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7.

3 GASEOUS EXCHANGE ACROSS THE RESPIRATORY SURFACES AND TRANSPORT OF GASSES IN HUMANS

THE PROCESS OF GASEOUS EXCHANGE ACROSS THE SURFACE OF THE ALVEOLUS & BLOOD CAPILLARIES
High partial pressure of O2, Low partial pressure of CO2 CO2 O2 High partial pressure of O2 Low partial pressure of CO2

High partial pressure of CO2, Low partial pressure of O2

THE TRANSPORT OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN HUMANS


Oxygen

Haemoglobin + Oxygen

Lungs Body cells

Oxyhaemoglobin

THE TRANSPORT OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN HUMANS


Transport of CO2
7%
Blood plasma

23%
Carbominohaemoglobin

Biocarbonate ions

70%

THE TRANSPORT OF RESPIRATORY GASES IN HUMANS


Carbon dioxide
CO2 from cell
Diffuse into

Blood plasma Blood plasma


CO2 H2O

Diffuse into

Red blood cell

Combine with H2O

Form carbonic acid (H2CO3) H2CO3 H+ Expelled during exhalation

Red blood cell

Diffuse into

Lungs Diffuse out of blood capillaries

Blood plasma

Diffuse into

Form carbonic acid (H2CO3)

Alveoli

THE EXCHANGE OF RESPIRATORY GASES BETWEEN THE BLOOD AND BODY CELLS

COMPOSITION OF INHALED AND EXHALED AIR


Components of air Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Inhaled air 21% 0.03% 78% Exhaled air 16% 4% 78%

Water vapour
Dust particles Temperature

Varies
Varies Varies

More
Usually none 37OC

7.4 THE REGULATORY MECHANISM IN RESPIRATION

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE RATE OF RESPIRATION AND THE OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS
Vigorous exercise
Muscle cells need more oxygen & glucose to release energy during cellular respiration Rate of cellular respiration increases The oxygen content decreases while carbon dioxide content increases

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE RATE OF RESPIRATION AND THE OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS
Rate & depth of breathing increases
Breathing rate increases Heartbeat rate increases More oxygen & glucose can be supplied & more carbon dioxide can be removed from the cells

THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY RESPONSE AND RATE OF RESPIRATION IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS

At rest
Breathing rate Heartbeat rate Ventilation rate 16 18 breaths per minute

60 70 beats per minute 5 dm3 per minute

THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY RESPONSE AND RATE OF RESPIRATION IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS

Vigorous exercise
Breathing rate Heartbeat rate Ventilation rate About 30 breaths per minute

About 120 breaths per minute 50 - 60 dm3 per minute

THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY RESPONSE AND RATE OF RESPIRATION IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS

In fear
The breathing & heartbeat rates increase Rate of respiration is higher to produce more energy
Adrenal glands secrete the hormone adrenaline Adrenaline increases heartbeat rate & breathing

THE REGULATORY MECHANISM OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS

THE REGULATORY MECHANISM OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS


Vigorous exercise Partial pressure of CO2 increase CO2 + H2O -> carbonic acid

Normal CO2 level & pH


Excess CO2 removed Increased breathing & ventilation Respiratory muscles contrast & relax faster
Nerve impulse

Drop in pH
Detected by

Central chemoreceptors

Respiratory centre

THE REGULATORY MECHANISM OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS

THE REGULATORY MECHANISM OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS

THE REGULATORY MECHANISM OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENTS


High altitude Drop in O2 levels Normal O2 level

More O2 inhaled
Increased breathing & ventilation Respiratory muscles contrast & relax faster

Peripheral chemoreceptors stimulated


Nerve impulse

Respiratory centre