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Natural gas is used primarily as a fuel and as a raw material in manufacturing.

It is used in home furnaces, water heaters, and cooking stoves. As an industrial fuel, it is used in brick, cement, and ceramic-tile kilns; in glass making; for generating steam in water boilers; and as a clean heat source for sterilizing instruments and processing foods. As a raw material in petrochemical manufacturing, natural gas is used to produce hydrogen, sulfur, carbon black, and ammonia. The ammonia is used in a range of fertilizers and as a secondary feedstock for manufacturing other chemicals, including nitric acid and urea. Ethylene, an important petrochemical, is also produced from natural gas The discovery of natural gas dates from ancient times in the Middle East. Thousands of years ago, it was noticed that natural gas seeps ignited by lightning created burning springs. In Persia, Greece, or India, people built temples around these eternal flames for their religious practices. However, the energy value of natural gas was not recognized until approximately 900 BC in China, and the Chinese drilled the first known natural gas well in 211 BC. In Europe, natural gas was unknown until it was discovered in Great Britain in 1659, although it was not commercialized until about 1790. In 1821 in Fredonia, United States, residents observed gas bubbles rising to the surface from a creek. William Hart, considered as America s father of natural gas, dug the first natural gas well in North America (Speight, 1993). Historically, natural gas was discovered as a consequence of prospecting for crude oil. Natural gas was often an unwelcome by-product, as natural gas reservoirs were tapped in the drilling process and workers were forced to stop drilling to let the gas vent freely into the air. Now, and particularly after the crude oil shortages of the seventies, natural gas has become an important source of energy in the world. Throughout the 19th century, natural gas was used almost exclusively as a source of light and its use remained localized because of lack of transport structures, making it difficult to transport large quantities of natural gas long distances. There was an important change in 1890 with the invention of leak-proof pipeline couplings, but transportation of natural gas to longdistance customers did not become practical until the 1920s as a result of technological advances in pipelines. Moreover, it was only after World War II that the use of natural gas grew rapidly because of the development of pipeline networks and storage systems. Natural gas is often found in places where there is no local market, such as in the many offshore fields around the world. For natural gas to be available to the market, it must be gathered, processed, and transported. Quite often, collected natural gas (raw gas) must be transported over a substantial distance in pipelines of different sizes. These pipelines vary in length between hundreds of feet to hundreds of miles, across undulating terrain with varying temperature conditions. Liquid condensation in pipelines commonly occurs because of the multicomponent nature of the transmitted natural gas and its associated phase behavior to the inevitable temperature and pressure changes that occur along the pipeline. Condensation subjects the raw gas transmission pipeline to two-phase, gas/condensate, flow transport. Hence, a better understanding of the flow characteristics is needed for the proper design and operation of pipelines. The problem of optimal design of such pipelines becomes accentuated for offshore gas fields, where space is limited and processing often is kept to a minimum; therefore, total production has to be transported via multiphase pipelines. These lines lie at the bottom of the ocean in horizontal and near-horizontal positions and may contain a three-phase mixture of hydrocarbon condensate, water (occurring naturally in the reservoir), and natural gas flowing through them.

Multiphase transportation technology has become increasingly important for developing marginal fields, where the trend is to economically transport unprocessed well fluids via existing infrastructures, maximizing the rate of return and minimizing both capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) (Klemp, 1999). In fact, by transporting 81 82 Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing multiphase well fluid in a single pipeline, separate pipelines and receiving facilities for separate phases, costing both money and space, are eliminated, which reduces capital expenditure. However, phase separation and reinjection of water and gas save both capital expenditure and operating expenditure by reducing the size of the fluid transport/handling facilities and the maintenance required for the pipeline operation (Hill, 1997). Given the savings that can be available to the operators using multiphase technology, the market for multiphase flow transportation is an expanding one. Hence, it is necessary to predict multiphase flow behavior and other design variables of gas-condensate pipelines as accurately as possible so that pipelines and downstream processing plants may be designed optimally. This chapter covers all the important concepts of multiphase gas/condensate transmission from a fundamental perspective. Natural gas is used primarily as a fuel and as a raw material in manufacturing. It is used in home furnaces, water heaters, and cooking stoves. As an industrial fuel, it is used in brick, cement, and ceramic-tile kilns; in glass making; for generating steam in water boilers; and as a clean heat source for sterilizing instruments and processing foods. As a raw material in petrochemical manufacturing, natural gas is used to produce hydrogen, sulfur, carbon black, and ammonia. The ammonia is used in a range of fertilizers and as a secondary feedstock for manufacturing other chemicals, including nitric acid and urea. Ethylene, an important petrochemical, is also produced from natural gas The discovery of natural gas dates from ancient times in the Middle East. Thousands of years ago, it was noticed that natural gas seeps ignited by lightning created burning springs. In Persia, Greece, or India, people built temples around these eternal flames for their religious practices. However, the energy value of natural gas was not recognized until approximately 900 BC in China, and the Chinese drilled the first known natural gas well in 211 BC. In Europe, natural gas was unknown until it was discovered in Great Britain in 1659, although it was not commercialized until about 1790. In 1821 in Fredonia, United States, residents observed gas bubbles rising to the surface from a creek. William Hart, considered as America s father of natural gas, dug the first natural gas well in North America (Speight, 1993). Historically, natural gas was discovered as a consequence of prospecting for crude oil. Natural gas was often an unwelcome by-product, as natural gas reservoirs were tapped in the drilling process and workers were forced to stop drilling to let the gas vent freely into the air. Now, and particularly after the crude oil shortages of the seventies, natural gas has become an important source of energy in the world. Throughout the 19th century, natural gas was used almost exclusively as a source of light and its use remained localized because of lack of transport structures, making it difficult to transport large quantities of natural gas long distances. There was an important change in 1890 with the invention of leak-proof pipeline couplings, but transportation of natural gas to longdistance customers did not become practical until the 1920s as a result of technological advances in pipelines. Moreover, it was only after World War II that the use of natural gas grew rapidly because of the development of pipeline networks and storage systems.

Natural gas is often found in places where there is no local market, such as in the many offshore fields around the world. For natural gas to be available to the market, it must be gathered, processed, and transported. Quite often, collected natural gas (raw gas) must be transported over a substantial distance in pipelines of different sizes. These pipelines vary in length between hundreds of feet to hundreds of miles, across undulating terrain with varying temperature conditions. Liquid condensation in pipelines commonly occurs because of the multicomponent nature of the transmitted natural gas and its associated phase behavior to the inevitable temperature and pressure changes that occur along the pipeline. Condensation subjects the raw gas transmission pipeline to two-phase, gas/condensate, flow transport. Hence, a better understanding of the flow characteristics is needed for the proper design and operation of pipelines. The problem of optimal design of such pipelines becomes accentuated for offshore gas fields, where space is limited and processing often is kept to a minimum; therefore, total production has to be transported via multiphase pipelines. These lines lie at the bottom of the ocean in horizontal and near-horizontal positions and may contain a three-phase mixture of hydrocarbon condensate, water (occurring naturally in the reservoir), and natural gas flowing through them. Multiphase transportation technology has become increasingly important for developing marginal fields, where the trend is to economically transport unprocessed well fluids via existing infrastructures, maximizing the rate of return and minimizing both capital expenditure (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) (Klemp, 1999). In fact, by transporting 81 82 Handbook of Natural Gas Transmission and Processing multiphase well fluid in a single pipeline, separate pipelines and receiving facilities for separate phases, costing both money and space, are eliminated, which reduces capital expenditure. However, phase separation and reinjection of water and gas save both capital expenditure and operating expenditure by reducing the size of the fluid transport/handling facilities and the maintenance required for the pipeline operation (Hill, 1997). Given the savings that can be available to the operators using multiphase technology, the market for multiphase flow transportation is an expanding one. Hence, it is necessary to predict multiphase flow behavior and other design variables of gas-condensate pipelines as accurately as possible so that pipelines and downstream processing plants may be designed optimally. This chapter covers all the important concepts of multiphase gas/condensate transmission from a fundamental perspective.