language in Indonesia In standard English say any more? Line 18 costumer A: itu saja bu, terima kasih

This sentence is standard language in Indonesia should, In standard English should be thats all, thank you After analyzing above the writer state that nonstandard language use more than standard language in Palopo central market Discussion The use of nonstandard language In the above extracts shows that non standard language used by costumer and seller, the conversation dominated by nonstandard language than standard language. From twenty seven ion conversant only six us in standard language, Two sentences (line 17 and 18 in extract two) and five words (in line 3, 4 extract one and 6, 11 in extract two). One sentence is monolingualism (line 6 in extract one) and twenty one sentences use as non standard language. It mean people use nonstandard language more than standard language in Palopo central market.

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CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Based on data analysis and discussion in the previous chapter, the observer would like to forward the following points as the conclusion of the research finding. A. Conclusion Discourse analysis is a perspective on social life which contain both logical method and conceptual elements. Discourse analysis involves ways of thinking. Based on the data analysis in the previous chapter can be concluded that people in the market use more nonstandard language than standard language: From data analysis the writer could state that There are some reasons people use nonstandard language in the market: 1. The place in informal place 2. They are dominated by people prom village especially in the place of selling vegetable, it known by their colongualism and their way of speaking 3. Nonstandard language is their daily language 4. The buyer do not use standard language when they communicated whit seller 5. People in the market do not know which one standard language and which one nonstandard language B. Suggestion 1. Teacher should introduce to the students about standard and non standard language as beginning as possible 2. Teacher should use standard language in teaching in other that students usual with standard language 3. Government should advertise about the use of standard language more than nonstandard language

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Reference Sappotto. A (2012) billingualism and turn taking in learning speaking performance post graduate program state university of Makassar Mouller Simone, discourse markers on native and non native English discourse Jhon benjamins publishing company Amsterdam/philadelphia Lippi-Green, Rosina. (1994). Accent, standard language ideology, and discriminatoryp retexti n the courts. United States of America; Cambridge University Press Duranti, A. (1997). Linguistic anthropology. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Wardhaugh, R. (2006). An introduction to sociolinguistics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Hall, Graham. (2005). Where do Standard Languages Come From? Power, Print and Nations. IATEFL GISIG Newsletter
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=489909762

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Appendix1 conversation typed in italic time new roman, Non standard language used by speaker inside the shop between costumer and seller (costumer want to buy domino). 1. Costumer 2. Seller 3. Costumer 4. Seller 5. Costumer 6. Seller 7. Costumer 8. Seller 9. Costumer A: kasika dominota.. B: iye....? A: domino B: berapa? A: satu, berapa ini? B: duang sabu lima ratu A: eeehh.? B: dua stengah A: makasih

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Appendix2 conversation typed in italic time new roman, Non standard language used by speaker in the market between costumer and seller (costumer want to buy vegetable). 1. Costumer 2. Seller 1 3. Costumer 4. Seller 1 5. Costumer 6. Seller 1 7. Costumer 8. Seller1 9. Seller 2 10. Seller 1 11. Seller 2 12. Costumer 13. Seller 1 14. Costumer 15. Seller 1 16. Costumer 17. Seller 1 18. Costumer A: tak berapa ini sayurta bu? B: dua ribu A: dua ribu B: mengangguk A: kasi mi dua, ada toge? B: ada A: tak berapa satu tempat..? B: ada seribu ada dua ribu, kasi dulu toge makria C: aah iye? B: kasi yang dua ribu C: Toge A: tak berapa ini jeruk nipista bu? B: tiga seribu A: tiga seribu? B: iye A: kita kasi mi seribu di! B: apa lagi? A: itu saja bu, terima kasih

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Location of conducting research 1. Palopo central market (PNP)

2. Vegetable and fish market place

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