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Communicating at Work

Chapter 1

Presenters:

Learning Objectives:
Identify changes in the workplace and the importance of communication skills Describe the process of communication Discuss barriers to interpersonal communication and the means of overcoming those barriers Analyze the functions and procedures of communication in organizations Assess the flow of communication in organizations including barriers and methods of overcoming those barriers List the goals of ethical business communication and describe important tools for doing the right thing

COMMUNICATION

You cannot not communicate!

You cannot un-communicate!

HUMAN COMMUNICATION:

ACTION

HUMAN COMMUNICATION:

INTERACTION

HUMAN COMMUNICATION:

TRANSACTION

The Communication Process Basic Model

The Communication Process Basic Model

1. Sender has idea

The Communication Process Basic Model

1. Sender has idea

The Communication Process Basic Model

1. Sender has idea

2. Sender encodes idea in message

The Communication Process Basic Model

1. Sender has idea

2. Sender encodes idea in message

The Communication Process Basic Model

1. Sender has idea

2. Sender encodes idea in message

3. Message travels over channel

The Communication Process Basic Model

1. Sender has idea

2. Sender encodes idea in message

3. Message travels over channel

The Communication Process Basic Model

1. Sender has idea

2. Sender encodes idea in message

3. Message travels over channel

4. Receiver decodes message

The Communication Process Basic Model

1. Sender has idea

2. Sender encodes idea in message

3. Message travels over channel

4. Receiver decodes message

The Communication Process Basic Model


5. Feedback travels to sender 1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 4. Receiver decodes message

The Communication Process Basic Model


5. Feedback travels to sender 1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 4. Receiver decodes message

The Communication Process Basic Model


5. Feedback travels to sender 1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 4. Receiver decodes message

The Communication Process Basic Model


5. Feedback travels to sender 1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 4. Receiver decodes message

6. Possible additional feedback to receiver

The Communication Process Basic Model


5. Feedback travels to sender 1. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 4. Receiver decodes message

6. Possible additional feedback to receiver

The Communication Process Expanded Model

Barriers to Interpersonal Communication


Bypassing

Limited frame of reference


Lack of language skills Lack of listening skills

Emotional interference
Physical distractions

Understanding is shaped by
Communication climate Context and setting Background, experiences Knowledge, mood Values, beliefs, culture

Barriers That Block the Flow of Information in Organizations


Closed communication climate Top-heavy organizational structure Long lines of communication Lack of trust between management and employees Competition for power, status, rewards

Additional Communication Barriers


Fear of reprisal for honest communication Differing frames of reference among communicators Lack of communication skills Ego involvement Turf wars

A Classic Case of Miscommunication


In Center Harbor, Maine, local legend recalls the day when Walter Cronkite steered his boat into port. The avid sailor was amused to see in the distance a small crowd on shore waving their arms to greet him. He could barely make out their excited shouts: Hello Walter, Hello Walter!

A Classic Case of Miscommunication


As his boat came closer, the crowd grew larger, still yelling. Pleased at the reception, Cronkite tipped his white captain's hat, waved back, even took a bow. But before reaching dockside, Cronkite's boat abruptly jammed aground. The crowd stood silent. The veteran news anchor suddenly realized what they'd been shouting: Low water, low water!

Analysis of Flawed Communication Process

Analysis of Flawed Communication Process


Sender has idea Warn boater

Analysis of Flawed Communication Process


Sender has idea Warn boater Sender encodes message Low water!

Analysis of Flawed Communication Process


Sender has idea Warn boater Sender encodes message Low water! Channel carries message Message distorted

Analysis of Flawed Communication Process


Sender has idea Warn boater Sender encodes message Low water! Channel carries message Message distorted Receiver decodes message Hello Walter!

Barriers That Caused Cronkite Miscommunication


Frame of reference

Receiver accustomed to acclaim and appreciative crowds.

Language skills

Main accent makes "water" and "Walter" sound similar.


Receiver more accustomed to speaking than to listening.

Listening skills

Barriers That Caused Cronkite Miscommunication


Emotional interference
Ego prompted receiver to believe crowd was responding to his celebrity status. Noise from boat, distance between senders and receivers.

Physical barriers

Which of these barriers could be overcome through improved communication skills?

Overcoming Communication Barriers


Realize that communication is imperfect. Adapt the message to the receiver. Improve your language and listening skills. Question your preconceptions. Plan for feedback.

Changes Affecting the Workplace


Heightened global competition Flattened management hierarchies Expanded team-based management Innovative communication technologies New work environments Increasingly diverse workforce

Changes Affecting the Workplace


Heightened global competition

Changes Affecting the Workplace Flattened management hierarchies

Changes Affecting the Workplace

Expanded teambased management

Changes Affecting the Workplace

Innovative communication technologies

Changes Affecting the Workplace

New work environments

Changes Affecting the Workplace

Increasingly diverse workforce

The Age of Knowledge

Success for YOU in the new global and diverse workplace requires excellent communication skills!

Organizational Communication
Functions: internal and external Form: oral and written Form: channel selection dependent on
Message content Need for immediate response Audience size and distance Audience reaction Need to show empathy, friendliness, formality

Flow:
Formal: down, up, horizontal Informal: grapevine

Communication Flowing Through Formal Channels

Downward
Management directives Job plans, policies Company goals Mission statements

Horizontal
Task coordination Information sharing Problem solving Conflict resolution

Upward
Employee feedback Progress reports Reports of customer interaction, feedback Suggestions for improvement Anonymous hotline

Forms of Communication Flowing Through Formal Channels

Written
Executive memos, letters Annual report Company newsletter Bulletin board postings Orientation manual

Oral
Telephone Face-to-face conversation Company meetings Team meetings

Electronic
E-mail Voicemail Instant Messaging Intranet Videoconferencing

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management

Message
written by board of directors

Amount of message
100%

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management

Message
written by board of directors received by vice-president

Amount of message
100% 63%

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management

Message
written by board of directors received by vice-president received by general supervisor

Amount of message
100% 63% 56%

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management

Message
written by board of directors received by vice-president received by general supervisor received by plant manager

Amount of message
100% 63% 56% 40%

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management

Message

Amount of message

written by board of directors


received by vice-president received by general supervisor

100%
63% 56%

received by plant manager


received by team leader

40%
30%

Message Distortion
Downward Communication Through Five Levels of Management

Message

Amount of message

written by board of directors


received by vice-president received by general supervisor

100%
63% 56%

received by plant manager


received by team leader received by worker

40%
30% 20%

Communication goes bad VP to Deans: By order of the President, next Thursday Halleys comet will appear over the athletic field. If it rains, cancel classes and report to the gym with your professors and students where you will be shown a film, a phenomena which occurs only once every 75 years.

Communication goes bad


President to VP: Next Thursday, Halleys Comet will appear over this area. This is an event that occurs only once every 75 years. Call the division heads and have them assemble their professors and students on the athletic field and explain this phenomena to them. If it rains, cancel the observation and have the classes meet in the gym to see a film about the comet.

Communication goes bad


Deans to Professors: By order of the Phenomenal President, next Thursday Halleys Comet will appear in the gym. In case of rain over the athletic field, the President will give another order, something which occurs once every 75 years.

Communications goes bad


Professors to Students: Next Thursday, the President will appear in the gym with Halleys Comet, something which occurs every 75 years. If it rains, the President will cancel the comet and order us all to our phenomenal athletic field.

Communications goes bad


Student writing to parents: When it rains next Thursday over the school athletic field, the phenomenal 75 year-old President will cancel all classes and appear before the whole school in the gym accompanied by Bill Halley and the Comets.

Surmounting Organizational Barriers


Encourage open environment for interaction and feedback. Flatten the organizational structure. Promote horizontal communication. Provide hotline for anonymous feedback. Provide sufficient information through formal channels.

ETHICAL CHALLENGES

Ethical Practices make good business sense. 80s era Greed is good NO MORE 500 fortune companies + Many small Businesses

Pressure felt by employees to act unethically 56% Those who admitted to conducting unethical behavior 48%

Common ethical violations: Cutting corners on quality Covering up incidents Abusing or lying about sick days Deceiving customers Lying to supervisor or underling Taking credit for a colleagues idea

4 COMPONENTS of ETHICAL BEHAVIUR


Honesty Integrity Fairness Concern for others.

Doing the Right Thing Given the Circumstances

Five Common Ethical Traps


The false-necessity trap (convincing yourself that no other choice exists) I know its wrong but I dont have a choice

The doctrine-ofrelative-filth trap (comparing your unethical behavior with someone elses even more unethical behavior) What I am doing is nothing compared to what others are doing

Five Common Ethical Traps


The rationalization trap
(justifying unethical actions with excuses)

Ill be in working late anyways, I deserve a longer lunch break now.

The self-deception trap


(persuading yourself, for example, that a lie is not really a lie)

I was running the whole show, without me the company would have collapsed The ends-justify-the-means trap
(using unethical methods to accomplish a desirable goal)

So what if I had to bribe the supplier I saved the company money in the long run!

Goals of Ethical Business Communication


Telling the truth
Labeling opinions Being objective Communicating clearly Giving credit

Accomplishing These Goals


Think before you act Being in other persons shoe There must be a different solution Discuss your dilemma with a trust worthy or an experienced person Imagine the shame if your friends and family found out about what you had been upto!!

STRENGTHENING YOUR COMMUNICATION SKILLS


Know how to figure out a solution Realize what the problem is Communication skills are not inherent, they must be learnt Therefore BE WILLING TO LEARN Tips, techniques, models and exercises in this book will help us. Sit back and enjoy the ride.

End

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