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CONSIDERAII PRIVIND SELECTIVITATEA PROTECIILOR UNUI TRANSFORMATOR DE PUTERE DINTR-UN POST AERIAN CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PROTECTIONS SELECTIVITY FOR

A POLE-MOUNTED TRANSFORMER
S.C. FDFEE ELECTRICA MUNTENIA NORD S.A.- SDFEE Galati, Romania, Galati, str. N. Blcescu, nr. 35A Tel. : + 40236-305812, fax.: +40-236-461795, e-mail : tehnic@electricitate.galati.ro

Vasile TABACARU

Georgeta HARABAGIU

Cezar CRISTIAN

Rezumat: Instalatiile de joasa tensiune se alimenteaza din instalatiile de medie tensiune peste un transformator de medie pe joasa tensiune. In cazul Postului de Transformare Aerian (PTA) de 20 / 0,4 kV, restrangand sfera de analiza, selectivitatea aparatelor de protectie trebuie sa fie asigurata de la celula de medie tensiune a statiei de transformare de 110/20 kV din care este alimentata linia aeriana la care este racordat postul de transformare, pana la ultimul receptor de joasa tensiune, fara a suferi vre-o discontinuitate in zona transformatorului. Lucrarea isi propune sa intre in detaliile unei analize corecte a selectivitatii protectiilor unui transformator de putere dintr-un post de transformare aerian de 20 / 0,4 kV (din mediul rural), cu plecari radiale in linii aeriene de joasa tensiune, exemplificand criteriile de analiza pentru un transformator de 160 kVA. Cuvinte cheie: transformator, sigurante, intreruptor, selectivitate, protectii.

Abstract: The low voltage systems are supplied from the medium voltage systems through a medium/low voltage transformers. At the 20 / 0,4 kV pole-mounted transformer, limiting the analysis, the protection selectivity has to be provided from the medium voltage bay of the 110 / 20 kV substation that supplies the overhead line where the transformer is connected, up to the last low voltage receiver without any discontinuity in the transformer area. This paper is intended to detail the correct analysis of protection selectivity for a power transformer in a 20 / 0,4 kV pole-mounted transformer (in a village), with radial outputs in low voltage overhead lines. A practical situation of selection of a 160 kVA transformer is presented. Keywords: transformer, fuses, circuit-breaker, selectivity, protections.

1. Introducere Instalatiile de joasa tensiune se alimenteaza din cele de medie tensiune peste un transformator de medie / joasa tensiune. In cazul Postului de Transformare Aerian (PTA) de 20 / 0,4 kV, selectivitatea aparatelor de protectie trebuie sa fie asigurata de la celula de medie tensiune (m.t.) a statiei de transfor-mare de 110 / 20 kV din care este alimentata linia aeriana de 20 kV la care este racordat postul de transformare, pana la ultimul receptor de joasa tensiune (j.t.), fara vre-o discontinuitate in zona transformatorului. Avand in vedere specificul postului de transformare aerian, pe partea de m.t. a transformatorului nu se poate monta un aparat de comutatie cu capacitate de rupere (intreruptor automat tripolar) si se monteaza doar sigurante fuzibile, care sa asigure protectia transformatorului la defecte interne (scurtcircuit intre spire sau intre infasurari, atingeri la masa, etc.) si la defecte externe care pot apare pe legaturile cuprinse intre bornele transformatorului si bornele de intrare ale aparatelor de protectie, atat pe partea de m.t. cat si pe partea de j.t. Pe partea de j.t. a transformatorului se pot monta sigurante fuzibile sau intreruptor automat, echipat cu declansatoare magnetotermice sau relee electronice, aparate care sa asigure protectia la suprasarcina si scurtcircuit impotriva defectele externe care pot apare in aval de bornele lor de iesire. 2. Siguranta - siguranta -siguranta 2.1. Siguranta 20 kV siguranta pe coloana 0,4 kV Sigurantele fuzibile de pe partea de m.t. a transformatorului servesc exclusiv la protectia acestuia impotriva scurtcircuitelor interne si externe. In esenta, sigurantele de pe partea de j.t. trebuie sa asigure protectia transformatorului

1. Introduction The low voltage systems are supplied from the m.v systems through a medium voltage / low voltage transformer. At the 20 / 0.4 kV pole-mounted transformer the protection selectivity has to be provided from the medium voltage bay of the 110 / 20 kV substation that supplies the overhead line where the transformer is connected, up to the last low voltage receiver without any discontinuity in the transformer area. Having in view the characteristics of the pole-mounted transformer, on the medium voltage side of the transformer a switchgear with breaking capacity cannot be mounted (circuit breaker) so that only fuses are mounted for the inner (shortcircuit between windings, earthing faults etc.) and outer faults transformer protection that can occur on the connections between the transformer terminals and the input protection terminals, both on medium voltage and low voltage side. On the l.v. side of the transformer, fuses or automatic circuit breaker with magneto-thermal trippers or electronic relays can be mounted, in order to provide overload and shortcircuit protection to outer faults that can occur before their output terminals. 2. Fuse fuse fuse 2.1. 20 kV fuse 0.4 kV fuse The fuses on the medium voltage side of the transformer use only for its protection against inner and outer shortcircuits. Mainly the low voltage fuses have to provide transformer protection against shortcircuits and overloads. Therefore the rated current of the low voltage fuse has to be chosen as close as possible to the rated current of the low voltage winding of the transformer.

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impotriva scurtcircui-telor si a suprasarcinilor. Prin urmare, These differences between medium and low voltage fuses curentul nominal al sigurantei de j.t. se recomanda sa se outlines two issues: aleaga cat mai apropiat de curentul nominal al infasurarii - on one hand, it favoures their selective behaviour; de j.t. a transformatorului. - on the other hand depending on their goals for the Aceasta diferentiere de "sarcini" intre sigurantele fuzitransformer protection it is recommended that the low bile de m.t. si cele de j.t. de pe un transformator are doua voltage fuses have the time current characteristic slow aspecte contradictorii: or slow fast, while the ones for medium voltage should - pe de o parte, este o imprejurare care favorizeaza comporhave it fast, this making difficult their selective behaviour. tarea lor selectiva; When choosing the medium voltage fuse, the current peak - pe de alta parte, corespunzator "sarcinilor" ce le revin in (shock) that occurs when connecting the transformer to the protectia transformatorului, este indicat ca sigurantele de j.t. sa aiba caracteristica timp-curent lenta sau lent-rapida, network, has to be also taken into account as this peak value cat timp cele de m.t. se recomanda sa aiba caracteristica could cause the uncommanded action of the protection. The timp-curent rapida, ceea ce reprezinta o dificultate in shock current when connecting the transformer to the network depends on the ferromagnetic core material (the peak value asigurarea comportarii lor selective. La alegerea sigurantei fuzibile de m.t. se adauga necesi- is very high for a ferromagnetic core made of cold rolled plate tatea de a lua in considerare varful (socul) de curent care se that has small losses) and on the transformer power i.e deproduce la conectarea trasnformatorului la retea, varf care creases with its power. Note: The ratio between the shock and the rated current poate determina interventia nedorita a protectiei. Curentul de soc la conectarea la retea a transformatorului depinde de has an average value of 14 for transformers with powers up materialului miezului feromagnetic (varf foarte inalt la miez to 220 kVA and usc = 4% and 6 for powers above 250 kVA cu pierderi reduse) si de puterea transformatorului, respectiv and usc = 6 % [1] . The medium voltage fuses are chosen depending on the se micsoreaza cu puterea acestuia. Nota: Raportul intre curentul de soc si curentul nominal rated current on medium voltage side of the transformer are valorea, in medie, de 14 pentru transformatoare cu puteri according to the following relation: sub 220 kVA si usc= 4%, si de 6 pentru puteri peste 250 kVA si usc= 6% [1] . Alegerea sigurantelor fuzibile de m.t. se va face in functie de curentul nominal pe partea de medie tensiune al transformatorului, in baza relatiei: (1) Insig (1,3 2 ) Intrafo [A] Constituie un avantaj cunoasterea curentului de soc (si a materialul miezului magnetic) pentru a decide alegerea unui factor de multiplicare mai mic sau mai mare. Valorile recomandate difera functie de sursa de documentare, conform Tabel 1; se observa ca un fabricant de sigurante recomanda valori mai mari pentru Insig fata de instructiunea MEE, in baza observatiei ca respectivul curent "asigura suportarea unei suprasarcini de 30 % a transformatorului si o functionare sigura la scurtcircuitele de pe bornele secundare ale transformatorului" . Si fabricantii de sigurante fuzibile de m.t. atrag atentia asupra faptului ca acestea trebuie sa suporte curentul de soc la conectarea transformatorului. Iata cateva recomandari [6]: - valoarea curentului prezumat de pe caracteristica timpcurent a sigurantei fuzibile la momentul 100 ms, trebuie sa fie de cca. 12 ori mai mare decat curentul nominal al transformatorului; - curentul de intrerupere al sigurantei trebuie sa fie mai mic, iar capacitatea de rupere sa fie mai mare decat puterea de scurtcircuit a retelei in locul de montare al transformatorului; - curentul nominal al sigurantei trebuie sa fie mai mare (de regula, de 2 ori) decat curentul maxim de sarcina al transformatorului; - trebuie analizata si selectivitatea intre sigurantele fuzibile de m.t. si cele de j.t. sau intreruptorul automat de j.t.. Pentru a reduce la minimum posibilitatea aparitiei defectelor externe din "campul vizual" al sigurantelor de pe partea de m.t., se recomanda utilizarea legaturilor scurte si cu conductoare preizolate intre bornele transformatorului si bornele de intrare ale aparatelor de protectie de pe partea de m.t. si j.t. The shock current (and the material of the magnetic core) is important to be known in order to decide the selection of a lower or higher multiplication factor. The recommended values vary depending on the documentation source Table 1: It can be ascertained that a fuse manufacturer recommends higher values for Infuse than MEE instruction based on the remark that this current ensures the support for atransformer overload of 30 % and a safe operation for the shortcircuits at the secondary transformer terminals. The medium voltage fuse manufacturers underline also the fact that the fuses have to stand to the shock current when connecting the transformer. Below are some recommendations [6]: - the forecasted value of the current on the time current characteristic at 100 ms has to be about 12 times bigger than the rated current of the transformer; - the fuse breaking current has to be lower and the breaking capacity higher than the network shortcircuit power where the transformer is mounted; - the fuse rated current has to be higher (usually two times) than the maximum load current; - the selectivity between the medium and low voltage fuses or the automatic low voltage circuit breaker has to be also analysed. In order to reduce as much as possible the possibility of outer faults occurrence from the visual field of the fuses on the m.v side, short connections and pre-insulated conductors have to be used between the transformer terminals and the protection equipment input terminals on the medium and low voltage side.

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Caracteristicile sigurantelor de m.t. si de j.t. pot fi comparate direct, intrucat ambele sunt determinate de aceeasi marime (integrala Joule) si tinand seama de raportul de transformare al transformatorului. Astfel, cu neglijarea pierderilor de mers in gol, cele doua seturi de sigurante fuzibile vor fi parcurse de acelasi curent "raportat" (este indiferent la ce curenti se raporteaza, de regula la partea de j.t.). Prin urmare, criteriile de selectivitate pentru sigurantele fuzibile sunt: 1.Caracteristica sigurantelor fuzibile de m.t. sa se gaseasca in permanenta deasupra caracteristicii sigurantelor fuzibile de j.t.; cele doua carateristici sa nu se atinga si cu atat mai putin sa se intretaie. 2. Integrala Joule dezvoltata in sigurantele fuzibile de m.t., in cursul procesului de topire a fuzibilului si de stingere a arcului electric in sigurantele fuzibile de j.t., trebuie sa aiba o valoare inferioara integralei Joule necesara pentru intreruperea sigurantelor de j.t.. O observatie foarte importanta: analiza si aprecierea selectivitatii nu trebuie facuta pe toata plaja curentilor din abscisa caracteristicilor de protectie a sigurantelor fuzibile, ci se va lua in considerare curentul de scurtcircuit maxim posibil care ar putea sa apara in aval de sigurantele fuzibile de j.t., curent determinat din relatia (2), unde: Sn , Un , uscn marimile nominale ale transformatorului. Cele precizate mai sus sunt ilustrate in Fig. 1.

The characteristics of medium and low voltage fuses can be directly compared because both are determined by the same value (Joule integral) and taking into account the transformer ratio. Neglecting the no-load losses the two sets of fuses will be passed by the same current (regardless what currents are reported, usually on the low voltage side). Thus the selectivity criterion for the fuses are the following: 1. The medium voltage fuse characteristic has to be always higher than the low voltage fuse characteristic; the two characteristics should not touch and cross; 2. The Joule integral occurred in the medium voltage fuses when the fusible melts and the electric arc is extinguished at the low voltage fuses, has to be lower than the Joule integral required for the breaking of low voltage fuses. Very important remark: the selectivity analysis and assessment should not be made for the entire current field on the abscissa of the fuse protection characteristics; the maximum shortcircuit current that could occur before the low voltage fuses has to be taken into account, this current being known according to the following relation (2), where: Sn , Un , uscn - rated transformer values. These are shown in Figure 1. (2)

Isc = ( Sn / 3 Un x uscn ) x 100 [kA]

Fig. 1 Selectivitatea intre sigurantele fuzibile de medie tensiune si de joasa tensiune ale transformatorului Fig.1. Selectivity between the transformer medium voltage and low voltage fuses

Pentru studiu de caz, transformatorul ales este de 20 / 0,4 kV-160 kVA, In1 / In2= 4,62/231 A, uscn= 4,01 %; se aleg aparatele de protectie, initial, dupa urmatoarele criterii: - la curentulul nominal primar In1= 4,62 A si, pentru a tine seama si de socul la conectare, se aleg sigurantele fuzibile de m.t. tip FEn 10 A - la curentul nominal secundar In2=231 A, se aleg sigurantele fuzibile de j.t. tip MPR (gL-gG, ~ 500 V) de 250 A La analiza comportarii lor selective, prin compararea caracteristicilor, se constata ca sigurantele alese initial nu se comporta selectiv, luand drept "borna" pe axa curentilor curentul de defect maxim posibil de Imaxsc = 5,75 kA care se poate produce la bornele de j.t. ale transforma-torului; comportarea selectiva se manifesta doar pentru Isc < 1,5 kA.

For the case analysis the chosen transformer is 20 / 0.4 kV 160 kVA, In1 / In2 = 4.62 / 231 A, uscn = 4.01%; the protection equipment is initially chosen according to following criterion: - at the primary rated current In1 = 4.62 A in order to take also into account the connection shock, medium voltage type Fen 10 A are chosen ; - at the secondary rated current In2 = 231 A low voltage type MPR (NH, gL-gG 500 V) fuses of 250 A are chosen. The initial chosen fuses have no selective behaviour chosing as terminal on the current axis the maximum fault current Iscmax = 5.75 kA (calculated with relation 2) that can occur at the low voltage transformer terminals; the selective behaviour appears only for Isc < 1.5 kA.

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Rezulta doua variante posibile de rezolvare: {FEn 10 A + MPR 200 A} sau {FEn 16 + MPR 250 A}. Vom alege initial prima varianta cu FEn 10 A + MPR 200 A; dupa analiza finala, daca rezulta curenti nominali prea mici pentru sigurantele de pe plecarile de j.t., cu atat mai mult in cazul in care rezulta si necesitatea instalarii de cutii de selectivitate pe plecari, se poate relua analiza cu a doua varianta. Dar, nu aceasta trebuie sa fie decizia definitiva, pentru ca, pe de alta parte, trebuie sa se tina cont si de faptul ca transformatorul poate fi supraincarcat cu sarcini, marimea si durata admisibila a acestora depinzand de sarcina anterioara, temperatura ambianta etc. Comportarea transformatorului este descrisa in acest caz prin "caracteristica de suprasarcina sau supraincarcare" si care se regaseste doar in norma interna sau in catalogul fabricantului; in standardul STAS 440 / 1-90, este specificata doar supraincarcarea admisibila in caz de avarie pentru transformatoarele cu puteri de 16-1600 kVA si tensiuni de 624 kV, indiferent de preincarcarea initiala, de durata ei si de temperatura mediului ambiant.

There are two solving ways : {Fen 10 A + MPR 200A} or {Fen 16 + MPR 250 A}. Initially we will choose the first way: Fen 10 A + MPR 200A; after the final analysis if the rated currents are too small for the low voltage output fuses and moreover there is necessary to install selectivity boxes on outputs, the analysis can be repeated with the second solving way Fen + MPR 250 A. But this should not be the final decision because the transformer can also be overloaded, the time and value of these allowed overloads depending on the previous load, the environmental temperature, a.s.o. In this situation the transformer behaviour is described by the overload characteristic which is to be found only in the internal instruction or the manufacturers catalogue; in STAS 440 / 1-90 only the emergency allowed overload for transformers between 16 1600 kVA and 6 24 kV are specified regardless of the initial preloading, its duration and the environmental temperature.

Sn trafo [kVA] 160

Tabel 1. Ghid de alegere a sigurantelor fuzibile de medie tensiune Table 1. Recommendations for the selection of medium voltage fuses 3.1.RE - I 15 - 87 / Anexa 9 Recomandare fabricant Un = 6 (7,2) kV Un = 20 (24) kV Un = 6 (7,2) kV Un = 20 (24) kV In trafo [A] In sig [A] In trafo [A] In sig [A] In sig [A] In sig [A] 15,2 25 31,5 4,6 6,3 10 31,5 63 16 25

Alegerea finala a sigurantei fuzibile de j.t., care asigura si protectia la suprasarcina a transformatorului, trebuie sa fie rezultatul compararii caracteristicilor de suprasarcina ale transformatorului cu caracteristica timp-curent a sigurantei fuzibile In lipsa caracteristicilor specifice de la fabricant, am facut comparatia cu caracteristica de supraincarcare de avarie a transformatorului, de unde rezulta ca siguranta fuzibila de 200 A indeplineste criteriile 1, 2 si 3; in plus, pe baza masuratorilor de sarcina anterioare si a prognozei de consum pe urmatorii 15 ani, precum si functie de specificul consumului (casnic, rural), rezulta ca transformatorul nu va fi incarcat la sarcina nominala sau la suprasarcini. Concluzii: a) Protectia la suprasarcina nu va putea fi asigurata corespunzator prin sigurante fuzibile de j.t. b) Tinand cont i de faptul ca, din analiza ultimelor masuratori de sarcina si a balantei energetice pe post pentru interval de 1-15 ani, transformatorul nu va fi incarcat mai mult de 85% din Sn, dar si de specificul consumatorilor (exclusiv consumatori casnici), se poate stabili varianta finala cu sigurante fuzibile de 100 A, cu comportare selectiva fata de sigu-rantele de m.t.. c) Rezolvarea corecta se poate asigura numai prin utilizarea unui intreruptor automat de j.t., prevazut cu declansator termic reglat la curentul nominal al transformatorului si, evident, declansator electromagnetic (cu sau fara temporizare). 2.2. Sigurana fuzibil pe coloana de 0,4 kV - siguranta fuzibila pe plecare in linia aeriana de 0,4 kV La alegerea curentului nominal al sigurantelor de pe plecarile radiale in linie aeriana de j.t. din cutia de distributie a PTA, trebuie sa se tina seama de urmatoarele [2], [3]: 1. Selectivitatea intre sigurantele fuzibile de pe partea de j.t. a transformatorului si sigurantele fuzibile de pe plecari, se asigura daca se prevede o anume diferenta de curent nominal pe scara standardizata intre sigurante de aceeasi fabricatie, cu aceleasi caracteristici de topire (practic,

The final selection of the l.v fuse that provides also the overload transformer protection should be the result of comparation between the overload transformer characteristics (set by the manufacturer) and the time current characteristic of the fuse. While the manufacturers characteristics were missing we compared with the emergency overload characteristic and we ascertained that the 200 A fuse observes conditions 1, 2 and 3; moreover based on the previous load measurements and the consumption forecast for the next 15 years as well as depending on the consumption (household, rural) it can be seen that the transformer is not loaded at its rated value and neither at overloads. Conclusions: a) The overload protection cannot be adequately provided with low voltage fuses. b) Having in view that the load measurements and power balance for 1 15 years forecasted that the transformer will not be loaded more than 85 % of S n and the comsumer types (only households) the final version with 100 A fuses with selective behaviour can be decided compared with the medium voltage fuses. c) Correct solving can only be made by using an automatic low voltage circuit breaker with thermal tripper adjusted to the transformer rated current and obviously, electromagnetic tripper (with / without delay).

2.2. Fuse on 0.4 kV fuse on radial output on the 0.4 kV overhead line When chosing the rated current of the fuses on the radial outputs on the low voltage overhead line from the distribution box, following have to be considered [2], [3]: 1. The selectivity between the fuses on the low voltage side of the transformer and the output fuses is provided if a certain rated current difference between the same manufacturers fuses is provided with the same melting characteristics (practically the selectivity will be provided if

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selectivitatea va fi asigurata daca integrala Joule in cursul the Joule integral during the melting and the electric arc duratei de topire si stingere a arcului electric in siguextinguishing is lower than the one occurred when the ranta din aval are o valoare inferioara integralei Joule fuse located after is melting). According to the literadezvoltate pe durata topirii sigurantei din amonte). Conture, the MPR fuses are behaving selectively if their rated form literaturii de specialitate, sigurantele MPR se currents have a ratio of 1.6 ; in order to take into account comporta selectiv intre ele daca curentii lor nominali also the imprecision of the fuse characteristics (tolerance se gasesc in raportul 1,6; pentru a tine cont si de banda of +/- 20 % for melting currents) the selectivity is prode neprecizie a caracteristicilor sigurantelor (o toleranta vided if the difference between the rated currents of the de + 20% pentru curentii de topire), selectivitatea este two fuses is at least two steps on the standardized scale. asigurata daca diferenta intre curentii nominali este de 2. The fuse rated current on the low voltage output should cel putin doua trepte pe scara standardizata. be a percentage of the maximum allowed current of the 2. Curentul nominal al sigurantei de pe plecarea de j.t. sa low voltage conductor (not insulated or stranded) fie un procent din curentul maxim admisibil al conductorului de j.t. (neizolat sau torsadat) (3) Insig = (0,8 0,85) Imaxcond [A] 3. Sa se asigure conditia de deconectare a plecarii de j.t. in 3. The l.v output disconnecting condition should be observed cazul scurtcircuitului monofazat la capatul plecarii: when there is a single-phase shortcircuit at the output end: I(1)sc.min > 3 x Infuse [A] (4) 4. In cazul liniilor lungi, unde nu se poate asigura conditia 4. For long lines where the disconnection condition is de deconectare, se admite sectionarea plecarii intr-un not observed, it is allowed to cut-off the output in a punct pana la care se asigura aceasta conditie si, in acest point up to which this condition is observed and in that punct, se pot monta in continuare sigurante fuzibile cu point fuses with separator can be mounted (in selectivity separator (in cutie de selectivitate si cu rol de sectionare), boxes with cut-off role), fuses sized according to the sigurante dimensionate conform criteriilor de mai sus. above conditions. In studiul de caz analizat, pentru cele doua plecari aeriene In the analysed case study for the two overhead outputs, din post ar rezulta - Fig.1: following would result Fig 1: - din criteriul de selectivitate fata de sigurantele fuzibile - according to the selectivity condition for the chosen alese la pct. 1.1, respectiv tip MPR 200 A pe coloana de fuses at 1.1, respectively type MPR 200 A on 0.4kV, 0,4 kV, rezulta sigurante fuzibile In=125 A; fuses with Inn = 125 A should be used; - plecarea 1: utilizand conductor TYIR 3x50 mm2 cu - output 1: using conductor TYIR 3 x 50mm2 with Imax = Imax=141 A, rezulta ca ar trebui sa se "coboare" la sigu141 A lower fuses type MPR 100 A should be used and rante fuzibile tip MPR 100 A, iar din criteriul de decoaccording to the shortcircuit disconnection consition nectare la scurtcircuit de capat I(1)sc =198 A, rezulta Isc = 198 A so that fuses with In < 63 A should be used. In ca ar fi necesare sigurante cu In < 63 A ! In acest caz, this situation the 100 A fuse is kept on the output se va pastra siguranta fuzibila de 100 A pe plecare in because of selectivity and conductor protection reasons tabloul postului, din criteriile de selectivitate si de proand to take also into account the output load and a tectie a conductorului, pentru a tine cont si de sarcina selectivity box (in the point resulted from the calculation) de pe plecare si se va monta o cutie de selectivitate (in provided with fuses with In = 63 A (chosen from condipunctul rezultat din calcul) echipata cu sigurante fuzibile tions 1, 2, 3); cu In = 63 A (alese din conditiile 1,2,3); - output 2: using conductor TYIR 3 x 70 mm2 with Imax = - plecarea 2: utilizand conductor torsadat TYIR 3x70 mm2 180 A it can be ascertained that fuses 125 A can be kept and cu Imax = 180 A, si urmand acelasi rationament ca mai sus, according to the end shortcircuit disconnection condition rezulta siguranta fuzibila de 125 A pe plecare si se va Isc = 192 A, lower fuses with In < 63 A should be used. In monta o cutie de selectivitate (in punctul rezultat din this situation also the 125 A fuse can be used on the output calcul) echipata cu sigurante fuzibile cu In = 80 A. and a selectivity box will be mounted (in the calculated point) with In = 80 A fuses (conditions 1, 2, 3). Analiza devine foarte dificila in cazul utilizarii de transformatoare de putere redusa, de 16 si 25 kVA, deoarece: The analysis is very difficult if low power transformers - nu se fabrica sigurante limitatoare rapide pentru protectia of 16 and 25 kVA are used because : transformatoarelor de putere cu parametri 20 (24 kV) / - there are no quick limit fuses for power transformer I1n = 0,46 0,72 A , I2n = 23 36 A; protection with 20 (24 kV) / I1n = 0.46 0.72 A, I2n = - din conditia de selectivitate, rezulta un curent redus pentru 23 36 A; sigurantele fuzibile de pe coloana de 0,4 kV si de pe - from the selectivity condition a lower current for the plecarile din post, iar asigurarea selectivitatii pana la 0.4 kV and output fuses results and the selectivity up to consumator devine practic imposibila in conditiile the the consumer is impossible if 16 25 A fuses are used; utilizarii de sigurante fuzibile de 16-25 A; - large section stranded conductors (35, 50, 70 mm2) can - devine improprie utilizarea conductoarelor torsadate de nomore be used with high allowable currents (> 120 A) sectiuni mari (35, 50, 70 mm2), cu curenti admisibili mari compared with the rated low voltage currents. (> 120 A) fata de curentii nominali pe j.t. As before 1989 such low power transformers would not Datorita faptului ca, inainte de 1989, nu se punea problema be used in the 20 kV distribution networks, the technical fabricarii si utilizarii in retelele de distributie de 20 kV a literature did not study such situations. Unfortunately not transformatoarelor cu puteri asa de mici, nici o norma tehnica even after 1989 these situations are not analysed. energetica sau indreptar de proiectare nu trateaza aceste cazuri 3. Fuse circuit breaker fuse si, mai mult, nici dupa 1989 aceste situatii nu sunt tratate.

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3. Cazul siguranta intreruptor automat siguranta 3.1. Sigurana fuzibil pe 20 kV intreruptor automat pe coloana de 0,4 kV In acesta solutie, impusa fie prin concluzia c) de la pct. 2.1 de mai sus, fie ca urmare a unei strategii a distribuitorului de energie electrica, sigurantele fuzibile de m.t. se aleg respectand criteriile si pasii descrisi la pct. 2.1. Intreruptorul automat de j.t., avand in vedere ca va trebui sa asigure si protectia la suprasarcina a transformatorului, se va alege pe baza criteriului ca trebuie sa aiba un curent nominal cat mai apropiat de curentul nominal al infasurarii de j.t. a transformatorului si, evident, capacitatea sa de rupere sa fie superioara valorii maxime de curent de scurtcircuit in aval de bornele intreruptorului. In studiul de caz, consideram ca s-au ales deja sigurantele fuzibile de m.t. tip FEn 10A, si se va alege un intreruptor automat tripolar cu {Un=500V / 50 Hz, In = 250 A, Icu = 35 kA, cu declansator termic reglabil Ith = 250A - reglat la curentul nominal al transformatorului (In = 231 A) si declansator electromagnetic fix Im = 3Ith,, fara temporizare}. Verificarea selectivitatii intre cele doua aparate se va realiza pe baza criteriilor expuse mai sus la pct. 2.1, comparand caracteristicile de protectie raportate la curentul primar sau secundar. Evident, selectivitatea este asigurata daca caracteristica de protectie a sigurantei fuzibile de m.t. este intotdeauna deasupra caracteristicii de protectie a declansatoarelor magnetotermice ale intreruptorului automat, cu raportare fata de "borna" de pe abscisa curentilor, reprezentata de curentii de intensitate mai mica decat curentul de scurtcircuit maxim care se poate produce in aval de bornele intreruptorului automat. Referitor la cazul analizat, conform Fig. 2, rezulta ca intreruptorul ales functioneaza selectiv cu sigurantele fuzibile FEn 10 A pana la un curent de defect Isc= 4,5 kA. Dar, privind si in avans, spre sigurantele fizibile de j.t. de pe plecari, se observa ca acestea nu pot avea curentul nominal In > 50 A, ceea ce ar face foarte dificila selectivitatea protectiei pana la consumatorul final. Prin urmare, se va alege, in final, intreruptorul cu declansator electromagnetic cu Im= 5 Ith.. Si in acest caz, ar fi necesara, pentru luarea unei decizii finale optime, compararea caracteristicilor de suprasarcina ale transformatorului cu caracteristicle de protectie ale declansatoarelor magnetotermice ale intreruptorului automat de j.t.

3.1. 20 kV fuse 0.4 kV circuit breaker For this solution imposed by conclusion c) at above 2.1 or as a result of a utility strategy, the m.v. fuses are chosen observing the conditions and stepts described at 2.1. Because the low voltage circuit breaker should also provide the overload protection of the transformer, it shall be chosen having in view the fact that its rated current should be as close to the low voltage winding rated current and its breaking capacity shall be bigger than the maximum shortcircuit current after the circuit breaker terminals. In the analysed situation we assume that medium voltage fuses of Fen 10 A type were already chosen and a tripolar circuit breaker with { Un = 500 V, In = 250 A, Icu = 35 kA with thermal adjustable tripper Ith = 250 A adjusted at the transformer rated current (In = 231 A) and fixed electromagnetic tripper Im = 3 Ith without delay) is selected. Checking the selectivity between the two devices will be performed based on the conditions at 2.1 comparing the protection characteristics reported for the primary and secondary current. It is obvious that the selectivity is provided if the protection characteristic of the medium voltage fuse is always above the protection characteristic of the magnetic thermal trippers of the automatic circuit breaker, referred to the terminal on the current axis, represented by the lower intensity currents compared to the maximum shortcircuit current that can occur after the automatic circuit breaker terminals. Regarding the analysed situation, according to Fig. 2, the chosen circuit breaker is operating selectively with the Fen 10 A medium voltage fuses up to a fault current of Isc = 4.5 kA very close to the limit terminal 5.75 kA; we consider that there is no reason to choose a medium voltage fuse type FEn16 A. However the low voltage output fuses cannot have a rated current In > 50 A so that the protection selectivity up to the final consumer shall be very difficult. Therefore a circuit breaker with electromagnetic tripper Im = 5 Ith will be finally selected. It should be outlined that the selectivity between the medium voltage fuses and low voltage automatic circuit breaker is more difficult to be provided as the transformer rated power is higher because when the shock current decreases at the transformer connection, medium voltage fuses with rated current according to Table 1 can be chosen. The situation is identical for the protection provided only with fuses.

Fig. 2 Selectivitate intre sigurante fuzibile de medie tensiune, intreruptor automat de joasa tensiune si sigurante fuzibile de joasa tensiune Fig. 3 Selectivity between the medium voltage fuses, low voltage automatic circuit breaker and low voltage fuses

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3.2. Intreruptor automat pe coloana de 0,4 kV - siguran fuzibil pe plecarea radial n linia aerian de 0,4 kV In aceasta situatie, analiza poate incepe de la alegerea sigurantelor fuzibile de j.t. pe plecarile din post, in baza criteriilor 2, 3, 4 expuse la pct. 1.2 de mai sus. In cazul analizat, prin alegerea intreruptorului automat cu Im=5Ith ,rezulta ca sigurantele fuzibile pe plecari nu pot avea curentul In >80 A, curent care satisface si conditia de protectie a conductoarelor pe plecari; pentru indeplinirea conditiei de deconectare la I(1)sc , se pot utiliza cutii de sectionare / selectivitate cu separator si sigurante fuzibile alese ca la pct. 1.2. Avand in vedere faptul ca un intreruptor automat are carateristica de protectie compusa din caracteristicile celor doua declansatoare, termic si electromagnetic, este necesara compararea fiecareia cu caracteristica sigurantelor fuzibile de j.t. Pentru rezolvarea situatiei, se pot lua in discutie doua solutii: - se regleaza declansatorul electromagnetic la un curent Im mai mare decat cel stabilit initial, pentru a se "salta" profilul caracteristicii cu un intervalul t, dar este insuficient; de regula, aceasta solutie impune alegerea unui intreruptor cu un curent nominal mai mare (cu costuri mai mari); - alegerea unui intreruptor automat cu declansator electromagnetic cu temporizare, care permite obtinerea un interval t ~ 0,15 sec. ; este solutia practica care asigura o selectivitate satisfacatoare cu costuri mai reduse. In cazul analizat, din Fig. 2 rezulta un interval de timp t = 0,02 sec. fata de caracteristica sigurantei fuzibile cu In = 80 A, ceea ce atrage o incertitudine in comportarea selectiva si impune si cutie de sectionare / selectivtate pe plecari. Se mai pot analiza si alte doua variante: - sigurante fuzibile cu Insig= 63 A, care satisfac toate conditiile; este solutia cea mai ieftina, care nu mai presupune utilizarea cutiei de sectionare, realizarea unei prize de pamant de max. 4 ohmi la stalp etc. - pentru a putea utiliza sigurante fuzibile cu In = 100 A, se poate echipa intreruptorul cu declansator electromagnetic cu temporizare (varianta mult mai scumpa decat varianta de mai sus cu sigurante fuzibile de 63 A). 4. Concluzii 1. Este cunoscut faptul ca, protectia unei instalatii electrice trebuie sa indeplineasca, in ansamblu si pe componente, urmatoarele conditii: sa fie selectiva rapida sensibila sigura in functionare - economica. Instalatia de protectie este selectiva atunci cand un defect determina actionarea elementului de protectie din amonte. 2. Lucrarea si-a propus sa se focalizeze pe un subiect "la zi": alegerea aparatelor de protectie a unui transformator dintr-un post de transformare aerian din mediul rural, cu plecari in linii aeriene radiale si analiza detaliata a criteriilor de asigurare a selectivitii tuturor protectiilor aferente, exemplificand cu date concrete pe un caz real. 3. Chestiunea pe care vrem sa o propunem spre dezbatere specialistilor si factorilor de decizie in domeniu, cu cea mai mare insistenta, este urmatoarea: cui revine sarcina de a face analiza selectivitatii protectiilor la post de transformare aerian ?! 4. Primul impuls, rezultat din multe discutii pe aceasta tema, a fost ca sarcina sa fie transferata imediat proiectantului postului de transformare. Dupa parerea noastra este o

3.2. Low voltage circuit breaker fuse on the radial output on the 0.4 kV overhead line In this situation the analysis can start by chosing the low voltage output fuses based on conditions 2, 3, 4 at above 1.2. In the analysed situation, by chosing the automatic circuit breaker sith Im = 5 Ith, the output fuses cannot have the current In > 80 A, this current observing also the protection condition of the output conductors; in order to fulfil the disconnection condition at Isc(l) section / selectivity boxes can be used with switch and fuses selected according to 1.2. Taking into consideration that an automatic circuit breaker has its protection characteristic composed of the characteristics of the two trippers (thermal and electromagnetic) each of these has to be compared with the low voltage fuse characteristic. In order to solve this situation, two solutions can be adopted: - the electromagnetic tripper is adjusted to a current Im bigger than the one initially set in order to increase the characteristic profile, but the t is not enough; usually this situation involves the selection of a higher rated current circuit breaker (with highes expenses); - the selection of a delay electromagnetic tripper automatic circuit breaker so that the characteristic will be located with t about 0.15 sec; is the practical solution that provides a satisfactory selectivity with lower costs. For the analysed situation according to fig 3 a time t = 0.02 s results compared with the fuse characteristic with In = 80 A this leading to a certain uncertainty in the selective behaviour and requires the use of a selectivity box on outputs. Two other alternatives can also be used: - fuses with Infuse = 63 A fulfilling all the consitions: this is the cheapest solution that doesnt require nomore to use the section box and an earthing socket of max 4 at the rod a.s.o; - in order to use fuses with In = 100 A the circuit breaker can also have delay electromagnetic tripper (version much more expensive than the above solution with 63 A fuses). 4. Conclusion 1. It is known that the protection of an electric system should fulfill entirely and partially following conditions: selective quick sensitive safe economical. The protection is selective when a fault causes the tripping of the protection located before it. 2. This paper intends to focus on an actual topic: the selection of protections for a pole-mounted transformer in a rural area, with radial overhead outputs and the detailed analysis of the conditions that should be fulfilled in order to provide the protection selectivity with real examples. 3. We urge on the following issue : who has to perform the protection selectivity analysis for a pole-mounted transformer ? 4. The first answer in mind after several discussion on this issue, was that this should be performed by the transformer designer. In our opinion however this position is false because according to the regulations (MF / MLPTL Decision no. 1013/ 873 and no. 1014 / 874) the designer cannot choose a certain maufacturer and switchgear / protection model; he can only set the technical rated values based on the technical and design regulations. 5. The protection selectivity analysis should only be made by the network designer if the protection equipment are

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pozitie falsa: in condiile legii (Ordin MF / MLPTL nr. 1013 / 873 si nr. 1014 / 874) proiectantul nu poate stabili un fabricant si un anume model de aparat de comutatie si protectie ci, pe baza principiilor de proiectare cuprinse in normele tehnice si indreptarele de proiectare specifice, trebuie sa stabileasca doar caracteristicle tehnice nominale, pe baza carora intocmeste caietele de sarcini. 5. Sarcina de a realiza analiza selectivitatii protectiilor transformatorului ar trebui sa revina, de drept, proiectantului de retele doar in cazul in care aparatele de protectie sunt puse la dispozitie de beneficiarul, nemaifacand obiectul unei licitatii. 6. Altfel, dupa adjudecarea lucrarii prin licitatie sau incredintare directa, constructorul de specialitate este cel ce comanda, la diversi furnizari/fabricanti atestati in domeniu, elementele ce compun postul de transformare si care intra in analiza selectivitatii protectiei. Constructorul ar putea sa obtina, de la furnizorul/fabricantul sigurantei fuzibile de m.t. si cel al transformatorului, caracteristicile necesare analizei selectivitatii protectiei, dar nu cunoaste nici el fabricantul aparatelor de comutatie si protectie de j.t. care vor fi incluse in tabloul electric de post. 7. In final, fabricantul tabloului electric este cel ce cunoaste tipul aparatelor de j.t. (indigene sau de export) care se vor monta in tablou, aparate alese in baza conditiilor minimale / maximale impuse prin caietul de sarcini de catre proiectantul de retele. Obtinand si caracteristicile sigurantelor fuzibile de m.t. si ale transformatorului, prin intermediul constructorului ce va executa lucrarea in retea, fabricantul tabloului electric este cel care arc putea detine toate datele tehnice pentru a face o corecta analiza a functionarii selective a protectiilor transfomatorului in cauza; evident, pentru eventuale schimbari de aparataj, poate si trebuiue sa aiba un dialog interactiv cu proiectantul de retele care a intocmit caietul de sarcini cuprins in proiect. 8. Intrebarea este: care este cadru legal prin care sa se stabileasca aceste responsabilitati, pentru fiecare parte implicata in lucrare ? In lipsa asumarii unor responsabilitati, aparatele de protectie vor fi alese (in continuare) doar pe baza parametrilor nominali si a relatiilor de calcul din indreptarele de proiectare, ceea ce poate avea ca rezultat solutii "compromise" tehnic. 9. Nu este dificil ca, dupa ce constructorul a achizitionat toate elementele componente ale postului de transformare, proiectantul sa solicite fabricantilor de aparataj caracteristicile de protectie ale acestora si sa realizeze o analiza completa a selectivitatii protectiilor transformatorului, dar intrebarea care se pune este: daca nu se obtine selectivitatea protectiilor cu aparatele furnizate, care este procedura de urmat ? 10. O gestionare corecta a functionarii selectivite a protectiilor are implicatii si in activitatea de exploatare a posturilor de transformare aeriene, drept pentru care ne exprimam opinia ca este obligatorie reanalizarea selectivitatii protectiilor in situatii precum defectarea sau simpla rocadare a transformatorului existent si racordarea de noi consumatori permanenti care duc la modificarea semnificativa a sarcinii (preincarcarea) transformatorului. 11. Normele tehnice energetice si indreptarele de proiectare specifice trebuie sa fie revizuite pentru a cuprinde si analiza posturilor de transformare aeriene realizate cu transformatoare de 16 - 25 kVA

supplied by the beneficiary and not through a bid. 6. Thus after the bid or direct contracting the builder orders to certain approved suppliers / manufacturers the elements contained by the pole-mounted transformer. The builder could get from the medium voltage fuse and transformer supplier / maufacturer the data required for the protection selectivity analysis but he doesnt know the manufacturer of the switchgear and low voltage protections to be included in the board. 7. Finally the board manufacturer is the one that knows the type of the low voltage devices (home or imported) to be mounted, these being selected based on the minimum / maximum conditions imposed by the designer. Knowing from the builder the characteristics of medium voltage fuses and transformer, the board manufacturer is the one that holds all the technical data for a correct analysis of the protection selective operation; obviously if certain devices are changes he can and should contact the designer. 8. The question is: what is the legal framework to set these responsibilities for each involved party ? If these responsibilities are missing the protection devices will still be chosen based on design rated values and calculations, this could lead to compromised technical solutions. 9. It is not difficult that after the builder purchased all the components of the pole-mounted transformer, the designer shall require to the manufacturer the protection characteristics in order to perform a complete selectivity analysis but the question is: if the protection selectivity is not provided with the selected devices what has to be done ? Who pays for changing the devices ? 10. The situation is different for the premounted transformers: the manufacturer choses all the protections and he is the one to perform the protection selectivity analysis. We even consider that the results of this analysis should be submitted to the beneficiary as part of the technical documentation. 11. The technical standards and specific design specifications have to be reviewed in order to contain also the analysis of 16 25 kVA pole-mounted transformers. Bibliografie (References)
1. Centea, O.: Protectia instalatiilor electrice de joasa tensiune. Editura tehnica, Bucuresti, 1982 2. *** Indreptar de proiectare a protectiilor prin relee si sigurante fuzibile in reteaua de joasa tensiune,1RE-Ip 45-85, ICEMENERG, Bucuresti,1987 3. *** Instructiune privind calibrarea, inlocuirea si evidenta sigurantelor fuzibile, 3.1.RE-I15-87, ICEMENERG, Bucuresti, 1989 4. *** Trip curves for distribution. Circuit-breakers with thermomagnetic releases (ABB SACE) si Time current characteristics of fuse link NV, gL-gG ~ 500V prin ELECTROALFA INTL. Botosani 5. *** Elemente de inlocuire de inalta tensiune, limitatoare de curent, de interior si exterior. Caracteristicile timp-curent. SF 01 / 99. EXIMPROD Buzau 6. *** Consulting / FAQ for protection of power transformers. SIBA fuses.