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VELTECH MULTI TECH DR. RR DR.

SR ENGINEERING COLLEGE (An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Institution & NBA Accredited) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

LAB MANUAL 185152-ENGINEERING PRACTICE LAB YEAR:1 DEPARTMENT: COMMON TO ALL (CSE, IT, ECE, EEE, MECH, CIVIL, BIOMEDICAL) PREPARED BY: 1) RAJU. S. S 2) BIBIN. M. R 3) RAJA. M 4) BALA SREEKANTH REDDY. P 5) SRIKANTH. P 6) GURU NISHA. N VERIFIED BY: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) SEM:1

HOD/ECE

PRINCIPAL

VELTECH HIGH TECH DR. RR DR. SR ENGINEERING COLLEGE (An ISO 9001:2000 Certified Institution & NBA Accredited) DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

LAB MANUAL 185152-ENGINEERING PRACTICE LAB YEAR: I DEPARTMENT: COMMON TO ALL (ECE, IT, CSE, EEE, MECH, CIVIL, BIOMEDICAL) PREPARED BY: 1) G.R.PREETHA 2) K.KAMARAJ 3) T.S.KALAI MOHAN 4) M.DIVYA 5) V.SENTHIL KUMAR VERIFIED BY: SEM: I

HOD/ECE

PRINCIPAL

185152- ENGINEERING PRACTICE 1. Study of Electronic components and equipments-Resistor, colour coding measurement of AC signal parameter (peak-peak, rms period, and frequency) using CRO. 2. Study of logic gates. 3. Generation of Clock Signal. 4. Soldering practice- Components Devices and Circuits- Using general purpose PCB.
5.

Measurement of ripple factor of HWR and FWR.

6. Study of HALF ADDER. 7. Study of FULL ADDER. REFERENCES: 1. K. Jeyachandran, S. Natarajan & S. Balasubramanian, A Primer on Engineering Practices Laboratory, Anuradha Publications, (2007).
2.

T. Jeyapoovan, M. Saravanapandian & S. Pranitha, Engineering Practices Lab Manual, Vikas Publishing House Pvt.Ltd, (2006). B. S. Bawa, Workshop Practice, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, (2007). A. Rajendra Prasad & P.M.M.S. Sarma, Workshop Practice, Sree Sai Publication, (2002).

3.

4.

5. P. Kanniah & K.L.Narayana, Manual on Workshop Practice, Scitech Publications, (1999).

185152-ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING PRACTICE LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:


1.

Study of Electronic components and equipments - Resistor, colour coding measurement of AC signal parameter (peak-peak, rms period, and frequency) using CRO. Study of logic gates.

2.

3. Generation of Clock Signal. 4. Soldering practice- Components Devices and Circuits- Using general purpose PCB. 5. Measurement of ripple factor of HWR and FWR. 6. Study of HALF ADDER. 7. Study of FULL ADDER.

185152 ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING PRACTICE

REQUIRMENTS 1. SOLDERING GUNS


2. ASSORTED ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS

10 Nos.

FOR MAKING CIRCUITS 3. SMALL PCBs 4. MULTIMETERS

50 Nos. 10 Nos. 10 Nos.

5. STUDY PURPOSE ITEMS: TELEPHONE, FM RADIO, LOW VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

1. STUDY OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS AND EQUIPMENT AIM:


To study the electronic components and equipments and also working of CRO, Multimeter and breadboard. RESISTORS Resistors restrict the flow of electric current, for example a resistor is placed in series with a Light emitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the LED. Most resistors have 4 bands: The first band gives the first digit. The Second band gives the second digit. The third band indicates the number of zeros. The fourth band is used to shows the tolerance (precision) of the resistor.

The Resistor Colour Code Colour Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green No. 0 1 2 3 4 5

Blue Violet Grey White

6 7 8 9

For example: Red, Violet, gold bands represent 27 x 0.1=2.7 Green, blue, Silver bands represent 56 x 0.01=0.56 Special colour code is used for the fourth band tolerance: Silver 10%, Red 5%, Brown 1%. If no fourth band is shown the tolerance is 20%. CAPACITORS: Capacitors store electric charge. They are used with resistors in timing circuits. Capacitance This is a measure of capacitors ability to store charge. A large capacitance means that more charge con be stored. Capacitance is measured in FARADs, symbol F. However IF is very large, so prefixes are used to show the smaller values. DIODES: Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. The arrow of the circuit symbol shows the direction in which the current can flow. Diodes are the electrical version of a value and early diodes were actually called valves. TRANSISTORS: There are two types of standard transistors, NPN and PNP, with different circuit symbols. The letters refer to the layers of semiconductor material used to make the transistor. Most transistors used today are NPN because this is the easiest type to make from silicon. The leads are labeled BASE (B), COLLECTOR (C) and EMITTER (E).

BREAD BOARD: A Bread board is used to make a temporary circuit for testing or to try out an idea. No soldering is required so it is easy to change connections and replace components. Parts will not be

damaged so they will be able to re-use afterwards. Almost all the Electronics Club projects started life on a breadboard to check the circuit worked as intended.

SYMBOL OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS

RESISTOR R

CAPACITOR C

INDUCTOR L

DIODE

TRANSISTOR C P N P E C B

N B E

CARBON RESISTOR

CRO (CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE)

CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE (CRO): An oscilloscope is a test instrument which allows you to look at the shape of electrical signals by displaying a graph of voltage against time on its screen. It is like a voltmeter with the valuable extra function of showing how the voltage varies with time. Gratitude with 1 cm grid enables you to take measurements of voltage and time from the screen. The graph usually called the trace is drawn by a beam of electrons striking the phosphor coating of the screen making it emit light, usually green or blue. This is similar to the way a television picture is produced. Oscilloscopes contain a vacuum tube with a cathode (negative electrode) at one end to emit electrons and an anode (positive electrode) to accelerate them so they move rapidly down the tube to the screen. This arrangement is called an electron gun. The tube also contains electrodes to deflect the electron beam up/down and left/right. The electrons are called cathode rays because they are emitted by the cathode and this gives the oscilloscope its full name of cathode ray oscilloscope or CRO. A dual trace oscilloscope can display two traces on the screen, allowing you to easily compare the input and output of an amplifier for example; it is well worth paying the modest extra cost to have this facility. MULTIMETERS:

Multimeters are very useful test instruments. By operating a multi-position switch on the meter they can be quickly and easily set to be a voltmeter, an ammeter or an ohmmeter. They have several settings (called ranges) for each type of meter and the choice of AC or DC. Some multimeters have additional features such as transistor testing and ranges for measuring capacitance and frequency.

RESULT: Thus the usage of CRO, Multimeter, Breadboard and colour coding of resistor were studied.

2. STUDY OF LOGIC GATES

AIM: To study various Logic gates and truth table. COMPONENTS REQUIRED: SL.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 COMPONENTS IC Trainer kit IC 7408 IC 7432 IC 7404 IC 7400 IC 7402 IC 7486 Connecting wires QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10

THEORY: Logic gates Digital systems are said to be constructed by using logic gates. These gaes are the AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EXOR gates. AND gate (IC 7408) The AND gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) only if all inputs are high. A dot (.) is used to show the AND operation i.e. A.B. Bear in mind that this dot is sometimes omitted i.e. AB. The Circuit diagram, logic symbol and truth table is shown in figure. OR gate (IC 7432) The OR gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) if one or more inputs are high. A plus (+) is used to show the OR operation. A plus (+) is used to show the OR operation. The Circuit diagram, logic symbol and truth table is shown in figure. NOT gate (IC 7404) The NOT gate is an electronic circuit that produces an inverted version of the input as its output. It also known as an inverter. If the input variable is A, the inverted output is known as NOT A. This is also shown as A or A with a bar over the top, as shown at the outputs. The Circuit diagram, logic symbol and truth table is shown in figure.

NAND GATE LOGIC DIAGRAM: A

Y=A.B B PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7400

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM A 1

14 Y=A.B 3

2 7

LED

TRUTH TABLE SL.NO A 1 2 3 4 NOT gate (IC 7404): 0 0 1 1 INPUT B 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT Y 0 1 1 0

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7404:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF IC 7404:

1 A

2 Y

7 TRUTH TABLE: INPUT X 0 1 OUTPUT Y 1 0

NAND gate (IC 7400) This is a NOT-AND gate which is equal to an AND gate followed by a NOT gate. The outputs of all NAND gates are high if any of the inputs are low. The symbol is an AND gate and NOT gate combination. The Circuit diagram, logic symbol and truth table is shown in figure. NOR gates (IC 7402) This is NOT-OR gate which is equal to an OR gate followed by a NOT gate. If all the input is low, then the output of NOR gates will be high. The symbol is an OR gate and NOT gate combination. The Circuit diagram, logic symbol and truth table is shown in figure. EX-OR gates(IC 7486)

The EX-OR gate is a digital logic gates that implements an exclusive disjunction. If both the inputs are same either HIGH (1) or LOW (0) output of EX-OR gate is LOW (0) and if both the inputs are not same the output is HIGH (1).

RESULT The operations of various logic gates and its truth table were logically checked and studied completely and the various logic gates of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EXOR gates functions are studied and verified.

3. GENERATION OF CLOCK SIGNAL

AIM: To design and study the operation of a stable multivibrator using 555 timer.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

SL.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 IC555

COMPONENTS

QUANTITY 1 2 1 2 1 1 10

RESISTOR(10 K) CRO CAPACITOR BREAD BOARD RPS CONNECTING WIRES

PROCEDURE: 1. The Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. The power supply is switched ON. 3. By varying the Voltage and time division in CRO note down the readings of amplitude and time period for square wave signal.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

OUTPUT WAVEFORM

TABULATION: S.No. OUTPUT VOLTAGE IN VOLTS TIME PERIOD TON TOFF

RESULT Thus the operation of a STABLE MULTIVIBRATOR using 555 timer is studied and verified.

4. SOLDERING AND DESOLDERING PRACTICE

AIM: To practice soldering and de-soldering in PCB Board.

REQUIREMENTS SL NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. COMPONENTS PCB BOARD SOLDERING IRON SOLDERING FLUX RESISTOR CAPACITOR SOLDERING LED QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 1

THEORY: SOLDERING IRON Tool with an internal heating element used to heat surfaces being soldered to the point where the solder becomes molten. Usually rod-shaped metal implement with a pointed or wedge-shaped tip, used in soldering metallic parts. A tool for joining metals with solder has a wedge-shaped metal bit, usually of copper, which is heated. Tool with an internal heating element used to heat surfaces being soldered to the point where the solder becomes molten. SOLDERING LED Any of various fusible alloys, usually tin and lead, used to join metallic parts.

SOLDERING FLUX

Flux applied to surfaces that are to be joined by soldering; flux cleans the surfaces and results in a better bond in PCB board. RESISTOR Resistor restrict the flow of electric current, for example a resistor is placed in series with a light emitting diode (LED) to limit the current passing through the LED. The unit to measure resistor is OHM. CAPACITOR Capacitors store electric charge. They are used with resistor in timing circuits. The unit to measure capacitor is CAPACITANCE. LOW PASS FILTER A filter designed to transmit electromagnetic frequencies below a certain value, while excluding those of a higher frequency.

LOW PASS FILTER

PCB BOARD

SOLDERING ROD

SOLDERING LED

RESULT: Thus SOLDERING& DESOLDERING is performed in PCB board.

5. (a) MEASUREMENT OF RIPPLE FACTOR FOR HALF WAVE RECTIFIER AIM: To study, construct and test the characteristic and to measure the ripple factor for HALF WAVE RECTIFIER. COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

SL.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

COMPONENTS DIODE(IN 4007) RESISTOR(1K) CRO TRANSFORMER BREAD BOARD CONNECTING WIRES

QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 10

Formula: Ripple factor=(Vrms/Vac)2-1 Vrms=Vm/2 Vdc=Vm

Procedure: 1. The Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. The AC power supply is switched ON. 3. By varying the Voltage and time divisions in CRO note down the readings of amplitude and time period. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

WAVEFORMS:

TABULATION INPUT AMPLITUDE(V) TIME(S) OUTPUT AMPLITUDE(V) TIME(S)

RESULT: Thus the rectifier is constructed and tested the performance curve for HALF WAVE RECTIFIER is verified.

5. (b) MEASUREMENT OF RIPPLE FACTOR FOR FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

AIM: To study, construct and test the characteristic and to measure the ripple factor for FULL WAVE RECTIFIER. COMPONENTS REQUIRED:

SL.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

COMPONENTS DIODE(IN 4007) RESISTOR(1K) CRO TRANSFORMER BREAD BOARD CONNECTING WIRES

QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 1 10

Formula: Ripple factor= (Vrms/Vac) 2-1 Vrms=Vm/2 Vdc=2Vm

Procedure: 1. The Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. The AC power supply is switched ON. 3. By varying the Voltage and time divisions in CRO note down the readings of amplitude and time period.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

WAVE FORMS:

TABULATION INPUT AMPLITUDE(V) TIME(S) OUTPUT AMPLITUDE(V) TIME(S)

RESULT: Thus the rectifier is constructed and tested the performance curve for FULL WAVE RECTIFIER is verified.

6. STUDY OF HALF ADDER AIM: To construct and verify the truth table of HALF ADDER using logic gates. APPARATUS REQUIRED:

SL.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4.

COMPONENTS BREAD BOARD IC 7408 IC7486 CONNECTING WIRES

QUANTITY 1 1 1 10

PROCEDURE: 1. The Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. The AC power supply is switched ON. 3. The truth table is verified for HALF ADDER.

HALF ADDER DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

RESULT: Thus the HALF ADDER circuit is constructed and its truth table is verified.

7. STUDY OF FULL ADDER

AIM: To construct and verify the truth table of HALF ADDER using logic gates. APPARATUS REQUIRED:

SL.NO. 1. 2. 3. 4. 4.

COMPONENTS BREAD BOARD IC 7408 IC7486 IC7436 CONNECTING WIRES

QUANTITY 1 1 1 1 10

PROCEDURE: 1. The Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. The AC power supply is switched ON. 3. The truth table is verified for FULL ADDER.

FULL ADDER:

TRUTH TABLE:

RESULT: Thus the FULL ADDER circuit is constructed and its truth table is verified.