Sunteți pe pagina 1din 5




First understand what is protocol and (Internet protocol) INTERNET PRORTOCOL(IP):-This is host to host connectionless delivery
protocol ,It is an unreliable protocol because it does not control any error but only detect the error and discard the packet ,It does not guarantee the delivery of the packet


Protocol is a set of rules, when two or more computer communicates with each other, there needs to be a set of rules and instruction, that each computer follow the special set of rule and instruction for communication. Is called a protocol.

A special set of rules and instruction is called a protocol..

Synchronous and Asynchronous process If the process accurs at a regular interval is called Synchronous ,for example the process communication within a computer is called Syncronous process If the process is not occurs a regular intervals is called a Asynchronous ,the process communication b/w computer and devices is called Asynchronous process

Tranmission control protocol: If you want to transfer a data from one

system into another system then data entered in to a network and break the data into packets which contain the address header containing information about destination ,IP is responsible it to the desired destination but some packet loss due to congestion tcp is used to provide connection oriented delivery in an orderly format..

TCP offer some services..1) Connection oriented data packets 3) Acknowledgement of receipt required) 4)Full duplex mode
Only the source host will segment packets

2)-Sequencing of

4)-Error correction (when 5)Segmentation

6)Guaranted delivery USES OF TCP -> Email, Downloading 1)-Connection Oriented Protocol

7)Providing Reliability

TCP is a connection oriented communication protocol ,In a connection oriented communication protocol must established the connection before the data transfer.


Providing Reliability: Reliabile stream delivery service guarantees to provide a stream of data sent from one machine to another machine without any duplication or data loss. Sending back an acknowledgement (ACK) message as it receives data. The sender keeps a record of packets it sends and waits for an acknowledgement before sending the next packet. The sender also start time when it sends packet and retransmits the packet if the timer expire before the acknowledgement arrive
connection-oriented service provides reliability, meaning: Acknowledgements are used to ensure packets arrive Checksums/CRCs are used to ensure data integrity

2)-Tcp Offer Error Control and flow control :-In connection oriented
communication protocol information can be resend if there is an error in the receiver side (missing data, corrupt data)

ERROR CONTROL (Error control is the process of detecting and correcting

both the bit level and packet level errors. Types of Errors 1).Single Bit Error

The term single bit error means that only one bit of the data unit was changed from 1 to 0 and 0 to 1. 2 )Burst Error)-In term burst error means that two or more bits in the data unit were changed. Burst error is also called packet level error, where errors like packet loss, duplication, reordering. If a packet is sent, and no ACK is received within a certain time, the message will be retransmitted -- This time is called the timeout

TCP simple lost packet recovery

Sender site
Send pkt 1 Start timer ACK normally arrives Timer expires Retransmit pkt 1 start timer Rcv ACK 1

Receiver site Loss

Pkt should arrive ACK should be sent

Rcv pkt 1 Send ACK 1

Network messages
****FLOW CONTROL: --" Flow control determines when data needs to be re-sent,
and stops the flow of data until previous packets are successfully transferred. ((if flow control is not used then collision may occur)) The main concept of Flow Control is to introduce EFFICIENCY in Computer Networks.( because Sender sends data at higher rate and flow control mainly work on data link layer)

3)-TCP OFFER FULL DUPLEX In case of full duplex communication system ,allow communication in both side at the same time and using a full duplexing because of you can reduce a traffic example : -Telephone ,Mobile phone


Source and destination port number: Source port (identifies the sending
port ) and destination port ( identifies the receiving port )number to identify the application run on both ends of connection

Sequence number :When data send to the another network then data break data
in to packets and assign a sequence number in to these packets Identify the position in the senders bytes of stream of data in the segments.( If the SYN flag is set (1), then

this is the initial sequence number.) when the packets is going on the sequence number is +1)

Acknoledgement number: Identify the number of the bytes receive by the

receiver and send ack to the sender after reiceving the packets by the receiver send the next bytes of data ,or (we can say if the ACK flag is set then the value of this field is the next sequence number that the receiver is expecting.)

HLEN(data offset 4 bits): The number of 32-bit words in the TCP header. This
indicates where the data begins. The length of the TCP header is always a multiple of 32 bits or min length is 20 bytes, and max length is 60 bytes

Reserved : 3 bit is reserverd for the future use and and should be set to zero. Code(Control Bits. 6 bits)-Used to determine segments purpose. ACK(1 bit): All packets after the initial SYN packet sent by the client should have
this flag set.

RST(1 bit) : Reset the connection(flag) URG(1 bit): The Urgent Pointer is used when some information has to reach the server ASAP. it is duty bound to stop all it's doing and immediately send this packet to the relevant server SYN(1 bit): Synchronize sequence number FIN(1 bit) : Sender has reached end of its byte stream or No more data from

** PSH(1 bit): This segments request a push or Push function asks to push the
buffered data to the receiving application.

Window size : Advertise how much data this station is willing to accept ,Can
depend on buffer space remaining

CRC OR CHECK SUM(16 bit): Verify the integrity of the tcp header and data ,it is
mandatory or we can say crc is only for error detection

Urgent pointer(16 bit) :- The Urgent Pointer is used when some information has
to reach the server ASAP. it is duty bound to stop all it's doing and immediately send this packet to the relevant server