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name descriptio n Blood author zreiff

NBDE Biochemis try/Physiol ogy Bld

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* * * Text 1 Normal range for hemoglobi n is different between the sexes and is approx. _____ for men and _____ for women.

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13-18 g/deciliter 12-16 g/deciliter

What is a quaternar y protein consisting of four tertiary (folded) polypeptid e chains, each containing an associate d irocontaining heme group? What are the four polypeptid e chains in a hemogolbi n? Where does oxygen bind on a hemoglobi n? Where does carbon dioxide bind on a hemoglobi n?

Hemoglob in

2 Alpha chains 2 Beta chains

The heme group Amine groups of amino acids in polypeptid e chain

How many hemoglobi ns reside within a Erythrocyt 300 e? million

What is the maximum binding capacity for oxygen on a single hemoglobi n molecule?

8 oxygen (4 hemeglobi ns each with the ability to bind one diatomic oxygen)

What is the normal blood value of a 14-20 new born? g/deciliter # of RBC's and the Amount of Hgb in each RBC Anemia Hyperthyr oidism Cirrhosis of the liver WTR: HIGH C PolyCethe mia, Copd, Congestiv e heart failure

What does the Hgb value depend on?

Where is a low Hgb value found?

What does a high Hgb value indicate?

Blood leaving the lungs is _____ saturated with oxygen. However, the hemoglobi n of normal venous blood returning to the lungs is only _____ 98% saturated. 75% What is hemoglobi n that is carrying carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs? What is the percentag e of carbon dioxide carried by hemoglobi n? How is the rest transporte d?

Carbamin ohemoglo bin

30% Bicarbona te or Carbon Dioxide

_____ is a major type of protein present in human blood plasma. It represent s an important _____ reserve for the body and, more importantl y, plays a crucial role in maintainin g the blood's _____ pressure, which tends to draw water _____ the capillaries . What is the most abundant plasma protein in humans and other mammals ? Albumin is one of the most ____ plasma proteins How does Albumin act as a transport protein?

Albumin Amino Acid Colloid osmotic Out of **(Oncotic pressure, or colloid osmotic pressure, is a form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins in blood plasma that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system.)


Hydrophili c Carriers Hemin and Fatty acids

What is the normal blood level of 3.5-5.0 Albumin? g/100ml Malnutritio n When is Liver albumin failure decreased Pregnanc ? y Albumin is a single tightly packed polypeptid e with 585 aa ______ any covalently bound carbohydr ate Without Albumin's shapes minimizes its effect on plasma ____? Viscosity Although albumin accounts for only 60% of the total plasma protein, it provides ___% of the colloid osmotic presure of the plasma


What is another name for Colloid osmotic pressure in the plasma? Besides Oncotic pressure what are the other forces that regulate the movement of fluid across capillary membran es? What is the organ chiefly responsibl e for the regulation of the osmotic pressure in the body fluids by regulating the reabsorpti on of water in response to ADH or vasopress in? With the exception of _____, almost all plasma proteins are glycoprote ins.

Oncotic pressure (necessar y to prevent edema)

Hydrostati c pressure inside the capillary Fluid pressure in interstitial fluid



Triiodothy ronine Thyroxine Fatty Acids Bilirubin Bile Acids Steroid hormones What is pharmace Albumin uticals transporte Inorganic r for? Ions Human blood constitute s about _____ of the body's weight What does blood consist of? What percentag e of blood is made up of hematocrit ? Blood maintains _____ and plays a decisive role in defending the body against _____.

0.08 Cells and Cell fragments in an aqueous medium


Homeosta sis Pathogen s

The clear, thin, and sticky fluid portion of the blood obtained after removal of the fibrin clot and blood cells. It differ from the plasma in that serum it lacks fibrin.

WTR = serUM no fibrin in my plasma please Serum

What is the fluid portion of blood and contains no cells (minus the formed elements) ? Plasma What percentag e does plasma make up in the blood? 0.55 Proteins 7% What is Water the 91% breakdow Other n of solutes plasma? 2% What are the Albumins proteins Globulins found in Fibrinoge plasma? n

Metabolic end What products constitute Food s the materials other Respirator solutes y gases found in Hormones plasma? Ions

The function of these is to agglutinat e and plug small ruptured vessels. What is the principle hormone for calciumlevel regulation ? How much calcium does the human body contain? Where is this primarily located? What is the variation of normal plasma concentrat ion of calcium?


Parathyroi d hormone

1-1.5 Kg Bone

8.5 mg% 10.5 mg%

What increases bone resorption and reabsorpti on of calcium in the kidney tubules? What does this do? What vitamin regulates the uptake of calcium in the GI tract? What does low serum calcium levels result in?

Parathyroi d Hormone Increases plasma calcium levels


Hyperirrita bility of nerves and muscles Decrease What will d renal patients calcium with excretion hyperpara Increased thyroidism likelihood be subject of bone too? fracture

Hypervita minosis D Hyperpara What thyroidism increases Bone calcium cancer blood Bone levels? diseases

Calcium blood levels are _____ in severe diarrhea, in hypoparat hyroidism, and in avitamino sis D (rickets and osteomala cia) Besides calcium what does the parathyroi d hormone regulate? What is plasma glucose concentrat ion regulated by? What is the normal phosphor us concentrat ion? What is the normal plasma glucose concentrat ion? What is the normal glucose clearance in the kidney?

Decrease d

Plasma phosphor us concentrat ion

Insulin (lowers) Glucagon (raises)

4 mg%

100 mg%

0 mg/min.

The general term for reactions that prevent or minimize loss of blood from the vessels if they are injured or ruptured Hemostas is... is What are the three processes that the circulatory system undergoe s to guard against blood loss? What do these lead to?

1.Vasoco nstriction 2. Platelet aggregati on 3. Coagulati on Leads to clotting

The production of thrombin from prothromb in during the clotting process requires a prothromb in activator (factor XaFactor V complex), which is formed either by way of an extrinsic pathway or by way of an intrinsic pathway. Remembe r: The only protease of the extrinisic

WTR Coagulati on common pathway: factors in order 10 5 - 2 = 13 Coagulati on common pathway: Factor X to Factor V to Factor II to Factor XIII

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What acts enzymatic ally to catalyze the formation of thrombin (Factor IIa) from prothromb in (Factor II)?

Prothromb in activator (Factor Xa - Factor V complex)

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What acts as an enzyme to convert fibrinogen (Factor I) into fibrin (Factor Ia) threads that enmesh red blood cells and http://o.qui platelets to form Thrombin JH1cri0G the clot (Factor 5yxwakUy itself? IIa) bKkow.jpg Both extrinsic and intrinsic Blood Clot pathways What is the reason for a lack of clotting formation when a patient has cirrhosis of the liver? Deficient What prothromb factors in and http://o.qui are fibrinogen synthesiz levels JH1cri0G ed in the II, VII, IX, 5yxwakUy liver? X bKkow.jpg Tendency towards equilibriu m between different but interdepe ndent elements of an Homeosta organism. sis

The process of producing red blood cells. What is the liquid separating from a gel due to further solidificati on or coagulatio n? Iron, the most important mineral in the formation of hemoglobi n, is resorbed mainly in the _____ and is only resorbed as _____.

Erythropoi esis


Upper small intestine (Duodenu m) Fe2 (Ferrous, Bivalent)

What is the most quantitativ ely important trace element in the body? Iron 4-5 g (mostly bound form) 75% Heme How 15-25% much iron Stored in does the liver, body spleen, contain? marrow Where are heme Hemoglob proteins in found? Myoglobin

What form is iron found while stored in the liver, spleen and marrow? In the duodenu m Iron immediate ly combines in the blood plasma with a _____ globulin _____, to form _____, which is then transporte d in the plasma. Where is excess iron stored? Since Iron can only be taken up in its Bivalent form (Fe2 ), what is required to promote iron uptake? What is the dominant factor controlling absorption of iron in the GI tract?

Ferritin Hemoside rin

Beta apotransf errin transferrin Liver (60% of excess)

Reducing agents Ascorbate (vitamin C)

Saturation of mucosal cells with iron

An iron storage disease that results in the deposition of ironcontaining pigments in the peripheral tissues with characteri stic bronzing of the skin, diabetes, and weakness Hemochro . matosis What is the product of Heme degradati on? Bilirubin Universal Donor What is Do not type O produce blood ABO referred to antigens as? so no Why? rejection

Universal receivers What is Do not type AB produce blood ABO referred to antibodies as? so accept Why? everything What are primarily responsibl 2 e for the Antigens ABO 2 types? Antibodies

What is the permutati on of type A Blood? What is the permutati on of type B Blood? What is the permutati on of type O Blood? What is the permutati on of type AB Blood? What is the weight percentag e of hemoglobi n in RBC's? The combinati on of hemoglobi n and oxygen is reversible. What depends on the binding or releasing of oxygen?

Antigen A, Anti-B antibody

Antigen B, Anti-A antibody

Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies

Antigen A and B


Oxygen Partial Pressure (Po2) High, > Affinity Low, < Affinity

The partial pressure of O2 (ppO2) is a factor in determinin g the amount of O2 bound to Hb; however there is _____ _____ proportion ality to the ppO2. No Direct What influences supercede s the ppO2's influence on determinin g the amount of O2 bound to Hb? What does DPG stand for? The normal fetal globin portion of Hb consists what chains?

ppCo2 increase pH decrease temp. increases DPG levels increase

Diphosph oglycerate

2 Alpha 2 Gamma

What is a nitrogen containing organic pigment molecule that has a single atome of iron in a reduced statein its center, which can combine with one molecule of oxygen? Hemoglob in combines reversibly with _____ _____ at the protein portion of the hemoglobi n molecule. How does carbon monoxide decrease the amount of oxygen that can be transporte d by hemoglobi n?

Heme molecule

Carbon Dioxide

Competin g with oxygen at the hemoglobi n binding site CO (> affinity) O2

How much higher is the affinity of Carbon monoxide over 240x oxygen? greater

What contains iron in the ferric state (Fe3 ) and cannot function as an oxygen carrier? Which form of hemoglobi n is considere d to be normal?

Methemo globin

Hemoglob in A

Abnormal hemoglobi n in which lysine has replaced glutamic acid, causing reduced plasticity of the red blood cells. An abnormal hemoglobi n composed of four beta chains; it is usually associate d with a defect in three of the four alpha chain genes resulting in alphathalassem ia.

WTR: C it lyses (lysine) Hemoglob in C

WTR: H has 4 points so all 4 are alpha Hemoglob in H

An abnormal hemoglobi n in which valine has replaced glutamic acid in the beta chain. What does the presence of an S hemoglobi n cause the red blood cells to do?

WTR: S is Sickle cell Hemoglob in S

Form a sickle shape in decreased amounts of O2 Circulatio n blockage What Decrease deficienci d oxygen es are carrying caused by capacity S Decrease hemoglobi d cell life n? span What is the predomin ate form of hemoglobi n in Sickle cell anemia? S

A group of abnormal hemoglobi ns in which a single amino acid substitutio n favors the formation of methemo globin and is thus associate d with methemo globinemi Hemoglob a in M Erythropoi etin is produced by _____, and has its primary action on the _____. A glycoprote in hormone produced in the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells by bone marrow.

Kidney Bone Marrow

Erythropoi etin

What is the production of erythropoi etin and thus erythrocyt es regulated by? What is the site of action of action involved with the hormone associate d with erythropoi esis? What leads to anemia, increased cardiac output, and hypoxia? What can lead to polycythe mia, an increase in blood viscosity, and sluggish blood flow? Anemic individuals have _____ oxygen tension but _____ oxygen content in their systemic arterial blood.

Negative feedback associate d with oxygen delivery to tissues (esp. kidneys)

Hemocyto blast (pluripote nt stem cell)

Inadequat e erythropoi esis

Excessive Erythropoi esis

Normal Reduced

Erythrocyt es are _____ disks, _____ in diameter, lack _____ and _____ and contain _____. What are located on the membran es of Erythrocyt es? What is the proportion of erythrocyt es in a sample of blood? What is the life span of erythrocyt es? What is a good indication of the amount of erythrocyt e destructio n per day?

Biconcave 7.5 microns Nucleii Mitochond ria Hemoglob in Lipoprotei ns Specific blood groups (A,B,O)

Hematocri t

105-120 days

Amount of bile pigments excreted by the liver

What happens when the muscle is actively contractin g (in terms of pH, Pco2, and blood temp)?

Lactic acid is being produced (lower pH), CO2 is being produced (increasin g PCO2 -thus decreasin g pH by formation of carbonic acid), and heat is being produced (increase temp of blood). Byproducts of exercise are the exact factors that stimulate O2 release

WTRRight shiftC-BEAT: C02 BPG (2 ,3BPG) Exercise Acid/ Altitude Temperat ure 1. lower PH (acidic conditions decease affinity of Hb for O2. The higher the H ion concentrat ion the less O2 is bound to Hb) 2. Active Increased tissues arterial have what PCO2 characteri (The stics and partial why pressure

Fetal hemoglobi n (2a and 2y subunits) has lower affinity for 2 ,3-BPG than adult hemoglobi n (HbA) and thus has higher affinity for 02. When you're Relaxed, you do your job better (carry 02) . Hemoglob in is composed of 4 polypeptid e subunits More info (2a and

WTR: Young Liver Synthesiz es Blood. Fetal erythropoi esis occurs in: l. Yolk sac (3-8 wk) 2. Liver (630 wk) 3. Spleen (9-28 wk) 4. Bone marrow (28 wk onward)

Fetal hemoglobi Fetal n = a2y2 . erthropoie Adult sis occurs hemoglobi where (4) n = a2b2