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P A R T 3

Planning: Historical Overview and Influences


A history of urban and regional planning from its early development up to the present.

PL 511 | Urban & Regional Planning


Slideshow developed by: Arch. Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP Bohol Island State University | College of Architecture & Engineering

THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT


GOLDEN AGE OF URBAN DESIGN
the CITY BEAUTIFUL ERA : 1890 to the Great Depression (1930s) The City Beautiful Movement used the language of the Beaux Arts (Fine Arts) Style.

WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION (1893)



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aka Chicago Worlds Fair in Jackson Park, Chicago largely designed by Daniel Burnham and Frederick Law Olmsted Inspired the CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT as works of civic art application of latest technologies faade architecture promise of America come to life as urban renewal operations

THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT


THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
(1890s and 1900s) a reform philosophy concerning North American architecture and urban planning with the intent of using BEAUTIFICATION AND MONUMENTAL GRANDEUR IN CITIES associated mainly with Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and Washington, D.C. PROMOTED BEAUTY not only for its own sake, but also to create MORAL AND CIVIC VIRTUE among urban populations. Advocates of the philosophy believed that such beautification could thus promote a harmonious social order that would increase the quality of life.

THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT


THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT
main emphasis: o SHOWY URBAN LANDSCAPES drew on BEAUX ARTS tradition (France) aped classical architecture iconography of and for the URBAN ELITES moral diagnosis: o PEOPLE NEED TO BE CIVILIZED

The World's Columbian Exposition (1893) widely displayed and inspired the City Beautiful Movement.

Print of an aerial view of the exposition

orderly and clean aesthetic rather than social sensibility grandiose and ambitious

The Statue of the Republic overlooks the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893

Chicago Worlds Fair

THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT


McMILLAN COMMISSION (1901)
Named for the Michigan Senator James McMillan Redesign of the monumental core of Washington, D.C. to commemorate the city's centennial and to fulfill unrealized aspects of the city plan of Pierre Charles L'Enfant a century earlier. AIA natl conference in Washington D.C. (1901) Daniel Burnham, Augustus St. Gaudens, and Frederick Law Olmsted among present

CIVIC CENTERS
city hall, county court house, library, museum, opera house, and a plaza

PUBLIC WORKS

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BRIDGES, designed as pieces of sculpture RIVERS, made into classical garden terraces COLLEGES and UNIVERSITIES, as visions of classical world RAILROADS, built Roman basilicas and baths

The National Mall was the centerpiece of the 1901 McMillan Plan. A central open vista traversed the length of the Mall.

The National Mall was the centerpiece of the 1901 McMillan Plan. A central open vista traversed the length of the Mall.

2004 view from the United States Capitol, facing west across the National Mall

The Capitol and National Mall facing east from the top of the Washington Monument in 2011.

The 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on the National Mall facing east from the Lincoln Memorial

THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT


CITY AS A WHOLE Daniel Burnham (1846-1912)
father of American city planning Father of the City Beautiful Director of Works for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago took a leading role in the creation of master plans for the development of a number of cities, including Chicago and downtown Washington D.C., San Francisco, Manila also designed several famous buildings, including the Flatiron Building in New York City and Union Station in Washington D.C. last use of French Renaissance principles applied at the largest scale possible
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Make no little plans, they have no magic to stir men's blood


Daniel Hudson Burnham, FAIA (1846-1912) Project for the ideal city of Chaux: House of supervisors of the source of the Loue. Published in 1804.

Burnham's Plan of Chicago 1909

Burnham's vision for San Francisco's Athenaeum, looking west toward Lake Merced from today's Marview Drive. A waterfall pours down from a lake just below the Athenaeum into the valley. The 300-foot-tall female statue, "San Francisco." Original image from "Report on a Plan For San Francisco," Daniel Burnham, 1905. Digital image from David Rumsey Map Collection.

Burnham's vision for San Francisco

Manila before the war

Luneta, Manila, early 1900s

Aerial View of Manila Port Area (1925) as Renovated by the Americans

Baguio City was designed by Burnham

THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT


PLANNED RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITIES
Roland Park, Baltimore (1892): start of commuter suburb Country Club, Kansas City Forest Hills Garden, L.I., New York: commuter suburb for Manhattan (1911)

MANY DEVELOPMENTS
American city planning profession England and garden city movement
o English architect-planners lectured in US o English books in city planning

Many lessons from abroad ZONING introduced in 1916

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THE CITY BEAUTIFUL MOVEMENT


BIRTH OF LAND USE ZONING
1886 statute: San Fran. Chinese laundries shut down
o Fed. court case: Yick Wo v. Hopkins, Sheriff struck down statute, so city imposed nolaundry zone o other CA cities zoned against laundries, brothels, pool halls, dance halls, livery stables, slaughterhouses o How? municipalitys trad. responsibility for protecting health, safety, morals and general welfare of citizens

1st NY ZONING LAW (1916) protected Fifth Ave. luxury store owners from expansion of Jewish garment factories
o protected property values and expressed chauvinism o idea spread to 100s of cities in decade after the NY law was passed, promoting property values and special interests of the upper class, white majority

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THE NEW COMMUNITIES MOVEMENT


PROPONENTS
HENRY WRIGHT : Rehousing Urban America (1934) CLARENCE STEIN : Towards New Towns for America (1951)

SUPERBLOCK CONCEPT
Answer to problem of through traffic ISLAND OF GREEN, bordered by houses and skirted by peripheral automobile roads BEST EXAMPLES
o Baldwin Hills, Los Angeles o Chatham Village, Pittsburgh

Community-level development

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THE NEW COMMUNITIES MOVEMENT


RADBURN, NJ
An unincorporated planned community located within Fair Lawn, in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States Explicitly designed to separate traffic by mode, with a pedestrian path system that does not cross any major roads at grade Planners: CLARENCE STEIN and HENRY WRIGHT Landscape architect MARJORIE SEWELL CAUTLEY introduced the largely residential "SUPERBLOCK" credited with incorporating some of the earliest CULS-DE-SAC in the US RADBURN IDEA Organization of town into cohesive neighborhoods

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A diagram showing the street network structure of Radburn and its nested hierarchy. Separate pedestrian paths run through the green spaces between the culs-de-sac and through the central green spine (Note: the shaded area was not built)

Old Radburn

THE NEW COMMUNITIES MOVEMENT


CLARENCE A. PERRY
American planner, sociologist, author, and educator THE NEIGHBORHOOD UNIT published in 1929
o early diagrammatic planning model for residential development in metropolitan areas o framework for urban planners attempting to design functional, self-contained and desirable neighbourhoods in the early 20th century in industrializing cities

The core principles:


o o o o o Centre the school in the neighbourhood Place ARTERIAL STREETS along the perimeter Design internal streets using a HIERARCHY Restrict local shopping areas to the perimeter (or entrance) Dedicate at least 10 percent of the neighborhood land area to PARKS AND OPEN SPACE

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A diagram of Clarence Perry's neighbourhood unit, illustrating the spatiality of the core principles of the concept, from the New York Regional Survey, Vol 7. 1929

REGIONAL PLANNING
HENRY WRIGHT AND PLAN OF NEW YORK
Worked under commission by Clarence Stein Report of the Commission on Housing & Regional Planning for the State of New York

Development of New York


Small trade centers for an agriculture society Decline due to cheaper Midwestern farms Industrialization took hold Hudson and Mohawk valleys became spine New York City became the financial heart and core for a constellation of communities

Wrights plan
one of finest models of regional planning not officially adopted, but recommendations realized led to formation of RPAA
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REGIONAL PLANNING
REGIONAL PLANNING ASSOCIATION OF NEW YORK
22 counties, 500 municipal districts, 10 million people, NY state, NJ and Conn.

Thomas Adams
Scottish planner 2-volume plan produced in 1928 most complete plan study ever done

BENTON MACKAYE
Originally, a forester The New Exploration, A Philosophy of Regional Planning published in 1928 Envisioned the townless highway and highwayless towns Showed NY City as the entry and exit portal for the entire US industrial empire New Exploration the exploration of the wilderness and conservation had to be expanded to include cities

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ACHIEVEMENTS IN EUROPE
ENGLISH NEW TOWN MOVEMENT
Sir Anthony Barlow headed commission The Report of Royal Commission of Distribution of Industrial Population (1940) Sir Patrick Abercrombie and J.H. Forshaw
o The County of London Plan (1943)

New Towns Plan of Hook; Plan of Cumbernauld

OTHER DEVELOPMENTS
Londons Barbican area Garden cities in France
o Dourges 1st garden city in France (1919) o Longueau, Tergnier, Lille-le-Deliverance

Berlin, Germany Martin Machler Baku in Russia


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West Kungsholmen, Stockholm Tapiola, Helsinki in Finland Amsterdam South, Amsterdam in Holland Other countries Italy, Switzerland, Israel

ARCHITECTS IN URBAN PLANNING


ELIEL SAARINEN
Prize-winning plan for Helsinki in 1911 His urban planning theories are set forth in a book published in 1943 THE CITY, ITS GROWTH, ITS DECAY, ITS FUTURE

WALTER GROPIUS
Took same approach to architecture & urban planning (Bahaus) Wrote: Rebuilding our communities and Rebuilding our Communities (with Walter Wagner) The aim is to deconcentrate, not to dissolve the city.

RICHARD NEUTRA
RUSH CITY REFORMED Designed by the end of the 1920s by Neutra and his young employees and apprentices, the city had showed ideas ranging from sympathy for the most marginalized groups of the big city, a microscopic scale, to the harshness of a totalitarian state, in macro.

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ARCHITECTS IN URBAN PLANNING

Eliel Saarinen

Walter Gropius

Richard Neutra

Always design a thing by considering it in its next larger context - a chair in a room, a room in a house, a house in an environment, an environment in a city plan.
Eliel Saarinen

Helsinki

Eliel Saarinen

Haga, Finland by Eliel Saarinen

Architecture begins where engineering ends.


Walter Gropius

Walter Gropius

Aluminum City Terrace by Walter Gropius & Marcel Breuer

I am an eyewitness to the ways in which people relate to themselves and to each other, and my work is a way of scooping and ladling that experience.
Richard Neutra

Rush City Reformed by Richard Neutra

Richard Neutra (Kaufmann House, Chuey House, Gettysburg Cycloram)

ARCHITECTS IN URBAN PLANNING


LE CORBUSIER (1887-1965)
o o o
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Charles-douard Jeanneret Fused ideas of modern architecture and city form Driving force behind the CIAM Spokesman for the INTERNATIONAL MOVEMENT UNE VILLE CONTEMPORAINE (Contemporary City) 1922, traceable to Henards & Garniers ideas PLAN VOISIN (Neighborhood Plan) 1925 LA VILLE RADIEUSE (Radiant City) 1935 LE PLAN DE PARIS 1937 WHEN CATHEDRALS WERE WHITE 1947 CONCERNING TOWN PLANNING 1948 CHANDIGARH, INDIA execution of his urban planning ideals

Modern life demands, and is waiting for, a new kind of plan, both for the house and the city.
Le Corbusier

The Ville Contemporaine (1922) was an unrealized project to house 3 million inhabitants designed by Le Corbusier.

Ville Contemporaine (Contemporary City)

The centerpiece of this plan was a group of 60-story cruciform skyscrapers built on steel frames and encased in curtain walls of glass. The skyscrapers housed both offices and the flats of the most wealthy inhabitants. These skyscrapers were set within large, rectangular park-like green spaces.

Ville Contemporaine (Contemporary City)

At the center of the planned city was a transportation center which housed depots for buses and trains as well as highway intersections and at the top, an airport.

Ville Contemporaine (Contemporary City)

The Plan Voisin is a solution for the center of Paris, drawn between 1922 and 1925 by Le Corbusier.

Plan Voisin

The plan for 1925 seems to be a direct transposition of the diagram of Contemporary City for three million drawn in 1922.

Plan Voisin

Plan Voisin

Plan Voisin (Neighborhood Plan)

Plan Voisin

Plan Voisin

Influenced by the linear city ideas of Milyutin and the theories of the syndicalist movement (that he had recently joined), Le Corbusier proposed the Ville Radieuse as a blueprint of social reform.

La Ville Radieuse (The Radiant City), 1935

Ville Radieuse represented an utopian dream to REUNITE MAN WITHIN A WELL-ORDERED ENVIRONMENT. It was a linear city based upon the abstract shape of the human body with head, spine, arms and legs. The design maintained the idea of high-rise housing blocks, free circulation and abundant green spaces proposed in his earlier work. The blocks of housing were laid out in long lines stepping in and out. They were glazed on their south side and were raised up on pilotis. They had roof terraces and running tracks on their roofs.

LE CORBUSIERS LA VILLE RADIEUSE


ELEMENTS OF LE CORBUSIERS PLAN
very high density
o 1,200 people per acre in skyscrapers o overcrowded sectors of Paris & London ranged from 169-213 pers./acre at the time o Manhattan has only 81 pers./acre o 120 people per acre in luxury houses o 6 to 10 times denser than current luxury housing in the U.S. o multi-level traffic system to manage the intensity of traffic

access to greenspace
o between 48% and 95% of the surface area is reserved for greenspace
gardens, squares, sports fields, restaurants, theaters

o with no sprawl, access to the protected zone (greenbelt/open space) is quick and easy
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LE CORBUSIERS LA VILLE RADIEUSE


THE LOGIC OF INCREASING URBAN DENSITY
The more dense the population of a city is the less are the distances that have to be covered.
traffic is increased by: the number of people in a city the degree to which private transportation is more appealing (clean, fast, convenient, cheap) than public transportation the average distance people travel per trip the number of trips people must make each week

The moral, therefore, is that we must increase the density of the centres of our cities, where business affairs are carried on.

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The Unit d'Habitation (Housing Unit) is the modernist residential housing design principle developed by Le Corbusier, with the collaboration of painterarchitect Nadir Afonso. The concept formed the basis of several housing developments designed by him throughout Europe with this name. The most famous of these developments is located in south Marseille.

Cit radieuse aka La Maison du Fada, Marseille (Unit d'Habitation)

La Maison du Fada proved enormously influential and is often cited as the initial inspiration of the Brutalist architectural style and philosophy.

Cit radieuse aka La Maison du Fada, Marseille (Unit d'Habitation)

Cit radieuse aka La Maison du Fada, Marseille (Unit d'Habitation)

The roof level with the children's paddling pool, atelier and ventilation stack visible.

Cit radieuse aka La Maison du Fada, Marseille (Unit d'Habitation)

In the 1950s, a unique opportunity to translate the Radiant City on a grand scale presented itself in the construction of the Union Territory Chandigarh, the new capital for the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana and the first planned city in India.

Legislative Assembly, Chandigarh, India

Chandigarh, India

Assembly Building, Chandigarh, India

Palace of Justice, Chandigarh, India

Secretariat Building, Chandigarh, India

ARCHITECTS IN URBAN PLANNING


CIAM
Congres International dArchitecture Moderne (CIAM) CIAM grid graphic file system for recording pertinent information in an urban study and for explaining a plan CIAM grid four component sections: work, residence, circulation, leisure The ATHENS CHARTER (fourth CIAM conference in 1933), was a manifesto written mostly Le Corbusier (1943), summarizing the Fourth Congress of the International Congress of Modern Architects (CIAM).

MARS Group
Modern Architectural Research Group The English wing of CIAM (1933-1957) Proposed a plan for rebuilding London Sixteen finger corridors all connected by a major circulation spine and encircling circulation loop

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Plan for London by MARS Group

The Athens Charter was essentially a condensed version of the core ideas and principles of modern architecture and urban planning, which called for a total remaking of cities in the industrial world, to make them more efficient, rational, and hygienic.

The Athens Charter


8 MAIN THEMES*
1. the centrality of the natural environment, including air, plant life, and especially the sun; 2. a mystical belief in the spatial layout and symmetrical spacing of urban planning as a panacea for all social ills; 3. elitism, especially in the sense of the superiority of the architect and urban planner; 4. the importance of restoring harmony to the relationship between time and space in modern cities, especially in the case of the speed of mechanized transit within urban space; 5. an almost Manichean sense of morality in which old cities are posited as representing "evil"; 6. a nearly complete absence of any grounding of the Charter's claims in empirical research, natural science, medicine, or social science; 7. a remarkable lack of attention towards the immense financial resources necessary to carry out the program of radical and profound urban renewal advocated in the Charter; and finally, 8. a tolerance for historical preservation only where such preservation does not interfere with the Charter's program.
*Rubin, Eli: The Athens Charter. In: Themenportal Europische Geschichte (2009), URL: http://www.europa.clio-online.de/2009/Article=372.

ARCHITECTS IN URBAN PLANNING


LOUIS KAHN
Made important designs for central Philadelphia, 1957

KENZO TANGE
Plan for Tokyo, 1960
o Circulation as determinant of urban form o New Tokyo over Tokyo Bay, hung on bridges o The scheme, featuring a linear series of interlocking loops expanding Tokyo across the bay, has often been regarded as initiating the decade-long megastructural movement.

Reconstruction Plan for Skopje - won 1st prize in competition but collaborated with runners-up for the final plan Pritzker 1987 laureate

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A city is the place of availabilities. It is the place where a small boy, as he walks through it, may see something that will tell him what he wants to do his whole life.
Louis Khan

Louis I. Kahn. Civic Center, project, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Aerial perspective. 1957

Louis I. Kahn. Traffic Study, project, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Plan of proposed traffic-movement pattern. 1952

I feel however, that we architects have a special duty and mission... (to contribute) to the socio-cultural development of architecture and urban planning.
Kenzo Tange

Kenzo Tange's 1960 Tokyo Bay Project.

Kenzo Tange's 1960 Tokyo Bay Project.

Kenzo Tange's 1960 Tokyo Bay Project.

Plan reconstruction of Skopje, Macedonia. Kenzo Tange, 1965.

Plan reconstruction of Skopje, Macedonia. Kenzo Tange, 1965.

Aerial view of the Osaka Expo 70. Master plan designed by Kenzo Tange.

ARCHITECTS IN URBAN PLANNING


FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT (1867-1959)
Followed Howard, Geddes and social reformers BROADACRES (1932)
o o o o presented the idea in his book THE DISAPPEARING CITY in 1932 Broadacre City was the antithesis of a city and the apotheosis of the newly born suburbia both a planning statement and a socio-political scheme every family would be given an acre (4,000 m) plot of land from the federal lands reserves, and a Wright-conceived community would be built anew from this o Marin County Civic Center north of SF, Calif.

The Illinois Mile-High Tower (1956)


o a proposed skyscraper that would have been 1 mile (1,600 m) high o one of those semi-serious visionary buildings meant to be an alternative to the increasing urban sprawl occurring in most cities.

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No house should ever be on a hill or on anything. It should be of the hill. Belonging to it. Hill and house should live together each the happier for the other.
Frank Lloyd Wright

low-density car-oriented freeways +feeder roads multi-nucleated

Broadacre City

Broadacre City

Broadacre City

Marin County Civic Center, San Rafael, California

Marin County Civic Center, San Rafael, California

Marin County Civic Center, San Rafael, California

Marin County Civic Center, San Rafael, California

The Mile High Tower, "The Illinois"

Burj Khalifa by Adrian Smith at SOM

ARCHITECTS IN URBAN PLANNING


CONSTANTINE DOXIADIS (1914-1975)
Addressed the urban problem on a worldwide scale Major designs are made for countries where economy and productive system can be coordinated by policy and decree Best work is in newly developing nations of Africa and Middle East Architecture in Transition (1963) explains Doxiadiss total view Magazine Ekistics shows Dixiadiss many plans and programs Ekistics grid system for recording planning data and ordering planning process Town planning as a science which includes planning and design, and contribution of sociologist, geographer, economist, politician, anthropologist, ecologist, etc. EKISTICS the science of human settlements
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If we do not understand furniture, we cannot understand the city.


Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis

ARCHITECTS IN URBAN PLANNING


CHARLES ABRAMS (1902-1970)
Lawyer, urban housing planner, professor of city planning In the mid-1960s, he headed a task force that recommended consolidating New York's housing activities, a proposal that led to the creation of the NEW YORK CITY HOUSING AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION Believed that HOUSING is one prime field of endeavor for solving urban problems One of the first to use, maybe the very first, to use the expression Socialism for the rich and capitalism for the poor MANS STRUGGLE FOR SHELTER IN AN URBANIZING WORLD (1964), one of the first books to deal with Third World cities
o This book makes an important contribution to our understanding of various national programs and the efforts of international agencies directed toward achieving land reform and adequate housing.
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Charles Abrams, drawing heavily on his rich store of intimate practical experience, dramatically describes housing situations in Ghana, Turkey, Pakistan, the Philippines, Nigeria, Japan, Singapore, India, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Jamaica, Ireland, Barbados, and Bolivia. His expert knowledge of the legal and financial aspects of land and housing problems is tempered by common sense observation of technical and social aspects, enriched by imaginative human concern, and made effective by a high degree of political realism.

RURAL

URBAN

SQUATTERS

ARCHITECTS IN URBAN PLANNING


BUCKMINSTER FULLER (1895-1983)
American systems theorist, architect, engineer, author, designer, inventor, and futurist; popularized the geodesic domes designed housing prototypes to:
o counter the trend toward resource-intensive, prohibitively expensive housing o to make adequate shelter available to 100% of humanity

INVENTORY OF WORLD RESOURCES, HUMAN TRENDS AND NEEDS,, headquarters, contained the findings of his extensive global research
o sought to discover what it would take to make the world workthat is, to provide adequate food, energy, and shelter for 100% of humanity to enjoy a high standard of living o one of the earliest proponents of renewable energy sources
Fullers extensive energy research documented that we can produce enough energy for everybody in the world while phasing out all use of fossil fuels and atomic energy.
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The best way to predict the future is to design it.


Richard Buckminster Fuller

"Dymaxion" is a portmanteau of "dynamic maximum tension, invented by an adman about 1929 at Marshall Field's department store in Chicago to describe Fuller's concept house, which was shown as part of a house of the future store display.

Dymaxion House

Dymaxion House

Dymaxion House

Dymaxion House

Dymaxion Community (Model)

The U.S. Pavilion for the 1967 Worlds Fair, in Montreal, by Buckminster Fuller.

The Montreal Biosphre, formerly the American Pavilion of Expo 67, by Buckminster Fuller.

Fuller with models of the Standard of Living Package and Skybreak Dome. *Fuller+ believed that his task was to innovate in such a way as to benefit the greatest number of people using the least amount of resources.

Project for Floating Cloud Structures (Cloud Nine or Tensegrity sphere), by Fuller and Shoji Sadao. Fuller envisioned a future where floating communities would hover among the clouds.

Fuller and Shoji Sadaos dome over Manhattan.

References
LeGates, Richard and Stout, Frederic. Modernism and Early Urban Planning, 1870-1940. Knox, Paul. Urbanization. Cullingworth, Barry. Planning in the USA . Various online sources.

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