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METHODS OF STERILIZATION

The aim of modern Surgery is to exclude , inhibit or destroy microorganisms that may contaminate a wound.

TERMINOLOGY :
SEPSIS - is the breakdown of living tissue by the action of microorganisms, usually accompanied by inflamation.
ASEPSIS - term used for the exclusion of living pathogenic

ANTISEPSIS - attained by
methods

which inhibit or destroy microorganisms but does not necessarily eliminate them completely and are applied to living tissues.

DISINFECTION - is the absolute destruction of Pathogenic microorganisms insuring sterility and are used in a lifeless object.

STERILITY - free from viable form of microorganisms.


SANITATION - the reduction of the numbers of viable microorganisms.

STERILIZATION - complete destruction of microorganisms which are capable of causing infection including spores.

BACTERIOSTATIC - inhibiting the growth of microorganisms.

BACTERICIDAL - destroying the growth of microorganisms completely

GENERAL METHODS OF REDUCING THE NUMBER OF VARIABLE ORGANISMS TWO PRINCIPAL MEANS :

1.CHEMICAL AGENTS
2.PHYSICAL AGENTS

1.CHEMICAL AGENTS Major chemical means of killing microorganisms a. Antiseptics - ex. BETADINE, b. Disinfectant - ex. LYSOL, CIDEX c. Ethylene Gas - ex. ETHYLENE OXIDE

2. PHYSICAL AGENTS Primary physical means of eliminating variable microorganisms a. HEAT b. IRRADIATION C. MECHANICAL DISLODGEMENT

MICROBES THAT CAUSES HUMAN DESEASE:

1. Bacteria 2. Viruses 3. Mycobacterium 4. Parasites 5. Fungi

BACTERIAL ENDOSPORES - Form of microorganisms that is most resistant to elimination.

Therefore, any methods of Sterilization or Disinfection that kills ENDOSPORES is also capable of Eliminating ALL MICROORGANISMS.

Any methods of Sterilization or


Disinfection that kills ENDOSPORES is also capable of Eliminating :
1. BACTERIA 2. VIRUSES 3. MYCOBACTERIUM 4. FUNGI

METHODS OF STERILIZATION: 1.AUTOCLAVING provides moist in the form of saturated steam under pressure . Best used for Spore Former, Bacteria, Viral, and Fungal infection

Principles : PREASURE COOKER

Temperature : a. 121 C ( 270 F) at a pressure of 30 lbs. per square inch for 30mins.

Advantages:
1. Its effectiveness and speed 2. Its relative availability

Disadvantages: 1. the Cost 2. the tendency of moist heat to dull and rust instruments.

2. DRY HEAT most commonly used to sterilized glassware and bulky items that can withstand Heat and are susceptible to rust.

Principles : BAKING

Temperature : 170 C ( 340 F ) For 1 Hour

ADVANTAGES : 1. The relative ease of use. 2. The unlikelihood of damaging Heat Resistant Instruments. DIADVANTAGES : 1. Time Necessary. 2. Possibility to damage heat sensitive equipment.

3.

BOILING WATER - instrument completely immersed in water + 2 % solution sodium bicarbonate (Na CO3).

4.

FIt elevates a boiling point above 100 C for 30 minutes.

Principles : COOKING

4. CHEMICAL OR COLD STERILIZATION - use to sterilized sharp instruments.


70 % - 90 % ALCOHOL / BENZALKANIUM CHLORIDE FOR 18 -24 HOURS.

Principles - SOAKING

5. GAS STERILIZATION capable of excerting a lethal action on bacteria by destroying enzymes and other BIOCHEMICAL structures. ex. ETHYLENE OXIDE MOST COMMONLY USED FOR GASEOUS STERILIZATION.

SATURATION WITH GAS : Aerated for 8 to 12 hours at 50 C to 60 C at 40 to 50 % Humidity.

ADVANTAGE: 1. Its effectiveness for porous materials, large equipment and materials sensitive to heat or moisture.

DISADVANTAGE : 1. The need for special equipment and the long duration of sterilization and aeration necessary to reduce tissue toxicity.

6. CHEMICAL VAPOR STERILIZATION : Vapor created by heating at a temperature of 132 C (270 F) to a pressure of 20 to 40 per square inch for 20 to 25 minutes.

ADVANTAGES : 1.short, 25 minute cycle of sterilization 2. no rusting of instruments 3. availability of dry instruments usable immediately.

DISADVANTAGES : 1. Limited availability of the apparatus and related supply.

2. Its comparatively High Cost in the current market.

7. RADIATION STERILIZATION
USE TO STERILIZE SMALL INSTRUMENTS, like Blade, Needles, Gauze for 15 minutes thru ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. ex. UV LIGHT KILL INACTIVE MICROORGANISMS

THE END