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LEARN URD

Through English / Hindi


with my novel scientific way

Urdu@ Nasta@]l&q and Urdu@ Naskh


English Transliterated

qdU| k fra@edar maaihr banaanae vaaLaI iktaaba_


Those who do not know Hindi can learn Hind& too!

by
Ratnakar Narale

SANSKRIT HINDI RESEARCH INSTITUTE, TORONTO

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INDEX
Lesson 1 The Urdu Alphabet (Nasta@]l&q and Naskh)

Lesson 2 The Urdu Accent Marks (nukte)

Lesson 3 Joining Urdu Letters

The 1st letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : alif AiLaf[ (English a Hindi A)

14

The 2nd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : be bae

15

The 3rd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : pe pae

(English b ih>dI ba)


(English p ih>dI pa)

16

The 4th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : te tae ( English t ih>dI ta)

18

The 5th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : t<e @e ( English t> ih>dI @)

19

The 6th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : se sae ( English s ih>dI sa)

20

The 7th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : j&m jaIma ( English j ih>dI ja)

22

The 8th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : che cae ( English ch ih>dI ca)

23

The 9th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : he he ( English h ih>dI h)

25

The 10th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : khe S[ae ( English kh ih>dI S[a)

26

The 11th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : da@l daLa ( English d ih>dI d)

27

The 12th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : d<a@l DaLa ( English d< ih>dI D)

29

The 13th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : ja@l jaaLa ( English j ih>dI j[a)

30

The 14th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : re re ( English r ih>dI r)

32

The 15th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : ad<e AD[e ( English d< ih>dI D[)

33

The 16th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : jhe j[ae ( English jh, z ih>dI Ja, j[a)
The 17th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : zhe j[ae ( English z ih>dI j[ya)
The 18th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : s&n saIna ( English s ih>dI sa)

35
36
38

The 19th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : sh&n oaIna ( English sh ih>dI oa)

39

The 20th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : sua@d sauAad ( English s ih>dI sa)

41

The 21st letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : jua@d jauAad ( English xj ih>dI j[a)

42

The 22nd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : toe taae] ( English t ih>dI ta)

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44

The 23rd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : zoe j[aae]

(English jh

ih>dI [j[a)

45

The 24th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : ain ]ena ( English e, a ih>dI ], A)

47

The 25th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : gain gaEna ( English gh ih>dI g[a)

48

The 26th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : fe f[ ( English f ih>dI f[ )

49

The 27th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : qa@f k[af[

(English q Hindi k[)

51

The 28th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : ka@f kaf[ ( English k Hindi k)

52

The 29th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : ga@f gaaf[ ( English g Hindi ga)

53

The 30th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : la@m Laama ( English l Hindi La)

55

The 31st letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : m&m maIma ( English m Hindi ma)

56

The 32nd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : nu@n naUna ( English n Hindi na)

57

The 33rd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : va@o vaaAae ( Eng. v, w Hindi va, q)

59

The 34th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet : chhot>& he Cae@I he ( Eng.h Hindi h)

60

The 35th Urdu letter : do chashm& he dae caomaI he ( English h Hindi h)

62

The 36th letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet hamza@ hmaj[aa u (English i Hindi } )

65

The 37th Urdu letter : chhot>& ye Cae@I yaee ( English y Hindi ya, })

66

The 38th Urdu@ alphabet : bad<& ye baD[I yaee ( English e Hindi ])

68

Lesson 4 Writing Hindi and English Vowels in Urdu

70

Lesson 5 Urdu Diacritical Accent Marks

73

Lesson 6 The Urdu Numerals

80

Lesson 7 MAKING YOUR OWN URDU SENTENCES, Present, past, future

85

Lesson 8 Making Sentences for Completed Actions

98

Lesson 9 Ratnakars Brain Surgery of Urdu Grammar

102

Lesson 10 Use of the Case Suffixes (post-positions)

104

Lesson 11

Adjectives and Adverbs

113

Lesson 12

General Knowledge and Vocabulary

117

Urdu Verbs

130

Lesson 13

Urdu Conversational Road map

131

Lesson 14

Urdu Literature

138

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LESSON 1
THE URDU ALPHABET

qdU| vaNa| maaLaa_ qdU| huWf tahjjaI urdu@ huru@f tahajj&


No.

qdU| naama

Urdu@ name

Hind&

English

Nasta@l&q

Naskh

equivalent

equivalent

style

style

1.

AiLaf[ alif

2.

bae

be

ba

3.

pae

pe

pa

4.

tae

te

5.

@e

6.

ta

t>e

t>

sae

se

sa

7.

jaIma

j&m

ja

8.

cae

che

ca

ch

9.

baD[I he he

10.

S[ae

S[a

kh

khe

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d<a@l

laj

j[a

re

ad<e

D[

jhe

j[a

j[ae
(j[yae)

zhe

j[a, Ja

18.

saIna

s&n

sa

19.

oaIna

sh&n

oa

sh

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

daLa

da@l

1`.

DaLa

j[aaLa

re

AD[e

j[ae

d<

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d<

jh

zh

20.

sauAad

sua@d

sa

21.

jauAad

jua@d

ja

22.

taae]

toe

ta

23.

j[aae]

zoe

j[a

24.

]ena

ain

25.

gaEna

gain

za

gh

26.

f[

fe

f[

27.

k[af[

qa@f

k[

28.

kaf[

ka@f

29.

gaaf[

ga@f

ga

30.

Laama

la@m

La

31.

maIma

m&m

ma

32.

naUna

nu@n

na

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33.

34.

35.

36.

vaaAae

va

va@o

Cae@I he chhot>& he h

dae
caomaI
he

do

hmaj[aa

hamza@

chashm&

he
}

37.

Cae@I yae chhot>& ye ya

38.

baD[I yae bad<& ye

NOTE : Please remember the resembling sounds in Urdu

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LESSON 2
THE DOTS / MARKS

nauk[tae nukte
In Urdu@ many letters are recognized simply by looking at the dots (marks) attached to them.
Following are the letters which can be identified with dots or no-dots.

EXERCISE : The dots (marks) nauk[tae nukte


(i) Write each of the letters with the dot. Remove the the dot and tell it changes.
(ii) Similarly, write each character without the dot. Add the the dot and tell how it changes.
PLEASE DO NOT GO TO LESSON 3, WITHOUT DOING LESSON 2 PROPERLY.

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LESSON 3
JOINING TWO OR MORE URDU LETTERS
dae yaa AiZak hfae|> kae jaaeD[naa_
It is important for English and Hindi knowing people to understand how the letters are truncated or
symbolozed when two, three or more letters come together. I hope you have learned previous lessons
well and you are able to read individual Urdu letters easily, if not, please go back to lesson 1.
LESSON 3.0
THE 39 URDU CHARACTERS
Nasta@]l&q Style : The 39 Urdu Characters



Naskh Style : 39 Urdu Characters



In order to understand Urdu clearly and easily, consideration of the following Three things (ppp) is
essential. (A) Character Properties; (B) Character Positions and (C) the Connector Points.

(A) THE CHARACTER PROPERTIES :


Unique for a Language born in dia, most of the characters of the Urdu can be recognized simply by
looking at the placement, number and presence or absence of the dot/dots or a mark (nauK[ta: nuktah<
) in them. Some say there are 37 characters in Urdu language, most people say there are 38
characters, I say there are 39 characters. These 39 characters can be grouped into sets, according to
their properties.
(a) According to their shapes, the Urdu lettere may be grouped into the following two sets.
i. 1, 2 or 3 dots :

(= )

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ii. No dots :

) ( ) ( )( )( (( )( (( ) ( ((

(b) Again, unique for the Language originated from Sanskrit, Urdu is not only written Right to Left, but
the Nasta@]l&q words and letters can be stacked and compacted, vertically and/or diagonally. e.g.
Mountain pass),
nature),

(jahma, Hell),

(zar, House),

(mauhmmad, Muhammad),

(Sa>jar, Daggar),

(bacapana, Childhood),

(hnaIf[I, Religious),
(iksaIsae, To someone),

(f[ja,

(ihjjaIr, Ones
(bataS[a, Duck),

(naIcae, Below), ( baIca, between) ...etc.

(paICe, Behind),

(B) THE CHARACTER SHAPES :


Also, unique for the Languages of India, characters of the Urdu language are written in four shapes,
depending up on their position in a word.
(1) STAND ALONE POSITION : When a single letter is written as a stand-alone character, it is written
in complete shape, along with its dot (nauK[ta: nuktah<

), if any. e.g. see the 39 Stand-alone Urdu

characters shown above.


(2) STARTING POSITION : When there are two or more letters in a word, the first letter is written
in Starting Position. the last letter in its End position and the rest in their Middle position.
For example : saba sab (all)
(Lesson)

(s&n is written in Starting shape, and be in End shape) sabak[ sabaq

(s&n is written in Starting shape, be in Middle position and qa@f in End shape)

NOTE : Urdu words can start from 37 of the 39 characters shown above. Their Starting shapes are :
Nasta@]l&q style : 37 Urdu Characters in Starting position

Z z ( never comes in Starting position) r z wd a


Naskh style : 37 Urdu Characters in Starting position

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LESSON
The 1st letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet :

3.1

alif AiLaf[ (English a

Hindi

A)

Nasta@]l&q style :

Stand Alone

End Position

Middle Position

a
Starting Positoin

Naskh style :

Stand Alone

End Position

Middle Position

a
Starting Positoin

TIP 7 : (i) No letter is connected on the LEFT SIDE of the Letter AiLaf[ alif (A a ).
(ii) alif can be connected to the letter on its right side only. Therefore, in the Middle
position and in End position, the shape of alif remains same.
Examples : Urdu@ alif

( Naskh
( )Hindi A English a )

(for the letters be and pe, please see Lessons 3.1 and 3.2 or the Back Cover of the book)
(i) Letter alif in Stand-alone position ( )
(ii) Letter alif in Starting position ( ) : Aba ab (now) = Right to Left $ ba b + A a = + =

(as Initial letter, alif AiLaf[

must be written in Stand-alone shape; therefore, be bae

also becomes a Stand-alone letter).


(iii) Letter alif in Middle position () : baapa ba@p (father) = Right to Left $ pa p + a A + ba b =

+ =+

+=

(Naskh ( ) be is written in Starting shape, alif in Middle

position is attached to be, but it is detached from pe. Letter pe is written detached from alif, in Standalone shape). See TIP 5

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(iv) Letter alif in End position () : Abbaa abba@ = Right to Left $ a A

+ ba b + a A

+ ba b

+ aA

= aA

(Naskh ( ) alif is in Starting shape, be is in Middle position and second

alif [ is written in End shape, which is same as its Middle position shape). See TIP 4
NOTE : When the AiLaf[ alif (A a ) comes after the Urdu@ letters dal () , d<al ( ), jal (

ade () , jhe (

) and zhe ( ) , the alif is written as a Stand-alone letter. eg\

) , re () ,

NOTE : PLEASE DO NOT GO TO NEXT LESSONS , WITHOUT DOING CURRENT LESSON PROPERLY.

PLEASE Remembner this Instruction for All Lessons.

LESSON
The 2nd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet :

3.2

be bae

(English b

ih>dI

ba)

Nasta@]l&q style :

b
Stand Alone

End Position

Middle Position

Starting Positoin

Naskh style :

b
Stand Alone

End Position

REMEMBER : bae be () , pae pe (

Middle Position

Starting Positoin

) , tae te ( ) , @e t>e ( ) and sae se ( )are first

group of the five letters that can easily be identified by looking at their dots (nukte).

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Examples : Letter be ( ) Urdu@ be

) (Hindi ba English b )

(Naskh

(for letters s and q please see Lessons 3.18 and 3.27 or see the back cover of the book)
(i) Letter be in Stand-alone position ()
(ii) Letter be in Starting position () : e.g. basa bas (Enough!) = Right to Left $ sa s + ba b =

= + =

(Naskh

) (be is in Starting position and s&n is in End-position)

(iii) Letter be in Middle position () : e.g. sabak[ sabaq (Lesson) = Right to Left $k[ q + ba b + sa s =

++ = + +=

) (s&n is written in Starting shape, be is

(Naskh

written in Middle shape and qa@f is written in End shape).


(iv) Letter be in End position () : e.g. saba sab (All) Right to Left $ b ba + s sa =

= + =

(Naskh

) (s&n is written in Starting shape, and be is written in End

shape).
EXERCISE :
1. Read the following Urdu@ words and write them several times (Nasta@]l&q or Naskh) :
(Nasta@]l&q)

(Naskh)

2. Write the following words in Urdu@ : (Nasta@]l&q or Naskh)


Aba ab (Now), sabak[ sabaq (Lesson), saba sab, (All), basa bas (Enough!)
LESSON
The 3rd letter of the Urdu@ Alphabet :

3.3

pe pae ( English p

Nasta@]l&q style :

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ih>dI

pa)

Stand Alone

End Position

Middle Position

Starting Positoin

Naskh style :

Stand Alone

End Position

Middle Position

Examples : Letter pe (

(Naskh

) Urdu@ pe

Starting Positoin

) ( Hindi pa English p )

for letters re and che please see Lessons 3.14 and 3.3, or see the back cover of the book
(i) Letter pe in Stand-alone position ()
(ii) Letter pe in Starting position () : e.g. par par (Wing) Right to Left $ r r + pa p =

+=

(Naskh

) (pe is in Starting position and letter re is in End-position)

(iii) Letter pe in Middle position () : e.g. capata chapat (a slap) Right to Left $ t ta + p pa + ch ca =

+ +

= + + =

(Naskh

) (che is written in Starting

shape, pe is written in Middle shape and te is written in End shape.


(iv) Letter pe in End position () : e.g. tapa tap (Feaver, Heat) Right to Left $ pa p + ta t =

+ = +

(Naskh

) (te is written in Starting shape, and pe is written

in End shape.

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WRITING HINDI BREATH CHARACTERS IN URDU

Sa kha, za gha, C chha, Ja jha, # t>ha, $ d<ha, $[ d<ha, Ya tha, Za dha, f pha, Ba
Hind&

Urdu@

bha

e.g.

Sa

kha = ka@f + do chashm& he

za

gha = ga@f + do chashm& he

chha = che + do chashm& he

Cta chhat (roof)

Ja

jha = j&m

+ do chashm& he

Ja@ jhat> (quick)

t>ha = t>e

+ do chashm& he

La# lat>h (stick)

d<ha = da@l

+ do chashm& he

$[

d<ha = ad<e + do chashm& he

Ya

tha = te

+ do chashm& he

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rSa rakh (keep)

zar ghar (home)

$ba d<hab (mode)

pa$[ pad<h (read)

rYa rath (Chariot)

Za

dha = da@l + do chashm& he

pha = pe + do chashm& he

Ba

bha

= be + do chashm& he

Zana dhan (wealth)

fLa phal (fruit)

Ba@ bhat> (warrior)

PLEASE DO NOT ADVANCE TO NEXT LESSON , WITHOUT DOING PREVIOUS LESSONS PROPERLY.

LESSON
The 37th letter :

3.37

chhot>& ye Cae@I yaee ( English y Hindi ya, })

Nasta@]l&q style :

Stand Alone

End Position

Middle Position

Starting Positoin

Naskh style :

i
Stand Alone

End Position

Middle Position

Starting Positoin

NOTE : This is the first ya y type of sound (see : baD[I yae bad[& ye 3.38)
NOTES :
(1) chhot>& ye is sometimes used as consonant ya y when comes as initial character, but mostly used as
vowel } or }| i or & when it comes after a consonant.

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e.g. (i) yaa ya@ (chhot>& ye + alif)

(ii) kI ki (ka@f + chhot>& ye)

(2) In itial position in a sentence, letter } i is written as a slante line (zer) drawn under the letter alif.
e.g. }Zar idhar (On this side) ) (
(3) In itial and Middle positions, chhot>& ye is recognized by the conspicuous two dots under the letter.
e.g. }|d &d

(ain + chhot>& ye + da@l)

(4) chhot>& ye is mostly used for Feminine words.


e.g. bae@I bet>& (daughter)

Examples : ya, } y, i

(be + chhot>& ye + t>e + chhot>& ye)

: Urdu@ chhot>& ye

(Naskh

) (ih>dI ya, } English v, w )

(i) Letter chhot>& ye in Stand-alone position ()


(ii) Letter chhot>& ye in Starting position ( ) : e.g. yaa ya@ (Or), Right to Left $ A a + ya y =

= + =

(nask

) (chhot>& ye is in itial shape and alif is in End position)

(iii) Letter chhot>& ye in Middle position () : e.g. taIna t&n (Three) Right to Left $ na n + }| & + ta t
= +

= + + =

(nask

) (te is in Starting shape, chhot>& ye

is in Middle position and nu@n is in End position).


(iv) Letter chhot>& ye in End position () : e.g. paI p& (Drink) Right to Left $ }| & + pa p =

= +

(nask

) (pe is in Starting shape and chhot>& ye is in End position).

EXERCISE :
1. Read the following Urdu@ words and write them several times (Nasta@]l&q or Naskh) :
(Nasta@]l&q)

(Naskh)

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2. Write the following words in Urdu@ : (Nasta@]l&q or Naskh)


kI k& (Did), paI p& (Drank), LaI l& Took), dI d& (Gave), yaa ya@ (Or), ibana bin(Without)

LESSON
The 38th letter of the Urdu@ alphabet :

3.38

bad<& ye baD[I yaee ( English e Hindi ])

Nasta@]l&q style :

e
Stand Alone

End Position

Middle Position

Starting Positoin

Naskh style :

Stand Alone

End Position

Middle Position

Starting Positoin

NOTE : This is the first ya y type of sound (see : Cae@I yae chhot>& ye 3.37)
NOTES :
TIP 7 : Similar to the chhot>& ye, bad<& ye is also used as vowel ] e when comes after another vowel or
a consonant. eg. (i) yaa ya@ (chhot>& ye + alif)
(ii) saI s& (s&n + chhot>& ye)

( ) ii) saeba seb (s&n + bad<& ye + be)

) (ii) sae se (s&n + bad[& ye)

TIP 8 : Similar to Letters daLa da@l () , DaLa d<a@l (

) , j[aaLa ja@l ( ;)re re (), AD[e ad<e ( ) , j[ae jhe ( ) ,

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jyae zhe (

) and va@o vaaAae (), letter bad<& ye ()

also does not connect to the letter on its left

side. Therefore, in starting position, it is written as a Stand alone letter. e.g. maera mera@

(m&m

+ bad<& ye + re + alif)
TIP 9 : In Middle positions, sometimes chhot>& ye is used in place of the bad<& ye. and then it is easily
recognized by the conspicuous two dots under the letter.
e.g. (1) baeksa bekas

(be + bad<& ye + s&n) (2) ]k ek (aik)

(alif + chhot>& ye +

ka@f)
TIP 10 : bad<& ye is mostly used for Masculine words and chhot>& ye for Feminine words.

Examples : ya, } y, i

: Urdu@ bad<& ye

(Naskh

( ) ih>dI ] English e )

(i) Letter bad<& ye in Stand-alone position ()


(ii) Letter bad<& ye in Starting position ( ) : In Starting position, alif and chhot>& ye is used in place
of bad<& ye. .e.g. ]bak ebak (Slave), Right to Left $ k k + ba b + ] e + A a = + +
+

= + + + a =

(nask

(alif and chhot>& ye are in itial shape, be is in

Middle shape and ka@f is in End position)


(iii) Letter bad<& ye in Middle position () : e.g. baeksa brkas (Hurt, sad) Right to Left $ sa s + k

k + ] e + ba b = + +

+ = + + +

(nask

(be is in Starting shape, bad<& ye and ka@f are in Middle position and s&n is in End position).

(iv) Letter bad<& ye in End position () : e.g. Lae le (Take!) Right to Left $ ] e + La l =

= +

(nask

) (la@m is in Starting shape and bad<& ye is in End

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position).
EXERCISE :
1. Read the following Urdu@ words and write them several times (Nasta@]l&q or Naskh) :

(Nasta@]l&q)
(Naskh)

2. Write the following words in Urdu@ : (Nasta@]l&q or Naskh)


Lae le (Take), de de (Give), maera mera@ (My), baeksa bekas (Sad), yaa ya@ (Or)
PLEASE DO NOT ADVANCE TO NEXT LESSON , WITHOUT DOING THIS LESSON PROPERLY.

LESSON 4
WRITING HINDI AND ENGLISH VOWELS IN URDU
ih>dI ]va> A>gaRej[aI svarae> kae qdU| mae> iLaSanaa_
(1) A (a) :

For producing the sound of Short vowel a, as the first A in the English word America AmaerIka,
or Hindi word Aba ab, please see Urdu@ letter alif in Section 3.1 above. eg. AmarIka amrika@

(America)

(2) Aa (a@, aa) :

(i) To write the Long vowel a@ (Aa) sound at the begining of a word, like Aa a@ in the word Aaga a@g
(Fire), write the letter alif and put a tilde like sign ( ~ ) above to make it look like
(Fire)

(Naskh )

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e.g. Aaga a@g

(ii) The Long a@ sound within or at the end of the word : like Aa a@ in the the word maataa ma@ta@

LESSON 5
URDU DIACRITICAL ACCENT MARKS
maa%aa]> (]raba)
(1) Zabar j[abar

( Naskh ) :

e.g.

...etc.

Zabar is always written as SUPERSCRIPT (above). Its shape is like

French acute accent. Appearing initially, Zabar should be placed over letter alif.
It ipmarts a plain sound (like A a ) to the consonant below it.

e.g.

= (A + A, a + a)

= (ba` + A, b + a)

= (pa` + A, p +

a)

(2) Zer j[aer

French accent aigue.


It adds a sound of } i to the consonant above it.
Appearing initially, Zer should be placed under letter alif.

= } i,

(Naskh

=iba bi, (ba` + }, b + i), = ipa pi, (pa` + }, p + i)


) : e.g.

...etc.

Pesh is always written as SUPERSCRIPT. Its shape is like English comma.


It adds a sound of q u to the consonant below it.
Appearing initially, Pesh should be placed over letter alif.
e.g.

(4) Mad mad


...etc.

e.g.

Zer is always written as SUBSCRIPT (bolow). Its shape is like

e.g.

(3) Pesh paeoa

):

(Naskh

(Naskh

= q u,


= bau bu, (ba` + q, b + u),


= pau pi, (pa` + q, p + u)

) : e.g.

Mad is always written as SUPERSCRIPT. Its shape is like Spanish tilde.


It gives a sound of Aa a@ to the letter alif.

mad should be placed over letter alif.

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A PRELIMINARY VOCABULARY OF KEY URDU WORDS


READ the Urdu@ words and WRITE them. Understand and remember as many as possible.
I maE> mai (

Am hU hu@ ) (

I am maE> hU mai hu@ (

Is hE hai (

Are hE> hai (

This yah, yae yah, ye ) (

We hma ham ) (

We are hma hE> ham hai (

You Aapa a@p )(

You tauma tum ) (

You are tauma hae tum ho (

You are taU hE tu@ hai (

He-She vah, vaae vah, vo )(

They vah vah )(

To us hmae> hame (

To you Aapakae a@p ko ) (

To him qsakae us ko ) ( ,
I maE>nae mai ne (

To them qnakae un ko ) (
He-She qsanae us ne (

You Aapanae a@p ne (

You taumanae tum ne (

You taUnae tu@ ne (

From you tauJasae tujh se (

For us hmaare iLayae hama@re liye (


(
)

From them qnasae un se (

)
)

For them qnak iLayae unke liye


My maere mere (

Our hmaarI hama@r& (

For you Aapak iLayae a@pke liye

My maerI mer& (

From you taumasae tum se (

For me maere iLayae mere liye (


(
)

From me mauJasae mujh se (

From Him-her qsasae us se (

Our hmaara hama@ra@ (

To me mauJae mujhe (

From you Aapasae a@p se (

My maera mera@ (

)\

Our hmaare

hama@re

Your Aapaka a@p ka@ ) ( ,


( )

Your AapakI a@p k& (

In me mauJamae> mujh me (
In you Aapamae> a@p me (
In them qnamae> un me (

)
)
)

Your Aapak a@p ke

In you tauJamae> tujh me (


In that qsamae> us me (

On me mauJa par mujh par (

On you tauma par tum par ) (

On you tauJa par tujh par ) (

On you Aapa par a@p par ) (

On that qsa par us par ) (

On this }sa par is par (

On them qna par un par ) (

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LESSON 6
THE URDU NUMERALS


0 sifr
1 ek
2 do
3 t&n

isaf`r
One book. ek kita@b ]k iktaaba_ (

]k

dae

Two books. dok kita@be (

taIna

Three books t&n kita@be

)
)

4 cha@r
5 pa@n~ch
6 chhah
7 sa@t
8 a@t>h
9 nau
10 das

caar
paaca
Ch
saata
Aa#
naaE
dsa

EXERCISE 13 :
(1) Read the numbers in Urdu@ :
1 7 9 4 0 3 2 8 5 6
(2) Read the following Urdu numerals :


(3) Read and Write the following Urdu@ numerals :

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LESSON 7
MAKING YOUR OWN URDU SENTENCES
Apanae Aapa qdU| jaumaLae banaanae kI maok_

1 MAKING SIMPLE SENTENCES - about a Present event, with IS (hai hE)

Key words : NOTE, The sign is a nasal tone added to the vowel under that
English

Hindi

Urdu

maE> (mai)

You

Aapa (a@p)

He, she, that

English Hindi

Urdu

am

hU (hu@)

) (

)(

are

hE> (hai)

vah (vah)

)(

is

hE (hai)

This, it

yah (yah)

) (

They

vah (vah)

)(

My

maera (mera@)

your

Aapaka (a@p-ka@)

) (

Our

hmaara (hama@ra@)

(
Subject

)
)

Hisher qsaka (us-ka@)

) (

) TABLE 1 : Speaking Present Events


am

is

are

maE> mai (

He, that

vah vah )(

hE (hai) (

She, that

vah vah )(

hE (hai) (

We

hma ham ) (

hE> (hai) (

You

Aapa a@p )(

hE> (hai) (

You

tauma tum ) (

hae (ho) ) (

You

taU tu@ ) (

hE> (hai) (

They

vah vah )(

hE> (hai) (

These

yah yah ) (

hE> (hai) (

hU (hu@) ) (

NOTE : The above table shows that :


(i) A Present Event is shown by suffix hu@, hai or hai hU, hE, hE> ) ( , (
Masuline

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), (

I am a boy

maE> LaDka hU

mai lad<ka@ hu@

You are a boy

taU LaDka hE

tu@ lad<<ka@ hai

He is a boy

vah LaDka hE

vah lad<ka@ hai

This is a boy

yah LaDka hE

yah lad<ka@ hai

I am a girl

maE> LaDkI hU

mai lad<k& hu@

You are a girl

taU LaDkI hE

tu@ lad<k& hai

She is a girl

vah LaDkI hE

vah lad<k& hai

This is a girl

yah LaDkI hE

yah lad<k& hai

Feminine
)

IMPORTANT NOTE
BECAUSE URDU IS A DAUGHTER OF HINDI LANGUAGE, WITH ITS GRAMMAR INTACT,
ALL HINDI SENTENCES WRITTEN IN URDU SCRIPT ARE URDU SENTENCES.
Popular and difficult English words may also be used in Urdu sentences as if they were Urdu words.
EXERCISE : ) (
Translate the English sentences into Urdu (Answers are given for your help)
1. I am a man. mai a@dam& hu@. maE> AadmaI hU_ (

2. I am a woman. mai aurat hu@. maE> AaErta hU_ (

)
)

3. I am a Cashier. mai cashier hu@. maE> cashier hU_ (


4. I am a Judge. mai judge hu@. maE> jaja hU_ (

5. I am a Surgeon. mai surgeon hu@. maE> surgeon hU_ (

6. I am a Chemist. mai chemist hu@ maE> chemist hU_ (


7. It is good. yah achha@ hai yah AcCa hE_ (

8. I am an Inspector. mai inspector hu@. maE> inspector hU_ (


9. She is a Midwife. vah midwife hai. vah midwife hE_ (
10. He is a Conductor. vah conductor hai. vah conductor hE_ (
11. I am alright (ok). mai t>h&k hu@. maE> #Ik hU_ (

)
)

12. Ra@ma is a Tennis player. Ra@m tenn&s khila@d<& hai. rama @einasa iSaLaaDI hE_
(

13. My name is Ratnakar/ mera@ na@m Ratna@kar hai. maera naama rtnaakr hE_ (
)

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USING URDU PLURAL WORDS


RATNAKARS FIRST THREE NOBLE TRUTHS :

(Singular to Plural)

FIRST TRUTH : If the word is Masculine ending in a@ (Aa), the a@ (Aa) changes to e (]) in plural.
eg\ singular m\ Boy LaDka lad<ka@ (

) # plural m\ Boys LaDk lad<ke (

SECOND TRUTH : If the word is Feminine ending in a consonant, then e (]) is added in plural.
eg\ singular f\ Book iktaaba kita@b (

) # plural f\ Books iktaabae> kita@be (

THIRD TRUTH : If the word is Feminine ending in & (}|), the & (}|) changes to iya@ (}yaa) in plural.
e.g. Singular f\ Girl LaDkI lad<k& #

( ) # plural f\ Girls LaDikyaa ladkiya@ (

MORE EXAMPLES : (* = no change)

(kutta@)

Dog (m\)

kTaa

Cat (f\)

ibaLLaI (bill&)

Car (f\)

gaaDI

*House (m\)

( )

# Dogs

kTae

ibaiLLayaa (billiya@)

( )

(ga@d<&)

( ) # Cars

gaaiDyaa

(ga@diya@)

) (

zar

(ghar)

# Houses

zar

(ghar)

Thing (f\)

caIja

(ch&j)

( )

# Things

caIjae>

(ch&je)

) (

Cow (f\)

gaaya

(ga@y)

gaa]

(ga@e)

(usta@d)

PLURALS

) # Cows

) # Teachers qstaad

( )

*Teacher (m\) qstaad (usta@d)

# Cats

(kutte)

We are boys

hma LaDk hE>

ham lad<ke hai

You are boys

Aapa LaDk hE>

a@p lad<ke hai

They are boys

vah LaDk hE>

vah lad<ke hai

These are boys

yah LaDk hE>

ye lad<ke hai

We are girls

hma LaDikyaa hE>

ham lad<kiya@ hai

You are girls

Aapa LaDikyaa hE>

a@p lad<kiya@ hai

They are girls

vah LaDikyaa hE>

vah lad<kiya@ hai

These are girls

yah LaDikyaa hE>

ye lad<kiya@ hai

EXERCISE : ) (
Translate the English sentences into Urdu (Answers are given for help)
1. We are men. ham a@dam& hai. hma AadmaI hE>_

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)
)

()
(

2. We are women. ham aurate hai. hma AaErtae> hE>_ (

3. This is a house. yah ghar hai. yah zar hE_ (

4. Those are houses. vah ghar hai. vah zar hE>_ (

5. This is a dog. yah kutta@ hai. yah kTaa hE_ (


6. Those are dogs. vah kutte hai. vah kTae hE>_

7. That is a cat. vah bill& hai. vah ibaLLaI hE_ (


8. These are cats. yah billiya@ hai. yah ibaiLLayaa hE>_

)
)

9. You are a Painter. (a@p painter hai. Aapa paen@r hE>) (

10. These are Urdu books. (yah Urdu kita@be hai. yah qdU| iktaabae> hE>) (

11. Those are red cars. (vah la@l ga@diya@ hai. vah LaaLa gaaiDyaa hE>) (

12. Those cars are red. (vah ga@diya@ la@l hai. vah gaaiDyaa LaaLa hE>) (

13. Kha@n is a Weaver. (Kha@n jula@ha@ hai. Saana jauLaaha hE) (

14. She is an Indian. (vah Hindustan& hai. vah ih>dustaanaI hE) (


16. They are Chinese. (vah Ch&n& hai. vah caInaI hE>) (

15. You are American. (a@p Amrican hai. Aapa AmarIkna hE>) (

)
)

3 SPEAKING A PAST EVENT - WAS (Yaa)

) )

Key words: Here = yaha@ yaha) ( , There = vaha@ vaha) ( , Where = kaha@ kha (
Rich =am&r AmaIr ) (, Poor= gar&b g[arIba
(
tak(
(
Subject
I

), Up to = tak

) TABLE 2 : Speaking Past Events

was (m\)
maE> mai (

), Dont =mata(

was (f\)

were (m\)

were (f\)

Yaa tha@ ) ( YaI th&


( )

He

vah vah )(

She

vah vah )(

Yaa tha@ ) (
YaI th&
( )

We

hma ham ) (

Yae the
( )

YaI> th&(

You

Aapa a@p )(

Yae the
( )

YaI> th&(

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You

tauma tum ) (

You

taU tu@ ) (

Yae the
( )
YaI th&

YaI> th&(

Yaa tha@ ) (

( )
They

vah vah )(

Yae the
( )

YaI> th&(

These

yah yah ) (

Yae the
( )

YaI> th&(

NOTE : The above table shoes that :


(i) Suffixes for the Past events are tha@, th&, the, th& (Yaa YaI Yae YaI>) ) ( , ) ( , (

), (

(ii) Ending a@ (Aa) stands for masculine gender, singular subject (I, you, he)
(iv) Ending & (}|) shows a feminine singular subject (I, she)
(v) Ending e (]>) stands for masculine plural subject (we, you, they)
(vi) Ending letter & (}|>) stands for feminine plural subject (we, you, they)
* In Urdu and Hindi there is no Neuter gender, all English Neuter things are Masculine or Feminine.
Masculine :
I was

maE> Yaa

mai tha@

We were

hma Yae

ham the

You were

Aapa Yae

a@p the

Where were you

Aapa kha{ Yae?

a@p kaha@ the?

He was here

vah yaha Yaa

vah yaha@ tha@

) (

They were here

vah yaha Yae

vah yaha@ the

* It was here

yah yaha Yaa

yah yaha@ tha@

These were here

yah yaha Yae

yah yaha@ the

I was poor

maE> g[arIba Yaa

mai gar&b tha@

He was rich

vah AmaIr Yaa

vah am&r tha@

Who were poor?

g[arIba kaEna Yae?

gar&b kaun the

I was

maE> YaI

mai th&

We were

hma YaI>

ham th&

)
)

Feminine :

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)
)

You were

Aapa YaI>

a@p th&

Where were you

Aapa kha{ YaI>?

a@p kaha@ th&?

She was here

vah yaha YaI

vah yaha@ th&

They were here

vah yaha YaI>

vah yaha@ th&

* It was here

yah yaha YaI

yah yaha@ th&

These were here

yah yaha YaI>

yah yaha@ th&

I was poor

maE> g[arIba YaI

mai gar&b th&

She was rich

vah AmaIr YaI

vah am&r th&

Who were poor?

g[arIba kaEna YaI>?

gar&b kaun th&?

)
)

)
)

EXERCISE : Present tense and Past tense ) (


Translate the English sentences into Urdu (Answers are given for help)
Key Words : Not = nah& nahI> (
Also = bh& BaI (

), And = aur AaEr )( , Or = ya@ yaa ) ( ,


), Only = h& hI (

1. I was an engineer. main engineer tha@. maE> engineer Yaa_ (


2. She was dentist. vah dentist th&. vah dentist YaI_ (
3. Where was she? vah kaha@ th&. vah kha YaI_ (
4. He is a thief. vah chor hai. vah caaer hE_ (

)
)

5. They are thieves. vah chor hai. vah caaer hE>_ (

6. You were there. a@p vaha@ the. Aapa vaha Yae_ (

USING THE ACTION WORDS


FOR MAKING YOUR OWN SENTENCES
Let us learn how to make our own sentences in the following five ways
1. I normally do (habitual) (you do; he, she, it does; we do, they do)

see - Table 3

2. I am doing

(you are doing; he, she, it is doing; we, they are doing)

3. I was doing

(you were doing; he, she, it was doing; they were doing) Table 5

5. I had already done

(you had done; he, she, it had done; we, they had done)

Table 6

6. I used to do

(you used to do; he, she, it used to do; they used to do)

Table 7

Table 4

) TABLE 3 : Making sentences with - I do; you do; he, she, it does; we do; they do.
Doer of the action

Subject

drink

am, is, are, has, have

Verb Masculine

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Verb Feminine

Present tense

maE> mai (

I drink

paItaa p&ta@ (

paItaI p&t& (

hU hu@ (

)
He drinks

vah vah )(

She drinks

vah vah )(

We drink

hma ham ) (

paItae p&te (

You drink

Aapa a@p )(

You drink

paItaa p&ta@ (

hE (hai) (

paItaI p&t& (

hE (hai) (

paItae p&te (

hE> (hai) (

paItae p&te (

paItae p&te (

hE> (hai) (

tauma tum ) (

paItae p&te (

paItaI p&t& (

hae (ho) ) (

You drink

taU tu@ ) (

paItaa p&ta@ (

paItaI p&t& (

hE (hai) (

They drink

vah vah )(

paItae p&te (

paItae p&te (

hE> (hai) (

EXERCISE : ) ( 1. Present

)
)

Habitual mode

Translate the English sentences into Urdu (Answers are given for help)
1. I drink tea. mai cha@y p&ta@ (p&t&) hu@ maE> caaya paItaa (paItaI) hU (

You drink tea. a@p cha@y p&te hai. Aapa caaya paItae hE>_ (

He drinks tea. vah cha@y p&ta@ hai. vah caaya paItaa hE_ (

2. She eats hot Samosa@s vah garam samose khat& hai vah garma samaaesae SaataI hE

We walk 10 km. ham das km chalte hai. hma 10 km.caLatae hE>_ (

They drink hot tea. vah garam cha@y p&te hai. vah garma caaya paItae hE>_ (
)
3. They eat bananas. vah kele kha@te hai. vah kLae Saatae hE>_ (

4. She sleeps at 10 O Clock. vah das baje sot& hai vah dsa bajae saaetaI hE (
)

5. You write books. a@p kita@be likhte hai. Aapa iktaaba iLaSatae hE>_ (
)

6. He goes home. vah ghar ja@ta@ hai. vah zar jaataa hE_ (
(

) TABLE 4 : Use of, I am doing; you are doing; he, she is doing; we are doing; they are

doing

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Doing (verb drink = paI p&)

Doer of the action

I am drinking etc.
maE> mai (

Verb Masculine : xxxing


)

paI rha p& raha@ ) (

I am, he is, they are

Verb Feminine : xxxing


paI rhIp& rah& (

hU hu@ (

)
He

vah vah )(

She

vah vah )(

paI rha p& raha@ ) (


paI rhIp& rah& (

hE (hai) (

hE (hai) (

hE> (hai) (

hE> (hai) (

)
hma ham ) (

We

paI rhe p& rahe (

paI rhe p& rahe (

)
You

Aapa a@p )(

paI rhe p& rahe (

paI rhe p& rahe (

)
You

tauma tum ) (

paI rhe p& rahe (

paI rhIp& rah& (

)
You

taU tu@ ) (

hae (ho) ) (

paI rha p& raha@ ) (

paI rhIp& rah& (

hE (hai) (

hE> (hai) (

)
They vah vah )(

paI rhe p& rahe (

paI rhe p& rahe (

* NOTE : Generally, Masculine Plural verb is used for Feminine Plural verb also.

EXERCISE : ) (

ON WHAT WE LEARNED SO FAR

Translate the Hind& sentences into English (Answers are given for help)
Key Words :

O Clock, at O Clock = baje bajae (

Tomorrow, Yesterday = kal kLa (


When? = kab kba (

); Today = a@j Aaja ;)(

); Now = ab Aba ;)( Then = tab taba (

);

); What? = kya@ Kyaa ;) ( Work = ka@m kama ) (

1.Anjal& is coming at two O Clock. an~jal& do baje a@ rah& hai. A>jaLaI dae bajae Aa rhI hE_
(

)
2. They are not working today. vah a@j ka@m nah& kar rahe hai. vah Aaja kama nahI> kr rhe hE>_
(

)
3. Yesterday she was eating two Roties. Vah kal do rot>iya@ kha@ rah& th&. vah kLa dae raei@yaa Saa rhI YaI_

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4. What Ahmad Ali was saying yesterday? Ahmad Ali kal kya@ kah raha@ tha@. Ahmad ALaI kLa Kyaa kh
rha Yaa? (
)
5. M&ra@ was singing Urdu songs. (song = ga@na@) m&ra@ Urdu ga@ne ga@ rah& th&. maIra qdU| gaanae gaa rhI YaI_
(

6. Ra@dha@ wants a cup of tea. Ra@dha@ ek kap cha@y cha@hat& hai. raZaa ]k kpa caaya caahtaI hE_
(

7. R&ta@ is now going home. R&ta@ ab ghar ja@ rah& hai. rItaa Aba zar jaa rhI hE_
(

)
8. N&ta@ can run 10 km. N&ta@ das kilo-mitar bha@g sakt& hai. naItaa dsa ikLaae-ima@r Baaga saktaI hE_
(

)
9. You can not walk even one km. a@p ek km.bh& nah& chal sakte hai. Aapa ]k ik.maI. BaI nahI> caLa saktae_
(

)
10. Yesterday a house was burning. kal ek ghar jal raha@ tha@. kLa ]k zar jaLa rha Yaa_
(
)
11. Gopa@l has already fried the Samosa@@/. Gopa@l samose tal chuka@ hai. gaaepaaLa samaaesae taLa cauka hE_
(

)
12. Mona@ had already brought the books. Mona@ kita@be la@ chuk& th&. maaenaa iktaabae> Laa caukI YaI_
(

)
13. Masood Nabi reads at 7 O Clock. Masu@d nab& sa@t baje pad<hta@ hai. masaUd nabaI saata bajae pa$taa hE_
(

)
14. I used to drink only coffee, now I drink tea also. mai ka@f& h& p&ta@ tha@, ab mai cha@y bh& p&ta@ hu@. maE>
kafI hI paItaa Yaa, Aba maE> caaya BaI paItaa hU_
(

)
15. They had already played Chess. vah shatranj khel chuke the. vah oatar>ja SaeLa cauk Yae_

5. MAKING YOUR OWN SENTENCES FOR FUTURE EVENTS


(

) TABLE 8 : Future actions : I will do, I will eat, I will go, ...etc.

Doer of the action

drink

Subject
I will drink

maE> mai (

am, is, are, has, have

Verb Masculine : will

Verb Feminine : will

paIQ{gaa p&u@nga@

paIQ{gaI p&u@ng& (

( )

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He will drink

vah vah )(

She will drink

vah vah )(

We will drink

hma ham ) (

]gaa p&ega@ (

paI]{gae p&enge
(

You will drink

Aapa a@p )(

paI]gaI p&eg& (

paI]{gae p&enge (

paI]{gae p&enge (

paI]{gae p&enge
(

You will drink

tauma tum ) (

paIAaegae p&oge (

You will drink

taU tu@ ) (

]gaa p&ega@ (

They will drink

vah vah )(

paI]{gae p&enge
(

paIAaegaI p&og& (

paI]gaI p&eg& (

paI]{gae p&enge (

*NOTE : Generally, masculine plural forms for feminine plural tenses also.
EXERCISE : ) ( Future

Events

Translate the English sentences into Hind& (Answers are given for help)
1. I will eat a mango. mai ek a@m kha@u@n[ga@ (kha@u@n[g&). maE ]k Aama> SaaQgaa (SaaQgaI)_

2. You will bring the money. a@p paise la@en[ge. Aapa paEsae Laa]gae_ (

3. He (she) will wash clothes tomorrow. vah kal kapd<e dhoega@ (dhoeg&). vah kLa kpaD[e Zaae]gaa (ZaaegaI)_

4. We will write two ham do khat likhenge. hma dae Sata iLaSae>gae_ (
5. Will they drink wine? vah shara@b p&en[ge kya@? vah oaraba paI]gae Kyaa?
(
) , (

6. What will they ask? vah kya@ pu@chhen[ge? vah Kyaa paUCe>gae? (

RATNAKARS FOURTH NOBLE TRUTH : (kya@)

Whem kya@ (Kyaa) comes at the beginning or at the end of a sentence, kya@
(Kyaa) = a question mark (?). But, when kya@ (Kyaa) comes anywhere in the
sentence, then this kya@ (Kyaa) = what?
See examples 5 and 6 above.
EXERCISE : ) (

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Translate the Hind& sentences into English (Answers are given for help)
Key Words :

Everyday = roz raej[a ;)( Never = kabh& nah& kBaI nahI> (

Always = hamesha@ hmaeoaa (


kBaI (
kC(
(

); Someone = ko& kae}| (

); Anytime = kabh& bh& kBaI BaI (

); Sometime, ever = kabh&

), Some, Something = kuchh

); Anything, whatever = kuchh bh& kC BaI (

); Somewhere = kah& khI> (

);

); Where = kaha@ kha

); Anywhere = kah& bh& khI> BaI (

1. Neil will come home at two O Clock. Neil do baje ghar a@ega@. naILa dae bajae zar Aa]gaa_
(
)
2. Ra@n& will not work today. Ra@n& a@j ka@m nah& kareg&. ranaI Aaja kama nahI> kregaI_
(
)
3. Yesterday N&ra@ was sewing a scarf. kal N&ra@ dupt>t>a@ s& rah& th&. kLa naIra dupa@`@a saI rhI YaI_

(

)
4. What should Vijay say to Amir? Vijay kya@ kahe? ivajaya Kyaa khe? (

5. What will M&na@ say tommorrow to Razia? M&na@ raziya@ ko kal kya@ kaheg&? maInaa rij[ayaa kae kLa Kyaa
khegaI? (
)
6. Ra@ja@ will go to the farmers field sometime. Ra@ja@ kisa@n ke khet me kabh& ja@yega@. rajaa iksaana k Saeta
mae> kBaI jaa]gaa_ (

)
7. Will (should) R&kk& go home now? R&kk& ab ghar ja@ega@ kya@? rIKkI Aba zar jaa]gaa Kyaa?

(
)
8. Where will N&ru@ keep the Urdu books? N&ru@ Urdu@ kita@ne kha rakhegi? naIW qdU| iktaabae> kha{ rSaegaI?
(

)
9. What will David write in the examination today? David aj imteha@n me kya@ likhega@? DeivaD Aaja
}mtaehana mae> Kyaa iLaSaegaa? (

)
10. What was burning yesterday? kal kya@ jal raha@ tha@. kLa Kyaa jaLa rha Yaa_ (
)
11. Raju had already washed the pots. ra@ju@ batran dho chuka@ tha@. gaaeiva>d bartana Zaae cauka Yaa_
(

)
12. Mohan will not sleep here today. Mohan a@j yaha@ nah& soyega@. maaehna Aaja yaha nahI> saae]gaa_
(

)
17. Somebody was here. ko& yaha@ tha@@. yaha kae}| Yaa_ (

18. Was anyone here? ko& yaha@ tha@ kya@ ? kae}| yaha Yaa Kyaa? (

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LESSON 8
MAKING YOUR OWN SENTENCES FOR COMPLETED ACTIONS
A perfected or completed action indicates what you did, have done or had done.
(i) suffix (m\) a@ (Aa) or (f\) & (}|) is attached to the verb that ends in a consonant or a short vowel.
eg\ verb chal caLa (to walk) # walked chal + a@ = chala@; I walked m\ mai chala@, f\ mai chal&.
caLa + Aa = caLaa, (m\) maE> caLaa, (f\) maE> caLaI_ = + (

= +

(ii) suffix ya@ (y + a@) yaa or y& (y + &) yaI is attached to the verb that ends in a long vowel such as a@, &
or o (Aa, }|, Aae). eg\ verb so saae (sleep) # (slept) m\ so + y + a@ = soya@, I slept m\ mai soya@, f\

mai soy&.

saae + yaa = saaeyaa, (m\) maE> saaeyaa, (f\) maE> saaeyaI_ (

(iii) If a completed action is Transitive, suffix ne (nae) is attached to the subject. verb kha@ Saa (eat) #
(ate) kha@ + ya@ = kha@ya@, (I ate) maine kha@ya@. Saa + yaa = Saayaa, maE>nae Saayaa_ (

p& paI (drink) # (drank) p& + ya@ = p&ya@, (I drank) maine p&ya@. paIyaa, maE>nae paIyaa_ (

(iv) When suffix ne (nae) is attached to a subject, the verb changes according to the Object (the thing
on which the action is done). Now the Subject has no effect on the verb. eg\ m\ and f\ subject #
1. I ate a banana. mai ne kela@ kha@ya@ maE>nae kLaa Saayaa (

);

2. I ate bananas. mai ne kele kha@ye maE>nae kLae Saayae (


3. I ate a rot>& mai ne rot>& kha@y& maE>nae rae@I SaayaI (

);

4. I ate rot>&/ mai ne rot>iya@ kha@y& maE>nae raei@yaa SaayaI> (

RATNAKARS FIFTH NOBLE TRUTH :

);

).

(Perfect tense)

If an action is completed on a transitive verb, suffix ne (nae) is attached to the subject.


(a) Completed or perfected action = I did, I have done, I had done ...etc.
(b) Transitive action is where the the action is performed on an object, not on the
subject. eg\ I (the subject) ate (the verb) a mango (the object), I drank tea, I wrote a
book ...etc.
(c) Intransitive action is where the action is performed by the doer (subject) on
himherself, i.e. the action is not transferred to any external object.
eg\ I (the subject) went, Bob slept, John walked, dog ran, cat died, they stayed, we
came, you lived, baby cried, water leaked, house burnt, Sonia

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LESSON 12
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE AND VOCABULARY
12.1 ANIMALS, Domastic (
Buffalo BaE>sa

bhains

Bull

saa>D

sa@nd>

Camel

Q{@

u@nt>

Cow

gaaya

ga@y

Donkey gaZaa

gadha@

ghod>a@

Calf

baCD[a bachad>a@

Cat

ibaLLaI bill&

) (

Dog

kTaa

kutta@

Goat

bakrI

bakr&

) (

Horse

zaaeD[a

Mouse

caUha

chu@ha@

) (

Mule

Saccar khacchar (

Ox

baELa

bail

Pony

@@`@U

t>at>t>u

) (

Ram

mae>$a

mend>ha@

( )

Pig

Rabbit Sargaaeoa khargosh (


Sheep

Bear

BaaLaU

bha@lu@

Deer

ihrna

hiran

) (

Fish

maCLaI machhl&

Jackal

isayaar

Mongoose naevaLaa neola@

) (

chitta@

Rhino

gend>a@

Stag
Turtle

gaIdD[ g&dad>

Lion

oaer

Monkey ba>dr

)
)

icamagaadD[ chimga@dad>

) (
) (

sher

bandar

) (

Squirrel igaLahrI gilhar&

Tiger

sher

oaer

BaeiDyaa bhediya@

12.3 BIRDS (
Bat

Wolf

Porcupine saehI seh&

baarhisa>gaa ba@rahsinga@@ (
kCuAa kachhua@

Jackal

)
)

Cockoo kaeyaLa koyal

Duck

bataSa

batakh

) (

Eagle

caILa

ch&l

Hawk

baaj[a

ba@z

) (

Hen

maugaI|

murg&

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ha@th&

Elephant haYaI
)

kkD[a kekd[a@

Crab

Panther icaTaa
gae>Da

bhed>

BaeD[

12.2 ANIMALS, Wild (

siya@r

) (

su@ar

saUAr

LESSON 14

URDU LITERATURE
The

notable

Urdu

literary

activity

begins

with

the

Su@f&

musician Ab'ul Hasan Yamn al-Dn Amir Khusrau (1253-1325)


(

) better known as Amr Khusrow Dehlaw

mystic

) , Born at Badaun, he flourished during the reign of Sultan Ghiasud-d&n Balban (r. 1266-1287). Following Khusraus Urdu Diwa@n,
Ghazal, Masnavi, Qata, Qqwwa@l&, Rubai, Do-Beti and Tarkibhand
writings, the next Urdu literary milestone is the Doha@ compositions
of Sant Kabir (1440-1518). Then the chronology of the Urdy poetry
contunues through our great Muslim as well as Hindu forefathers
manely, Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah (1565-1611), Wali Muhammad Wali,
Deccani (1667-1707), Mirza Mazhar Jan-e-Janaan (1699-1781), Mirza
Mohammed Rafi Sauda (1713-1781), Khwaja Mir Dard, (1721-1785), Mir
Taqi Mir (1722-1808), Nazeer Akbarabadi, (1740-1830), Daya Shankar
Kaul Nasim, (1811-1845), Khwaja Haidar Ali Atish, (1778-1846), Hakim
Momin Khan Momin, (1801-1852), Muhammad Ibrahim Khan, Zauq (17891854), Bahadur Shah Zafar (1775-1862), Mufti Sadr-Uddin Azurda (17881869), Mirza Ghalib (1797-1869), Mir Babbar Ali Anis (1803-1874),
Mirza Salaamat Ali Dabeer (1803-1875), Wajid Ali Shah Akhtar (18271887), Amir Meenai (1826-1900), Nawab Mirza Khan Dagh Dehlawi, (18311905), Durga Sahay Saroor (1873-1910), Bekhud Badayuni (1857-1912),
Altaf Hussain
(1837-1914), Khwaja Altaf Hussain Hali (1837-1914),
Shibli Nomani (1857-1914), Maulana Shibli Numani (1857-1914), Akbar
Allahabadi (1846-1921), Brij Narayan Chakbast (1882-1926), Ram
Parshad Bismil (1867-1927), Ashfaq Allah Khan (1900-1927), Muhammed
Ali Jauhar (1878-1931), Munshi Premchand (1880-1936), Muhammed Iqbal
(1873-1938), Akhtar Sheerani (1905-1948), Hasrat Mohani (1875-1951),
Syed Ghulam Bhik Nairang (1875-1952), Asrar-Ul-Haq Majaz (1911-1955),
Maulana Zafar Ali Khan (1873-1956), Jigar Muradabadi, (1890-1960),
Tilok Chand Mehroom (1885-1966), Shakeb Jalali (1932-1966), Makhdoom
Mahiuddin (1908-1969), Shakeel Badayuni (1916-1970), Mustafa Zaidi
(1930-1970), Nasir Kazmi, (1925-1972), Ravish Siddiqui (1909-1971),
Majeed Amjad (1914-1974), Noon Meem Rashid (1910-1975), Jan Nisar
Akhtar (1914-1976), Krishan Chander (1914-1977), Saeeda Urooj Mazhar,
(1916-1978), Ibn-e-Insha, (1927-1978), Sahir Ludhianvi, (1921-1980),
Nushoor Wahidi (1911-1981), Firaq Gorakhpuri, Raghupati Sahay (18961982), Shabir Hasan Josh Malihabadi (1898-1982), Hafeez Jullundhry
(1900-1982), Saghir Nizami (1905-1982), Ihsan Danish (1914-1982),
Josh Malihabadi, (1898-1982), Faiz Ahmed Faiz (1911-1984), Ayyub
Sabir (1923-1989), Yazdani Jalandhari (1915-1990), Gopal Mittal
(1906-1993), Habib Jalib (1928-1993), Waheed Akhtar (1934-1996),
Obaidullah Aleem (1939-1997), Dilawar Figar (1928-1998), Zamir Jafri,

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